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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOLUME LII, 1941 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, PH. D., EDITOR 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS : 
E. T. CRESSON, JR. R. G. SCHMIEDER, PH. D. V. S. L. PATE 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE: 

PHILIP LAURENT J. A. G. REHN 

CHARLES LIEBECK JOHN C. LUTZ 

J. CHESTER BRADLEY, PH. D. MAX KISLIUK, JR. 

FRANK MORTON JONES, Sc. D. WM. W. CHAPMAN 



PUBLISHED BY 
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1941 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

JANUARY, 1941 

Vol. LII No. 1 



CONTENTS 

Forbes The Early Genera of Ithomiinae. (Lepidoptera: Nyrupha- 

lidae) 1 

Pate On Two Species of Diploplectron from Texas (Hymenoptera: 

Sphecidae). 4 

Fisher Notes on Costa Rican Mycetophilidae (Diptera) 8 

Johnson Some of the Eumolpinae and Chrysomelinae of South 

Dakota (Coleoptera) 9 

damage to Entomological Collections in the British Museum of 

Natural History 14 

Westfall Notes on Florida Odonata 15 

Current Entomological Literature 19 

Obituary Miss Katherine Mayo, Dr. Otto Emil Plath, Miss Grace 

Adelbert Sandhouse, Dr. John Pattilo Turner, Dr. F. W. 

Edwards, Prof. Charles William Woodworth 29 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII JANUARY, 1941 No. 1 

The Early Genera of Ithomiinae. (Lepidoptera: 

Nymphalidae). 

By WM. T. M. FORBES, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

The Ithomiinae are a group whose natural arrangement has 
been disguised by much mimicry (Miillerian, of course) within 
the group. The present note is based on a survey of quite a 
number of characters, ignoring pattern features, in an attempt 
to judge what is the really most probable ancestral type, and 
the line of development of the higher genera. 

In general we may take Schatz's arrangement in Staudinger's 
"Exolische Tagfalter." vol. 3, as representing the chief struc- 
tural subdivisions and, with one or two exceptions, the genera. 
As to the primitive genera (his Gruppe I) there has been gen- 
eral acceptance of the more recent subdivision of Titlwrea, and I 
shall for this note use the names that Seitz's "Macrolepidoptera 
of the World" has made familiar. The only other genus that 
needs subdivision is Athcsis, whose dcrcyllidas group shows 
much divergence in pattern and some in structure from A. 
clearista. A striking likeness to Hirsutis in sex-tufting, wing- 
form and some details of pattern is not wholly supported by 
other structures ; I shall leave its fuller discussion to Mr. Fox, 
but note here that it must lie between Hirsutis and Athesis 
about as far off the main line of evolution as Tithorea is in 
another direction. 

Pending Mr. Fox's revision of the genera 1 1 shall use the 
system of names established by Schatz and slightly extended by 
Haensch in the "Macrolepidoptera of the World". 

Schatz's "Gruppe I" is denned in the male by having a clearly 
separate tibia and tarsus of the male fore leg, which is normally 
almost as long as the femur. Two exceptions make a little 
trouble in Thyridia (Mcthona) the tibia and tarsus, while 
distinct, are much shorter than the femur, and in Mclinaca 
egina (with its form paraiya) the tibio-tarsus is reduced to the 

1 Since published in Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 66: 161-207, 1940 

1 



2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

same little knob so typical of "Gruppe II". M. comma has 
reached about the stage of reduction of Thyridia, but varies 
individually. On the other side of the boundary Aprotopus 
has the tibio-tarsus less reduced than the residue of group II. 
Personally I believe it is a separate reduction from something 
not unlike Thyridia, and merely parallel to the Mechanitis and 
Ithomia types. 

Group I is then taken to include Hirsutis, Tithorca, Athcsis, 
Olyras, Eutresis, Athyrtis, Mclinaea and Thyridia, with Apro- 
topus as a doubtful appendage. 

To determine the ancestral form we may take Tcllcrvo as a 
norm. Whether actually Ithomiid, or a distinct subfamily as 
now listed (see Ent. Am. xix, 102) it is certainly nearer to the 
ancestral stem than any other living type. It shares with other 
early Nymphalidae the following features which vary signifi- 
cantly within the remaining genera of "Group I": M-spur 
attached to middle discocellular" in both wings ; lower dis- 
cocellular forming an acute angle with m-cu, the cubittis being 
of the "trifid" type; Sc and R of hind wing widely separated 
at origin, as in normal Nymphalidae; hum. forming a wide 
and fairly symmetrical Y-fork, cell of hind wing much shorter 
than free part of R. We may also note that Sc is long and 
similar in both sexes, unlike the Melinaea and Mechanitis 
groups, and that the scaling, while somewhat thin, is not de- 
generate. 

Comparing our list of genera to this set of characters it 
turns out that Hirsutis comes definitely nearest, differing in 
the simpler hum. and movement of the M-spur to Idcv, but 
eveti the latter has only reached Ms in some specimens. This is 
also one of the genera that sometimes has Rs free, as in Tcl- 
lcrvo, though never so far back on the cell. Our female of 
H. togarma shows this. The rest of the genera fall into a 
single line, as listed above, ending in Aprotopus, each genus 
being like those immediately before and after in more features 

2 This is the upper M-spur, i. e., Mi+2; the lower one, M 3 , while 
equally clear in Tcllcrvo, is weak or reduced to a fold in the proper 
Ithomiinae it always arises from Idcv. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL XF.WS 3 

than to any others. The only possible other candidates for 
position next to Tell cm o are Tithorca, on account of its more 
perfectly separate Sc and R, and Athcsis acrisionc, which still 
has the M-spur on the mdcv of a perfectly "trifid" wing. The 
remaining genera with high M-spur are quadrifids, and the 
spur has no doubt moved up secondarily to the migration of 
M.2 itself. 

The successive steps of development may be noted as follows, 
though the actual arrangement was made on the basis of some 
20 characters, both superficial and genitalic. 

At Athcsis Sc and R of female hind wing become distinctly 
approximate at base ; with Olyras the angle between udcv and 
m-cu of hind wing becomes obtuse, though the venation is not 
truly quadrifid till we come to Athyrtis; the free part of R in 
the male also becomes much shorter than the cell at Olyras. 

With Thyridia the distal fork of hum. becomes very long 
and the uncus becomes much reduced; Sc and R are closely 
parallel for a greater distance than in the preceding genera, and 
the general transparent ground is unlike any of the preceding, 
though approached by the extensive transparent spotting of 
"Athesis" hcwitsoni. In each of these points Aprotopus re- 
sembles Thyridia, and the closely parallel Sc and R is the only 
one really typical of group II. Only the relatively long R 
suggests an origin from an earlier genus, perhaps Athcsis. 

Other features tend strongly to tie neighboring genera, but 
are not too consistent : thus the narrow V-shaped juxta is pres- 
ent in Hirsutis, Athesis (including dercyllidas) and Tithorca. 
and not in Olyras, Eutrcsis, Thyridia or Aprotopus, but it does 
reappear in Mclinaca. A specialized costal process of the valve 
is limited to Athyrtis and Mclinaca, which on all points make 
a subgroup together, but Thyridia has a different specialization 
of the costa a rough thickening that reaches from the joint 
clear to the apex of the valve. The thin penis links together 
Athcsis and Olyras, but reappears in Aprotopus. 

As to the origin of Group II, I have already noted the 
marked likeness, deep as well as superficial bet \\t-cn . [pratopits 
and Th\ri(lia. Tabulation of tin- same IKi of characters in a 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

couple of other genera, shows a marked linkage between Me- 
chanitis and Mclinaea (and of course Scada, with Heteroscada, 
and Sais must follow Mechanitis}, but the later genera with 
their decidedly "trifid" venation seem to my eye to link more 
closely with Athesis. So my present opinion is that group II 
is triphyletic: a, Aprotopus, to be treated like Mclinaea cgina 
as a sporadic reduction of group I ; b, Mechanitis, Scada and 
Sais; c, the residue. Velamysta shows the short spur of Sc 
arising from far out on the cell in the female, like Mechanitis, 
but I should put more weight on the character of udcv, which 
is quite normal for the Ithomia-Hetdrosais series. 



On Two Species of Diploplectron from Texas 
(Hymenoptera : Sphecidae). 

By V. S. L. PATE, Cornell University. 

In 1902, James A. G. Rehn and the late Henry Lorenz 
Viereck made their first collecting trip to the southwestern 
United States. Much of the material taken on that expedition 
has long since been reported upon, yet there still remains, in 
the collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, a considerable residue, at least of the smaller Hymen- 
optera, to be studied. Recently while sorting this material, the 
following interesting new forms were discovered and are here- 
with described. 
Diploplectron vierecki 1 new species. 

The black head and thorax and bright ferruginous abdomen 
immediately distinguish the present and the following new 
form from all other Nearctic Diplo plectra. The closest ally of 
vierecki is apparently D. bidentatus Ashmead, but in addition 
to the different general livery, the present species may be sepa- 
rated from that form by the unclouded fore wing, the immacu- 
late clypeus and front, and the much smaller clypeal teeth. 

Type. $ ; Foothills of the Franklin Mountains north of 
El Paso, El Paso County, TEXAS. Elevation, 3713-4000 feet. 

1 After its collector, the late Henry Lorenz Viereck. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

April 5, 1902. (H. L. Viereck.) [Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia, Type no. 10571.] 

$ . 4.5 mm. long. Black ; mandibles, save for red apices, deep 
yellow ; antennae dark fuscous ; legs distad of femora deep 
fulvous ; tegulae and axillary sclerites fuliginous ; abdomen 
bright ferruginous. Wings clear hyaline, iridescent, hind 
wings with an ovate fuscous cloud subapically ; veins and stigma 
deep fulvous. 

Head fulgid ; front, vertex, post-temporal region and clypeus 
with a sparse clothing of short, suberect, dark aenous setulae. 
Front inconspicuously tumid ; with a microscopically fine 
shallow, clathrate foveolation superposed upon which are a few 
small, irregularly disposed, shallow alveoli ; bisected discally 
by a short furrow. Vertex sculptured like front but more 
finely so ; postocellar distance one and one-half times the length 
of ocellocular line ; temples subnitidous and subglabrous. An- 
tennae reaching to a little beyond tegulae ; the antennocular line 
two and one-half times the interantennal distance; scape short, 
stout, about one-third (.36) the vertical length of eye; pedicel 
subcylindrical, five-eighths the length of first flagellar article; 
flagellum simple, finely puberulent, first two segments subequal 
in length. Clypeus narrow, transverse, median length two- 
sevenths the vertical length of eye, fiat laterally but rather 
strongly obtrapezoidally tumid and subnitidous discally, ending 
medio-apically in an obtusely pointed lobe bearing two very 
small median teeth distally. 

Thorax more or less fulgid; with a moderate clothing of 
suberect, rather long whitish pubescence dorsally, pleura and 
sterna more scantily clothed with long, suberect, dark aeneous 
setulae. Pronotum rounded anteriorly and laterally ; with scat- 
tered fine punctures, and traversed by a few horizontal, incon- 
spicuous rugulae ; tubercles almost attaining tegulae. Mesonotum 
with small, moderately close punctures ; scutellum flat, nitidous 
and glabrous discally; postscutellum subnitidous medially. 
Mesopleura without epicnemium anteriorly; episternal suture 
and episternaulus distinct and well impressed; prepectus and 
below episternauli with inconspicuous horizontal striae and a 
few scattered fine punctures, above episternauli and behind 
episternal suture glabrous and nitidous. Metapleura glabrous, 
subnitidous, with very inconspicuous horizontal striae, 
podeum with dorsal face glabrous, opaque, granulate tendi 
to become finely transversely rugulate, the anterior margin 
with fine irregular reticulations, somewhat depressed 
posteriorly; posterior face subfulgid. with erect, rather 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan.. '41 

whitish pubescence, discally with an indistinct cuneiform im- 
pression, laterad of which surface is finely and irregularly 
punctate and rugulate; lateral faces fulgid, with rather long, 
erect whitish pubescence and a few parallel subhorizontal striae. 

Legs with middle and hind tibiae bearing a few weak spines. 

Fore wing with third submarginal cell twice as long on cubitus 
as on radial vein. 

Abdomen fulgid ; with microscopically fine, transverse clath- 
rate aciculation. Tergites and sternites with a transverse sub- 
apical row of short decumbent fine setulae ; pygidium small, 
elongate trapeziform, glabrous, per fulgid, with a few small, 
coarse, well separated punctures; ultimate sternite elongate, 
linguiform. 

9 . Unknown. Paratypcs. 2 $ ; Topotypical; April 4, 1901, 
April 5, 1902; [A. N. "s. P.] 

The paratypes agree with the type in all essential details of 
livery and structure, except that in the specimen taken April 
5th ,1902, the second and third transverse cubital veins of the 
fore wing have anastomosed anteriorly just before their re- 
ception on the radial vein. 
Diploplectron kantsi 2 new species. 

Although resembling vicrccki so closely as to be easily con- 
fused with it, kantsi differs from that form in a number of 
details, notably in the shape of the clypeus, the penult ab- 
dominal sternite, the venation of the fore wing, its opaque 
granular head and thorax, the different postocellar-ocellocular 
ratio, and the longer, differently proportioned antennal seg- 
ments. 

Type. $ ; Foothills of the Franklin Mountains north of 
El Paso, El Paso County, TEXAS. Elevation, 3713-4000 feet. 
April 6, 1902. (Henry L. Viereck.) [Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, Type no. 10572.] 

$ . 5 mm. long. Black ; mandibles dark miniatous ; antennae 
dark fuscous ; legs distad of femora deep fulvous ; tegulae and 
axillary sclerites fuliginous; abdomen ferruginous. Wings 
hyaline, uniformly tinged throughout with light fulvous ; hind 
wings with a small diffuse light fuscous cloud subapically; 
veins and stigma fuliginous. 

Head opaque ; sparsely clothed with decumbent whitish pub- 
escence. Front finely granulate, bisected discally by a short 

2 Named after the Lipan Indians, who were given the name Kantsi by 
the Caddo. 



hi. '41 I ENTOMOLOGICAL \l.\\ > 7 

furrow. Vertex subgranular; postocellar distance about one- 
half the length of ocellocular line; temples subfulsjid. with 
microscopically fine, shallow, clathrate faveolation. Antennae- 
long, reaching at least to middle of scutellum ; antennuailar 
line two and one-half times the interuntemuil distance; scape 
short, stout, one-fourth the vertical length of eye; pedicel sub- 
cylindrical, one-third the length of the elongate first Magellar 
article; flagellum somewhat compressed, first two segments 
elongate, the second five-sixths the length of first article. 
Clypeus subopaque, narrow, transverse, median length one- 
fourth the vertical length of eye, flat laterally to obtrigonally 
tumid discally, ending medio-apically in an obtusely pointed 
lobe bearing two minute median teeth distally. 

Thorax granular, more or less opaque; thinly clothed with 
suberect, rather long whitish pubescence. Pronotum rounded 
anteriorly and laterally; the tubercles almost attaining the 
tegulae. Mesopleura granulate throughout, with episternal 
suture and episternauli distinct and well developed. Meta- 
pleura glabrous, finely granulose. Propodeum opaque, granu- 
lose throughout; dorsal face glabrous; posterior and lateral 
faces scantily clothed with short suberect light pubescence; 
posterior face with a median cuneiform impression dorsad. 

Legs with middle and hind tibiae bearing a few weak spines. 

Fore wings with first transverse cubital vein bearing a spur 
directed toward the base of stigma; second submarginal cell 
subtrigonal, the second and third transverse cubital veins com- 
ing together to a point on radius; third submarginal cell twice 
as long on radius as on cubitus. 

Abdomen more or less f ulgid ; with microscopically fine, 
transverse clathrate aciculation. Tergites and sternites with a 
transverse subapical row of short decumbent fine setulae ; 
pygidium small, elongate, narrow 7 trapeziform, developed only 
on posterior half of ultimate tergite, and glabrous, per f ulgid, 
with a few punctures; ultimate sternite elongate linguiform 
apically, penult sternite trigonal, narrowly truncate and notched 
medio-apically, the posterior half' somewhat compressed. 

9 . Unknown. This species is known at present from only 
the unique male described above. 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

Notes on Costa Kican Mycetophilidae (Diptera). 

By ELIZABETH G. FISHER, Academy of Natural Sciences 

of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Alan Stone has kindly called my attention to the fact 
that Leia analis Fisher (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 65: 232-233. 
1939) is a homonym of Lcia analis Meigen (Syst. Beschr. 1: 
257. 1818). The latter is now considered to belong to the 
genus Bolctina. I therefore propose the name Lcia costari- 
censis new name for Lcia analis Fisher. 

The four males identified by me as Platyura (Proceroplatus) 
pictipennis Williston are a distinct species. Dr. F. W. Edwards 
has sent me a rough sketch of the dry male terminalium of 
Williston's type in the British Museum. It differs from that 
figured by me. (Fisher 1. c. pi. 13, fig 6). I therefore de- 
scribe the Costa Rican species below : 
Platyura (Proceroplatus) vittata new species 

1939. Platyura (Proceroplatus) pictipennis Williston, Fisher 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 65: 228, pi. 13, fig. 6. 

This species is close to Platyura pictipennis Williston differ- 
ing in terminalial structure as well as in color. These color 
differences are described in the author's paper referred to 
above. 

$ . Total length 2.8 to 3 mm. Face yellow ; vertex dark 
brown, deep black around the ocelli. Palpi dark brown. Meso- 
notum brown with a wide median yellow stripe, the humeral 
angles and the lateral margins whitish. Pleura whitish yellow 
except the pleurotergites which are deep brown. Scutellum 
yellow. Apex of the postnotum deep brown. Mesonotum uni- 
formly setose. Anepisternites and pleurotergites with setae. 
Halteres yellow, knob brown. Legs yellow. Fore tibia longer 
than fore basitarsus ( 1 . 5 : 1 . ) . Abdomen brown to blackish- 
brown, except the first segment which is entirely yellow; the 
second to fifth tergites with yellow posterior margins, the sixth 
and seventh tergites deep brown . 

Type: $ ; San Jose, COSTA RICA (H. Schmidt). June 27, 
1930. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. no. 6626]. 

Paratypes: 3 $ ; San Jose, Costa Rica (H. Schmidt). April 
(defective) May 7, June 23, 1930. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 9 

Some of the Eumolpinae and Chrysomelinae 
of South Dakota (Coleoptera), 

By PAUL H. JOHNSON, Mexico, Missouri. 

The specimens seen were those in the collection of the En- 
tomology-Zoology Department of the South Dakota State 
College at Brookings. 

This collection is composed of the Truman collection, and of 
collections made by various members of the Entomology De- 
partment of State College. The Truman collection was bought 
by State College after his death, which occurred in the early 
1900's. Very few of the specimens in the Truman collection 
have date labels, and the locality labels at times seem to be in- 
correct. The collections of the Entomology Department have 
been state-wide in extent and have been carried on for a number 
of years. 

The specimens in the Truman collection have no collector 
labels, so any specimen in that group is marked by a "T" in the 
list. Other collectors were John Hetland, G. I. Gilbertson and 
H. C. Severin. All specimens collected by these men are 
marked in the list by the initials of their surnames. 

There were twenty-four species, representing eleven genera, 
of th tribe Chrysomelinae in the collection. Of the eleven 
genera two (Phaedon and Prasocuris) may not occur in the 
State. Phaedon was found only in the Truman collection, and 
the species represented is not likely to inhabit South Dakota. 
Prasocuris was found only in the Truman collection. 

There were twenty species of Eumolpinae representing thir- 
teen genera found in the collection. This is not including Fidia 
viticida Walsh, which occurs in the State, but was not repre- 
sented in the collection. The only doubtful genus in the 
Eumolpinae is Colas pidea. There were four of these in the 
Truman collection; three were from Los Angeles, California, 
and the other was labeled Volga, South Dakota. 

EUMOLPINAE. 

ADOXUS OBSCURUS (Linn.), 1 spcvimui. Englewood ( 
G. 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

A. OBSCURUS VITIS (Fab.), 8 specimens, Englewood (June) 
G. 

MYOCHROUS MOVALLUS Johnson, 5 specimens, Elk Point 
(June) G. 

M. SOUAMOSUS Lee., 16 specimens, Whitewood (June) G., 
Martin (June) G., Canton (June) G., Buffalo (June) G., 
Philip (June) G., Orman Dam (July) G., Houghton (June) 
G., Belle Fourche (June) G. 

GLYPTOSCELIS ALBIDA Lee., 1 specimen, Newell (July) G. 

(G. CRYPTICA (Say), not in collection, but probably in 
state.) 

COLASPIDEA VARICOLOR Crotch, 1 specimen, Volga T. (Leng 
lists this species from Southern California.) 

PARIA CANELLA ATERRIMA (Oliv.), 14 specimens, Philip 
(June) G., Volga T., Chester (June) G., Belle Fourche (June) 
G., Colton (June) G., Oelrichs (June) G. 

P. CANELLA GILVIPES Horn, 1 specimen, Lake Oalcvvood 
(July) S. 

P. CANELLA THORACICA (Melsh.), 2 specimens, Oelrichs 
(June) G., Browns Valley (June) G. 

P, CANELLA OUADRINOTATA (Say), 15 specimens, Colton 
(June) G., Brookings (May) S., Springfield (June) G., Yank- 
ton (June) G., Chester (June) G. 

P. CANELLA VITTATA Horn, 4 specimens, Volga T., Colton 
(June) G. 

P. CANELLA QUADRIGUTTATA Lee., 5 specimens, Volga T., 
Springfield (June, August) G. 

P. CANELLA SEXNOTATA (Say), 1 specimen, Volga T. 

P. CANELLA PUMILA Lee., 1 specimen, Volga T. 

CHRYSOCHUS AURATUS (Fab.), 15 specimens, Volga T., Now- 
lin T., Brookings (June, July) S., Vermillion (July) S., 
Lennox (August) S., Martin (June) G., Watertown T., White 
(July) S., Aberdeen (July) S. 

C. COBALTINUS Lee., 8 specimens, Volga T., Aurora county 
T., Brookings, (June, September) S. 

XANTHONIA DECEMNOTATA (Say), 9 specimens, Big Stone 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 11 

(August) S., Whitewood (July) G., Springfield (June) G., 
Lake Hendricks (August) S. 

(X. VII.LOSULA (Melsh.), not in collection, but probably in 
state.) 

(FmiA vrnrinA \Ya1sb, not in collection, but known to !>< at 
Yankton and Elk Point.) Severin. 

GRAPHOPS PUBESCENS (Melsh.), 2 specimens, Parmelee 
(June) G., Martin, in sand hills, (August) G. 

G. CURTIPENNIS (Melsh.), 2 specimens, Custer (September) 
G., Kadoka, in Bad Lands, (August) G. 

METACHROMA DUBIOSUM (Say), 3 specimens, White (July) 
G., Little Bend (August) G., Martin, in sand hills, (June) G. 

M. INTERRUPTUM (Say), 2 specimens, Elk Point (June) G. 

M. PARALLELUM Horn, 2 specimens, Elk Point (June) G. 

COLASPIS FAVOSA Say, 28 specimens, South Dakota T., 
Brookings T. (July)' S., Clark (July) S., Volga T., De Smet 
(July) G., Springfield (June) G., McNelly (June) G. 

RHABDOPTERUS PICIPES (Oliv.), 14 specimens, Xewell 
(July) G. S., Springfield (June) G., Vermillion (June) S., 
Browns Valley (June) G. 

NODONOTA TRISTIS (Oliv.), 38 specimens, Volga T.. 'White- 
wood (July) G., Lakeview (June) G., Parmelee (June) G., 
Hot Springs (June) G., Springfield (June) G., Rapid City 
(June) G., Elk Point (June) G., Martin, in sand hills, (June) 
G., Pine Ridge (June) G. 

N. CONVEXA (Say), 1 specimen, Elk Point (June) G. 

N. PUNCTICOLLIS (Say), 181 specimens, Volga T., Brookings 
T.. South Dakota T., Volin (June) G., Whitewood (June, 
July) G., Springfield (June) G., Newell (July) G., Tabor 
(June) G., Chester (June) G., White, in Warrens Wood, 
(August)' G., Rosebud (June) G., Lake Hendricks (July) G. 

CHRYSODINA GLOBOSA (Oliv.), 26 specimens, Capa (June) 
S., Armour (June) S., Mitchell (June) S., Parmelee (June) 
G., Springfield (June) G., Lakeview (June) G., Martin, in 
sand hills, (June) G., Vivian (June) G., Interior (June) G., 
Hot Springs (June) G., Fox Ridge (June) G., Pine Ridge 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

(June) G., Rapid City (June) G., Buffalo (June) G. 

CHRYSOMELINAE. 

PRASOCURIS PHELLANDRII (L.), 2 specimens, Volga T. 

(P. VITATTA (Oliv.), not in collection, but may be in State.) 

LABIDOMERA CLIVICOLLIS (Kby.), 21 specimens, Volga T., 
Elk Point (June) G., Brookings T. (June, August) G. S., Big 
Stone City T., Springfield (June) G., Canton (August) G., 
Aurora county T., Capa (August) S. 

LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA (Say), 19 specimens, Brook- 
ings (June, July) S. T., Yankton (June) G., Capa (August) 
S., Volga T. 

ZYGOGRAMMA EXCLAMATIONIS (Fab.), 39 specimens, Volga 
T., Yankton (August) S., Claremont (August) S., Aberdeen 
(July) S., White Lake (August) G., Lake Oakwood (June) G., 
Pierre T., Grass Rope (August) G., Philip (June) G., Newell 
(July) G., Wewela (August) G., Vivian (June) S., Nowlin 
T., Custer T., Provo (June) G., Rapid City (June) T. G., 
White River (June) S., Fairfax (August) S. 

Z. CONJUNCTA Rogers, 28 specimens, Newell (June, July) G. 

Z. SUTORALIS CASTA Rogers, 37 specimens, Volga T., Brook- 
ings (August) S. T., Lake Oakwood (June, August) S. G., 
Vermillion (July) S., White (July) S., Lake Preston (May) 
S., Colton (August) S., Lennox (August) S., Mitchell (June) 
S., Lake Hendricks (July) G., Ipswich (July) S., Whitewood 
(July) ,G., Rapid City (June) G., Wewela (August) G., Grass 
Rope (August) G., Yankton (August) G. 

CALLIGRAPHA LUNATA (Fab.), 28 specimens, Lake Preston 
(May) S., White (July) S., Sisseton (July) S., Claremont 
(August) S., Interior (August) S., Kadoka, in Bad Lands, 
(August) S., Camp (Fort) Crook (July) S., Wasta (Sep- 
tember) S., Capa (August) S. 

C. SIMILIS Rogers, 6 specimens, Volga T., Mitchell (August) 
S., Lake Campbell (August) S., Waubay (September) G., 
Newell (July) G., Fairfax (August) S. 

C. INCISA Rogers, 11 specimens, Brookings T., White 
(July) S. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 13 

C. PRAECELSIS Rogers, 11 specimens, Volga T., Brooking 
(May, June, August) S., G. T., Spring-field (August) G., 
Canton (June) G. 

C. ELEGANS (Oliv.), 29 specimens, Volga T., Brookings 
(May) S., Yankton (August) S., Lake Oakwood (June) G., 
Waubay (September) G., Lake Campbell (August) S., Madi- 
son (June) S., Newell (July) G., Camp (Fort) Crook (July) 
S., Englewood (June) G., Martin, in sand hills, (August) G. 

C. SCALARIS Lee., 4 specimens, Brookings (July) S., Spring- 
field (June) G., Yankton (August) G., Mitchell (June) S. 

C. MULTIPUNCTATA (Say), 71 specimens, Volga T., Elk 
Point (June) G., Brookings (June, July, August) S. G., 
Aberdeen (July) S., White (July) S., Lake Preston (August) 
S., Sisseton (July) S., Newell (July, August) G. H. S. 

CHRYSOMELA FLAVOMARGINATA Say, 25 specimens, Volga T., 
Newell (July) G., Rapid City (June) G., Martin (June) G., 
Buffalo (June) G., Pine Ridge (June) G., Cave Hills (July) S. 

C. AURIPENNIS Say, 1 specimen, Meckling (June) G. 

PHAEDON OVIFORMIS (Lee.), 4 specimens, Volga T. 

P. VIRIDIS (Melsh.), none in collection from the State, but 
it may be present. 

GASTROIDEA POLYGONI (L.), 96 specimens, Volga T., Brook- 
ings (June) T., Lead (July) G. 

G. CYANEA (Melsh.), 26 specimens, Volga T., Springfield 
(June) G. S., Canton (June) G., Yankton (April) S., Newell 
(June, July) G. 

G. VIRIDULA (De Geer), 23 specimens, Pierre (May) S., 
Rapid City (June) G. 

LINA INTERRUPTA Fab., 198 specimens, Volga T. S., Elk 
Point (June, August) G., Brookings (June, July) S. G., Spring- 
field (June) G., Canton (April, August) S. G., Yankton 
(April) S., Colton (August) S., Pierre T., Sioux Falls 
(August) S., Wentworth (August) S., Capa (May) S., New- 
ell (July) G. S., Nisland (July) S. 

L. INTERRUPTA QUADRiGUTTATA Sch., 26 specimens, Volga 
T., Salem (May) S. 

L. TKKMULAE (Fab.), 42 specimens, Newell (July) G., Cusn r 
T., Rapid City (June) G., Whitewoocl (June, July) G., Kngle- 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

wood (June, July) G., Lead (July) G., Deadwood (July) G. 

L. SCRIPTA (Fab.), 71 specimens, Volga T., Brookings (July, 
August) S. T., Colton (July) S., Pierre T., Wentworth 
(August) S., Sioux Falls (August) S., Capa (June) S., 
Newell (July) G. 

PHYTODECTA AMERICANA Sch., 8 specimens, Englewood 
(June) G., Deadwood (July) G. S., Determination confirmed 
by H. S. Barber. 

PHYLLODECTA AMERICANA Sch., 4 specimens, Englewood 
(June) G., Sylvan Lake (September) G. Determination con- 
firmed by H. S. Barber. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BLATCHLEY, W. S. Coleoptera of Indiana. 

CROTCH, G. R. Materials for the study of the Phytophaga 
of the U. S. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1873, pp. 19-83. 

HORN, GEO. H. The Eumolpini of Boreal America. Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc. [XIX pp. 195-234. 

JOHNSON, PAUL H. A New Species of Myochrous. Canad. 
Ent., June, 1931, p. 148. 

LENG, CHAS. W. Catalog of the Coleoptera of America, 
North of Mexico, 1920. 

ROGERS, W. FREDERICK Synopsis of Species of Chrysomela 
and Allied Genera Inhabiting the U. S. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phil., Vol. VIII, 1856, pp. 29-39. 

SAY, THOMAS - - Descriptions of Coleopterous Insects Col- 
lected in the Late Expedition to the Rocky Mountains. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. Vol. Ill, 1823-4, pp. 403-462. 

SCHAEFFER, CHAS. New Genera and Species of Coleoptera. 
Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 197-236. 

ID. Notes on the Species of Lina and Allied Genera. The 
Canadian Ent. Vol. LX, 1928, pp. 42-47. 

ID. On a Few New and Old Chrysomelidae. Jour. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc., Vol. XXXII, 1924, pp. 138-145. 

Damage to Entomological Collections in the British 
Museum of Natural History. 

Science for December 6 and 13, 1940, states that the Museum 
has been hit by high explosive and incendiary bombs and that 
the department of entomology was damaged, especially by 
water seepage. 



lii,'41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

Notes on Florida Odonata. 

By M. J. WESTFALL, JR., Baker Museum, Rollins College, 
Winter Park, Florida. 

While connected with the Baker Museum during the past 
three years I have done considerable field work and collecting 
in Florida. Being especially interested in Odonata, I have 
concentrated on these insects with the result that some species 
have been taken which have proved to be quite unusual and it 
seems that comments on them would be in order at this time. 
Various notes of interest are included in the following records. 

PROGOMPHUS ALACHUENSIS. This species was collected very 
commonly during the Spring of 1939, on the sandy shores of 
lakes in central Florida. Of the considerable number of speci- 
mens taken, only two were females, one collected while emerg- 
ing, and the other, a mature specimen caught in my hands in 
the woods about one-half mile from a lake. 

CORYPHAESCHNA viRENS. One female was collected on 
Lower Matecumbe Key, March 20, 1938, as it flew back and 
forth over a roadside ditch. In the hand it was quite distinct 
from C. ingens, in the greater extent of the green coloration of 
the thorax, as well as other slight differences. Dr. P. P. Calvert 
confirmed this identification. 

TETRAGONEURIA SEPIA. Though some persons have doubted 
the validity of this species, we believe it to be quite distinctive. 
My first specimens, a male and female, were collected from the 
street in front of my home in Orlando, at least one-half mile 
from a lake, on March 28, 1938. Immediately we noticed 
differences between these and the other Tetragoneurias previ- 
ously taken. We supposed them to be sepia and sent the male 
to Dr. P. P. Calvert who confirmed the identification. Now I 
seem to be able to identify this species before capture, especi- 
ally by the slightly smaller size. Certainly when in the hand, 
the prominent yellowish spots of the thorax and the relatively 
longer inferior appendages distinguish T. sepia from the other 
members of that genus found here. 

I found a dead male on a lily pad in a Winter Park lak. 
May 9, 1939. Mr. E. M. Davis collected a male on the west 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jail., '41 

end of the Tamiami Trail in the early part of March, 1939. In 
the afternoon of June 7, 1939, my father and I were collecting 
various small Odonata for about an hour in Nassau County at 
what is known as Boggy Creek. We had almost decided to 
leave when an unusual dragonfly appeared. I succeeded in 
catching it and found it to be T. sepia. Soon another appeared 
and then another, until we were swinging right and left at them. 
They would fly toward the collector until just out of reach of 
the net and stop in mid-air, often for several seconds, and then 
dart at great speed perhaps within a foot of the collector who 
would usually miss. Then the same thing would be repeated. 
In all the other specimens of T. sepia I have taken, this char- 
acteristic of hovering so long in the air has not been noticed, 
but the flight has been much more nervous. With a sling shot 
or gun that day we might have collected many more, but when 
we began to learn the trick of catching them with a net it be- 
came dark and we found only sixteen specimens had been 
taken, only one of which was a female. The following morn- 
ing we returned and stayed until 9 A. M., but no more of these 
dragonflies appeared. Several of these specimens were pre- 
sented to the Cornell collection and Dr. Needham agreed on 
the identification. 

This year I took one male and one female at my home again 
on April 8 and April 21, 1940, respectively. Two females 
were collected April 8, 1940, at Lake Redbug in Orange 
County. All the specimens I have taken were collected just 
before dusk and were not seen at other times, but whether this 
denotes a tendency toward a dusk-flying habit of this species 
or not, I would hesitate to say. 

CELITHEMIS BERTHA and FASCIATA. The first species with 
its characteristic red venation of the wings was found com- 
monly on many lakes of central Florida in the Spring of 1939. 
Also C. fasciata was unusually common during the same time, 
being collected at almost every lake and pond visited. The 
spotting of the wings was found to be quite variable. In a 
series of specimens taken in Florida, Georgia, and North Caro- 
lina, some were found with no indication of the yellowish color 
in the pale areas of the wings which is so characteristic of C. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 17 

fasciata. The dark area just proximal and posterior to the 
nodus in the front wing in all cases extended posteriorly to 
Ciii, and in most cases extended well beyond that vein. 

LIBELLULA AURIPENNIS and jESSEANA. It has been a great 
pleasure, with the help of Mrs. Leonora K. Gloyd, to straighten 
out some of the kinks in the identification of these two species 
in Florida. We had formerly believed L. auripcnnis to be very 
abundant here and L. jcsscana to be quite rare because of the 
few purplish bodied specimens of the latter species collected. 
We now find that L. jcsscana is our abundant species and L. 
auripennis has certainly not been common in our collecting ex- 
perience. Because of the very red hue of the stigma and wing 
veins of jesseana, as well as the difference in thoracic mark- 
ings pointed out by Mrs. Gloyd, field identification is made 
quite easy. Farther south in the state, on Merritt's Island, and 
at a few other stations we have taken auripcnnis, while I have 
collected jesseana commonly on up into Georgia and North 
Carolina. There have probably been many errors made in the 
identification of specimens of these two species. Some have 
thought that L. jesseana was not a distinct species, but certainly 
the genitalia and thoracic pattern are very different and sepa- 
ration of the species is quite easy. 

SYMPETRUM CORRUPTUM. We have usually found these 
dragonflies sparingly in Florida. Several specimens have been 
collected on Merritt's Island and I took one female on Sanibel 
Island, December 31, 1939. Mr. E. M. Davis found this 
species very common on the beach near Cape Canaveral in 
November, 1939. 

LEPTHEMIS VESICULOSA. October 2-4, 1939, I was collecting 
shells at Sanibel and Captiva Islands. While walking down the 
beach on the gulf shore of Sanibel I saw what appeared to be 
a large female Erythcinis simplicicollis. Then another flew l>y 
and many more were soon seen. I knew at once that I had 
found a good place to collect L. vcsiculosa, but alas, I had no 
net, only a sling shot and cyanide jar which had been thrown 
in at the last minute while packing. I found however that the 
sling shot with coarse sand was very effective in collecting 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

them. They lit on the grass, sand, pen shells, etc., and were so 
indifferent about my presence that I began throwing sand at 
them and thus catching them easily. Hundreds of them were 
seen and about 25 collected. On December 27, 1939, I re- 
turned to Sanibel but saw only one Lepthemis on the gulf shore 
during our stay. However, on January 1, 1940, I visited the 
bay side of the island and found them just as abundant as they 
had been on the gulf shore in October ; 35 were taken in a 
short time, males and females. This locality is much further 
north than the former published records from the Florida Keys. 

The coloration of the specimens from Sanibel taken on the 
second trip varied considerably from the descriptions by Need- 
ham and Byers. They might have described from very dry 
specimens, but even our dry specimens appear different. The 
stigma, appendages of the 10th segment, the face except for a 
little yellow about the mandibles and labrum, the vertex, coxae 
and trochanters of these specimens were decidedly greenish. 
The tibiae and tarsi were predominantly blackish and the 
femora were for the most part brownish, although sometimes 
blackish externally or inferiorly. 

MACRODIPLAX BALTEATA. We have collected this species 
commonly on Merritt's Island, at Titusville, Sebastian Inlet, 
etc., in the vicinity of brackish water along the coast. A few 
years ago we were very much surprised to find it on the flood 
plains of the St. John's River near Geneva, approximately 20 
miles inland. Here there are brackish water ponds, but we 
wondered what path they had followed in extending their 
range from the coast. When Mr. E. M. Davis collected a few 
specimens at a brackish lake west of Mims the possibility of 
their having spread inland at this point became apparent. The 
chain of lakes from Titusville to the St. John's would furnish 
a possible path for this extension of range. This species was 
also found on Sanibel in May, 1940, as we would expect from 
the species found there which prefer a similar habitat. 

(To be continued) 



List of Titles of Publications Referred to by Numbers 
in Entomological Literature in Entomological News. 

1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annales Sci. Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Psycho, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Archives do Institute Biologico, Sao Paulo. 

15. Annales Academia Brasileira de Sciencias. Rio de Janeiro. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt-M. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bolletino del Lab. di Zool. gen. e agraria della Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. Genova. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. Archives do Institute de Biologia Vegetal. R. d. Janeiro. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

36. Trans. Royal Entomological Society, London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitales. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chilena de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

46. Zeitschrift fur Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington. D. C. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. Helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fur Naturjjeschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand Berlin. 

53. Ouarterly Journal of Af icroscopical Science. London. 
* c Pan-Pacific F.ntnmnloeist San Francisco, Cal. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Fntomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 



61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Physis. Revista Soc. Argentina Cien. Nat. Buenos Aires. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Mem. Institute Butantan. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

87. Archiv fur Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaften, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C- 

97. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie. Nederland. Ent. Ver., Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

105. Revista de Entomologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

106. Anales Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

107. Proc., Royal Entomological Society, London. 

108. Revista, Col. Nac. Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil. 

109. Arbeiten uber morpholog. und taxonom. ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem. 

110. Arbeiten ueber physiolog. u. angewandte ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem. 

111. Memorias do Institute Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de Janeiro. 

112. Anales del Institute de Biologia Mexico. 

114. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 

115. Memorias de la Soc. Cubana de Hist. Nat. Havana, Cuba. 

116. Parasitology. Ed. Keilin and Hindlc. London. 

117. Microentomology, Stanford University. 

118. Ward's Ent. & Nat. Sci. Bull, Rochester, N. Y. 

119. American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, Ind. 

120. The Great Basin Naturalist, Provo, Utah. 

121. Ciencia, Mexico City. 

122. Revista Museo de la Plata, Buenos Aires. 

123. Indian Journal of Entomology, New Delhi. 



lii,'41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NKWS 19 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and E. G. FISHER. 

Under the above head It Is intended to note papers received at th 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first Installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
In titles are followed by () ; If containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so Indicated 
In the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal In which the paper 
appeared, as numbered In the list of Periodicals and Serials published In 
our January and June Issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( )follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Anduze, P. J. Un proyecto cle estudio cle 
la fauna entomologica Venezolana. [Bol. Soc. Venezolana 
Cien. Nat.] 6: 238-248. Armbruster, L. Eine miocaene 
Insektenfauna (mit meinem Praparierverfahren). [Verb. 
VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1365-1371. Aubrook, 
E. W. The preparation of models of the heads and tracheal 
system of insects. [Mus. Jour., London] 40: 223-225, ill. 
Beall, G. The fit and significance of contagious distribu- 
tions when applied to observations on larval insects. [84] 
21 : 460-474. Blackwelder, R. E. Some aspects of modern 
taxonomy. [6] 48: 245-257. Carpenter, G, D. H. Birds as 
enemies of butterflies, with special reference to mimicry. 
[Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1061-1074, ill. 
Chapman, R. N. Insect population problems in relation to 
insect outbreak. [Ecol. Monogr.] 9, (1939): 261-269. 
Eichler, W. Geographische und okologische Probleme bei 
ektoparasitischen Insekten. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 1089-1096. Emerson, A. E. Populations 
of social insects. [Ecol. Monogr.] 9, (1939): 287-300. 
Fall, H. C. Obituary and bibliography by P. J. Darlington. 
[5] 47 : 45-54, ill. Fichter, E. An ecological study of 
Wyoming spruce-fir forest Arthropods with special refer- 
ence to stratification. [Ecol. Monogr.] 9: (1939) : 185-215, 
ill. Fiebrig, C. Skizzen aus dem Insektenleben in Para- 
guay. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1097- 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

1105, ill. Gerhardt, U. Ueber die biologische bedeutung 
der lautausserungen einiger insekten. [Forsch. & Fortsch.] 
16: 291-292. Gibson, A. The Canadian Entomological 
Service; 50 years of Retrospect, 1887-1937. [Verb. VII In- 
ternat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 3: 1429-1479. Graham, S. A. 
-Forest insect populations. [Ecol. Monogr.] 9, (1939): 
301-310. Griffin, F. J. The first entomological societies. 
An early chapter in entomological history in England. 
[107] A, 15: 49-68. Hoffmann, W. H. Das Finlay-In- 
stitut und die Gelbfiebermucke. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 3: 1589-1603, ill. Hungerford, H. B. Results 
of the Oxford University Cayman Islands Biological Ex- 
pedition of 1938. [8] 76: 255-256. Janse, A. J. T. Glimpses 
of the development of entomological science in South 
Africa. [J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.] 3: 1-8, King, K, M Popu- 
lation studies of soil insects [Ecol. Monogr.] 9, (1939) : 
270-286. Lounsbury, C. P. The pioneer period of eco- 
nomic entomology in South Africa. [J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.] 
3 : 9-29. Park, O. Nocturnalism The development of a 
problem. [Ecol. Monogr.] 10: 486-536. Sakimura & Lin- 
ford. An annotated list of insects from Lanai (Hawaiian 
Ids). [37] 10: 451-454. Savely, H. E., Jr. Ecological re- 
lations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. [Ecol. 
Monogr.] 9, (1939) : 323-385, ill. Schmidt, E. Libellen als 
Objecte der angewandten Entomologie. [Verb. VII Inter- 
nat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 3: 1494-1505, ill. Schuhardt, V. 
T. A "tictorium" for the propagation of a colony of in- 
fected Ornithodoros turicata. [Jour. Parasit.] 26: 201-206, 
ill. Sellnick, M. Milben als Parasiten von Insekten. 
[Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1300-1307, ill. 
Silvestri, F. Importanza dell 'entomologia nell' economia 
mondiale. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 3: 
1506-1522. Smith, C. C. Biotic and physiographic succes- 
sion on abandoned eroded farmland. [Ecol. Monogr.] 10: 
422-484. Smith, H. S. Insect populations in relation to 
biological control. [Ecol. Monogr.] 9, (1939): 311-320, ill. 
Smith, R. H. Modified Riker insect mount for use in 
teaching. [4] 72: 209-211, ill. Ulrich, H. Uber den gen- 
erationswechsel und seine bedingungen. [Die Naturwis- 
sensch.] 28: 569-576, ill., cont. Van Duzee, E. P. The 
life and works) of, by Essig & Usinger. [55] 16: 145-177, 
ill. Weidner, H. Die Grossstadt als Lebensraum der In- 
sekten, ihre Biotope und ihre Besiedlung. [Verb. VII In- 
ternat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1347-1361, ill. Weiss, H. B. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL XEWS 21 

-Money losses due to destructive insects. [6] 48: 195-199. 
Wille, J. E. Landwirtschaftliche Entomologie in Peru und 
angrenzenden Landern Sudamerikas. [Verh. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 3: 1523-1539. Williams, C. B The 
numbers of insects caught in a light trap at Rothhamsted 
during four years, 1933-37. [107] A, 15: 78-80. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Andre, M. Sur 

1'allotrophie chez les Acariens. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 1009-1023. Barbieri, N. A. L'ampoule 
articulee des Dipteres (balancier)j organe de respiration ct 
de direction du vol. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 628-629, ill. Les crustaces et les insectes ne 
possedent pas d'yeux composes ou le systeme oculaire dans 
1'echelle zoologique. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 630-652, ill. Baumann, C. -Ueber den Legeap- 
parat von Baryconus rufipes (Hym., Proct.). und seine 
Beziehungen sum Abdominalhocker. [Verh. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 653-666, ill. Berg, V. L The ex- 
ternal morphology of the immature stages of the bee fly 
Systoechus vulgaris (Dipt.: Bombyliid.), a predator of 
grasshopper egg pods. [4] 72: 169-178, ill. Buchmann & 
Sydow. Weitere Versuche an Drosophila melanogaster 
uber den Einfluss von Schwermetallsalzen auf die Muta- 
tionsauslosung durch Rontgenstrahlen. Versuche mit 
Uranylacetat. [97] 60: 137-142. Campau, E. J. The in. r- 
phology of Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (Coleo: Can- 
tharid.). [Microent.] 5: 57-90, ill. Catala, R. Variations 
experimentales de 1'Urania de Madagascar (Lep.) [Verh. 
VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 667-672. ill. Clark, 
H. W. The adult musculature of the Anisopterous dragon- 
fly thorax (Odonata). [J. Morph.] 67: 523-565, ill. Cope, 
O. B. The morphology of Psocus confraternus. [Micro- 
ent.] 5: 91-115, ill. Cumley, R. W. Comparison of sero- 
logic and taxonomic relationships of Drosophila spp. [6] 
48: 265-274, ill. Dallas, E. D. Coexistencia de dos Mmi- 
struosidades en un Coleoptero. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 673-677, ill. Coleopteros que originan 
Dermatitis en la Republica Argentina. [Verh. VII Inter- 
nat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 678 Un Lepirloptero 
ginandromorfo. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 683-684, ill. Dutky & White. Note on the occurrence 
of microsporidian infection among native Scarabeid larvae. 
[Jour. Parasit.] 26: 333. Ebner, R.--Einigr li-ralolngische 
Naturfunde bei OrthopU-rcn. [Verh. VII tnternat. Kongr 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

Ent. Berlin] 2: 685-688, ill. Eggers, F Zur biologischen 
Bedeutung- der Flugelfarbung tagfliegender Lepidopteren 
(Filmvorfuhrung). [Verb. VII Internet. Kongr. Ent. Ber- 
lin] 2: 689-693. Phyletische Korrelation bei der Flugel- 
reduktion von Lepidopteren. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 694-711. Fahlander, K. Die segmental- 
organe der Diplopoda, Symphyla und Insecta Apterygota. 
[Zool. Bidrag Uppsala] 18: 243-251, ill. Ferris, G. F.- 
The myth of the thoracic sternites of insects. [Microent.] 
5: 87-90. Gilmour, D. The anaerobic gaseous metabolism 
of the roach, Cryptocercus punctulatus. [92] 79: 297-308. 
Gunther, K. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fortpflanzungs- 
biologie der Stabheuschrecke Orxines macloffi (Orth. 
Phasmid.). [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
1156-1169, ill. Heikertinger, F. Uber den derzeitigen 
Stand der Mimikryfrage und der Tiertrachtfragen im 
allgemeinen. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
712-739. Herter, K. Uber den Temperatursinn der In- 
sekten [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 740- 
759, ill. Hilton, W. A. Nervous system and sense organs : 
LXXXIIL Hymenoptera. [13] 32: 41-56, ill. Hoskins, 
W. M. Recent contributions of insect physiology to insect 
toxicology and control. [Hilgardia] 13: 307-386. Karda- 
koff, N. I. Geschlechts-Witterung im Raupen Stadium bei 
Depressaria sp. (Lep.). [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 1172-1180. Koch, A. Uber den gegenwartigen 
Stand der experimentellen Symbioseforschung. [Verh. VII 
Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 760-771, ill. Krause, G. 
Neue Erkenntnisse uber die verschiedenen Eitypen der In- 
sekten und ihre Bedeutung fur Entwicklungsphysiologie 
und Systematik. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 772-779, ill. Kuhn, A. Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie 
der Schmetterlingsmetamorphose. [Verh. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 780-796, ill. Kuhnelt, W. Beitrage 
zur Kenntnis des Wasserhaushaltes der Insekten. [Verh. 
VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 797-807. Lederer, E. 
Les pigments des invertebraes (a 1'exception des pig- 
ments respiratoires). [Biol. Revs.] 15: 273-306, ill. Lederer, 
G. Zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie (Paarung) der Gonepterix- 
Arten (Lep.). [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
808-813, ill. Long, M. E. Study of the nuclear and cyto- 
plasmic relationship in Scyllina cyanipes (Orth.). [J. 
Morph.] 67: 567-607, ill. Ludtke, H. Funktionelle Bedeu- 
tung der Differenzierungen im Auge des Ruckenschwim- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 23 

mers Notonecta glauca. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 814-824, ill. Luers, H. Zur vergleichenden 
Genetik der Drosophila-Arten. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 987-1000, ill. Mahdihassan, S Sexual 
dimorphism among lac insects. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 1232-1240, ill. Marchal, P. Les modifica- 
tions rythmiques du cycle annuel d'un parasite (Tricho- 
gramma) suivant 1'hote dans lequel il se developpe. [Verb. 
VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 825-826. de Mello, F. 
-Nachweis der Bildung a+-Wirkstoff durch die Haut und 
den Fettkorpcr bei Epheslia kubniella. [97] 60: 174-179. 
Merker, E. Chitin als Lichtschutz. [Verb. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 827-845, ill. Michalk, O. Uber 
Farbungswandlungen einiger Heteropteren Eurydema orna- 
tum und E. oleraceum. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 1243-1276, ill. Millot, J. L'appareil genital des 
Pedipalpes. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
846-865, ill. Misra, A. B. The differentiation and develop- 
ment of the male reproductive system in Drosichiella 
(Monophlebus) quadricaudata, with remarks on copulation 
between the two sexes. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 866-871, ill. The structure and secretion of the 
ovisac by the female of Drosichiella (Monophlebus) quad- 
ricaudata. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 872- 
876, ill. Muller, H. J. Die intrazellulare Symbiose bei 
Cixius nervosus und Fulgora europaea (Homopt. Cicadina) 
als Beispiele polysymbionter Zyklen. [Verb. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 877-894, ill. Omori, N. Experi- 
mental studies on the cohabitation and crossing of two 
spp. of bed-bug, Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus (Pre- 
liminary report). [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 895-915, ill. Pratt, H. D. Studies in the Ichneumonidae 
of New England, Pt. 1. [6] 48: 155-193, ill. D'Rozario, A. 
M. On the mechanism of copulation in Xeniatus rilu-sii 
(Tenthred., Hymen.). [107] A, 15: 69-77, ill. Ryberg, O. 
Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Fortpflanzungsbiologie und 
metamorphose der Fledermausfliegen Nycteribiidae (Dipt. 
Pupipara). [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
1285-1299, ill. Schwartz, V. Priifung der wirkung der 
mutation dec bei Ptychopoda durch augentransplantationen. 
[Die Naturwissensch.] 28: 399-400, ill. Schwartz, W.- 
Die physiologischen Grundlagen der Symbiosen von Tieren 
mit Pilzen und Bakterien. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 916-926, ill. Seidel, Bock & Krause. Die organ- 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

isation des insekteneies. [Die Naturwissensch.] 28: 433- 
446, ill. Slifer, K. H. The internal genitalia of female 
Ommexechinae and Cyrtacanthracridinae (Orth: Acridid.). 
[J. MorphJ 67: 199-239, ill. Smit & Reyneke. Do nymphs 
of Acrididae stridulate? [J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.] 3: 72-75. 
Steiniger, F. Die okologische Bedeutung der Augenilecke 
bei Insekten. [Verh. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
1340-1346, ill. Von Studnitz & Brenner. Zur Physiologic 
der Muskelquerstreifung. [Verh. VII Internal Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 927-932. Suster, P. M Fuhler und Bein- 
regeneration nach Ganglienexstirpation bei der aegypti- 
schen Gottesanbeterin (Sphodromantis bioculata) und' der 
ostindischen Stabheuschrecke Dixippus (Carausictis) mor- 
osus. [Verh. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 933-937, 
ill. Szekessy, W. Der Hautsaum der Staphyliniden tmd 
seine Funktion. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 938-944, ill. Timofeeff-Rissovsky, N. W. Zur Analyse 
des Polymorphisms bei Adalia bipunctata. [97] 60: 130- 
137, ill. Ulrich, H. Untersuchungen uber Morphologic 
und Physiologic des Generationswechsels von Oligarces 
paradoxus, eine Cecidomyide mit lebendgebarenden Larven. 
[Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 955-974, ill. 
Weber, H. Uber ein neues Organ im Kopf der Elefanten- 
laus Haematomyzus elephantis. [Verh. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 975-979, ill. Weiss, H. B. The 
death-feint of Trox unistriatus. [6] 48: 303-304. Whiting, 
A. R. Do Habrobracon females sting their eggs. [90] 74: 
468-471. Williams, J. L. The anatomy of the internal 
genitalia and the mating behaviour of some Lasiocampid 
moths. [J. Morph.] 67: 411-437, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Barbieri, N. A. 

Les mouches communes vehicules de cochenilles rouges et 
d'Acariens ou Le parasitisme chitinique. [Verh. VII In- 
ternat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1024-1031. Bryant & 
Archer. Notes on Epeira pentagona. [5] 47: 60-65. ill. 
Chamberlin, R. V. On some Chilopods from Barro Col- 
orado Island. [5] 47: 66-74, (K*). Fahlander, K. See 
under Anatomy. Keifer, H, H. Eriophyid Stidies IX. 
[Bull. Dept. Agr. St. Cal.] 29: 112-117, ill. (*). Lavoi- 
pierre, M. M. J. Hemitarsonemus latus (Acarina) a mite 
of economic importance new to South Africa. [J. Ent. Soc. 
So. Afr.] 3: 116-123, ill. Schmidt, F. L. Entonyssus vitz- 
thumi (Acarina), a new Ophidian lung mite. [lour. Para- 
sit.] 26: 309-313, ill. Tragardh, I. The system of Meso- 



lii,'41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NF.\VS 25 

stigmata in the light of comparative morphology. [Verh. 
VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 955-954, ill. (k). 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Bogoescu, 
C. Biologische Beobachtungen an Ephemeropteren. 
[Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1032-1043, ill. 
Ferguson, A. A preliminary list of the Odonata of Dallas 
Co., Texas. [Field & Lab.] 8: 1-10, ill. Hanson, J. F. De- 
scriptions of new North American Plecoptera [10] 42: 147- 
150, ill. Hood, J. D. Two new Heliothripinae (Thysan- 
optera) from the Transvaal. [J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.] 3: 35-41, 
ill. The cause and significance of macropterism and bra- 
chypterism in certain Thysanoptera, with description of a 
new Mexican sp. [An. Escu. Nac. Cien. Biol.] 1: 497-505, 
ill. A new Teuchothrips (Thysanoptera) from Mexico. 
[An. Escu. Nac. Cienc. Biol.] 1: 507-512, ill. Organo- 
thrips bianchii, a new Hawaiian thrips from taro. [37] 10: 
423-427, ill. Kimmins, D. E. N. genn. and spp. of Hem- 
erobiidae. [75] 6: 222-236, ill. (S). La Rivers, I. Some 
dragonfly notes from northern Nevada. [13] 32: 61-68, ill. 
Lincoln, E. Growth in Aeshna tuberculifera. [Pro. Amer. 
Philosoph. Soc.] 83: 589-605, ill. Ogloblin, A. A. The 
Strepsiptera parasites of Ants. [Verh. VII Internat. Kongr. 
Ent. Berlin] 2: 1277-1284, ill. Wagner, J. Beitrag zur 
kenntnis der flohe von Brit.-Kolumbien. [Zeit. fur Parasi- 
tenkde. 11: 463-467, ill. (*). Zimmerman, E. C. Studies 
of Hawaiian Neuroptera [37] 10: 487-510, ill. (k*). 

ORTHOPTERA. Ander, K. Systematische Einteilung 
und Phylogenie der Ensiferen (Saltatoria) auf Grund von 
vergleichend-anatomischen Untersuchungen. [Verh. VII 
Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 621-627. Faure, J. C.- 
Maternal care displayed by Mantids [J. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.] 
3: 139-150, ill. Knutson, H. A key to the Acrididae of 
northeastern Texas with ecological notes. [Field & Lab.] 
8: 33-58, ill. Kohler, P. Die biologischen Grundlagen fur 
eine mogliche Losung des Problems der argentinischen 
Wanderheuschrecke. [Verh. VII Internat, Kongr. Ent. 
Berlin] 2: 1181-1212, ill. Slifer, E. H. See under Ana- 
tomy. Smit & Reyneke. See under Anatomy. Urquhart, 
F. A. Notes on the Ontario species of Scuddcria. [Can. 
Field Nat.] 54: 102-104, ill. (k). Further notes on the 
sand cricket, Tridactylus apicalis. [Can. Field Nat.] 54: 106. 
Uvarov, B. P. Eleven new names in Orthoptera. [75] 6: 
377-380. 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

HEMIPTERA. Ball & Beamer. A revision of the gen. 
Athysanella and some related genn. (Cicadell.). [Univ. 
Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 5-82, ill. (k*). Caldwell, J. S. -N, 
genn. and spp. of jumping plant-lice from the Hawaiian 
Islands with descriptions of several immature stages 
(Psyllid.) [37] 10: 389-397, ill. (k). Doering, K. A con- 
tribution to the Taxonomy of the subfam. Issinae in 
America north of Mexico (Fulgorid.). [Univ. Kansas Sci. 
Bull.] 26: 83-167, ill. (k*). Funkhouser, W. D New 
Peruvian Membracidae. [6] 48: 275-293, ill. Hungerford, 
H. B. Results of the Oxford University Cayman Islands 
Biological Expedition of 1938 (Aquatic Hemiptera). [8] 
76: 255-256. Lindsay, D. R The gen. Norvellina (Cica- 
dell.). [Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 169-213, ill. (k*), 
Sugden, J. W. Characteristics of certain western Cicadas. 
[6] 48: 117-125. Van Duzee, E. P. N. spp. of Hemiptera 
collected by the Templeton Crocker Expedition to the 
Solomon Islands in 1933. [55] 16: 178-192. Wheeler, N. H. 
The North American empoascan leafhoppers of the albo- 
neura group (Cicadellid) [91] 30: 478-483. (k*). 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bell, E. L. Some synonymy in Neo- 
tropical Hesperiidae. [6] 48: 116. Borner, C. Die Grund- 
lagen meines Lepidopterensystems. [Verh. VII Internat. 
Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1372-1424, ill. Braun, A. F. Aster 
and goldenrod seed-feeding spp. of Coleophora. [4] 72: 178, 
182, ill. (*). Breland, O. P. Some parasites and hyper- 
parasites of the Cecropia moth. [6] 48: 259-264. Clarke, 
j F. G. United States records of tropical American 
Lepidoptera. [10] 42: 155-156. Dos Passes, C. F. On the 
occurrence of Papilio polydamas L. within the U. S. [4] 
72: 188. Eggers, F. See under Anatomy. Field, W. D. 

A distributional note on Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiid). 

[103] 13: 114. A distributional note on Heterochroa 
bredowii (Nymphalid). [103] 13: 123. A note on Argynnis 
krautwurmii (Nymphalid). [103] 13: 129. Fox, R. M.- 
A generic review of the Ithomiinae (Nymphalid). [1] 66: 
161-207, ill. (k*). Grimshawe, F. M. Place of Sorrow. 
[Nat. Mag.] 33: 565-567, 611., ill. Hayward, K. J. Migra- 
tion of Colias lesbia (Pierid.) in the Argentine in 1940. 
[9] 73: 222-224. Hesperoidea Argentina XII. [106] 130: 
70-88, ill. (*) Martorell, L. F. Notes on the biology of 
Meso'condyla concordalis and its parasites. [The Caribbean 
Forester] 2: 1 18-19, ill. (s). Sanford, L. J. A new record 
for Connecticut. [6] 48: 244. Atrytone logan. [6] 48: 258. 



Hi, '41 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 27 

Swezey, O. H. N. spp. of Hawaiian Lepidoptera. [37] 10: 
461-465 (k). Williams, J. L. See under Anatomy. 

DIPTERA. Aitken, T. H. G Notes on Aedes nigro- 
maculatus, A. increpitus, and Culex territans in California 
(Culicidae). [10] 42: 142-147, ill. Alexander, C. P.- 
Records and descriptions of Neotropical craneflies, XI. [6] 
48: 105-116. New or little known Tipulidae, LVIII : Neo- 
tropical spp. [75] 194-222, ill. Barbieri, N. A. See under 
Arachnida. Breland, O. P. See under Lepidoptera. Bruch 
& Blanchard. Observaciones biologicas sobre Strobelia 
baccharidis (Trypetid.) y descripcion de dos Himenopteros 
(Chalcid.). [Rev. Mus. de La Plata] 2: 85-98, ill. (*s). 
Cumley, R. W. See under Anatomy. Curran, C. H. 
Some new Neotropical Syrphidae. [40] no. 1086: 14 pp., 
(k). Edwards, F. W. Redefinitions and synonymy of 
some genera of amber fungus-gnats (Mycetophil.) [107] 
B, 9: 120-126. Greene, C. T. Two n. 'spp. of the gen. 
Hermetia (Stratiomyiid.). [10] 42: 150-155, ill. (S). Hal- 
lock, H. C. The Sarcophaginae and their relatives in New 
York. [6] 48: 127-153; 201-231, ill. (k). Hardy, D. E. 
Dorylaidae notes and descriptions (Pipunculid). [103] 13: 
101-114, ill. (*). Hull, F. M. Some n. spp. of Syrphidae. 
[91] 30: 432-434, (S). Malloch, J. R. The North Ameri- 
can genera of the Dipterous subfam. Chamaemyiinae. [75] 
6: 265-274, (k*). Marterell, L. F. (see under Lepidop- 
tera). Melander, A. L. Hilara granditarsis (Empid.), a 
balloon-maker. [5] 47: 55-56. Ryberg, O. See under 
Anatomy. Sabrosky, C. W. Twelve new North American 
spp. of Oscinella (Chloropid.). [4] 72: 214-230, ill. (k). 
Zumpt, F. Das System der Stomoxydinae. Ein Beitrag 
zu schwebenden Fragen der Taxonomie; 2. Vorstudie zu 
einer monographischen Bearbeitung der Stomoxydinae. 
[Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 3: 1723-1733, 
(k). 

COLEOPTERA. Blaisdell, F. E. A n. sp. of Listrus 
from Cajon Pass, California (Melyrid.). [4] 72: 212-213. 
Brown, W. J. Some new and poorly known spp. of Cole- 
optera. [4] 72: 182-187, ill. (k). On the identity of Macro- 
basis unicolor and some allied spp. (Meloid.). [4] 72: 230- 
232, (k). Fiedler, C. Die sudamerikanischen arten der 
gattung Acalles (Cure. Cryptorhynchid.). [Mitt. Munchner 
Ent. Gesell.] 30: 642-667, "ill. (k*). Grensted, L. W. Cis- 
sidae, Cisidae, Cioidae or Ciidae? [8] 76: 145-146. Hatch, M. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

H. Observations on Silphinae with a note on intraspecific 
variations and their designation. [6] 48: 233-244. Hender- 
son, L. S. A revision of the gen. Listronotus (Curculio.). 
LJniv. Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 215-337, ill. (k*). Hinton, 
H. E. A monograph of Gyrelmis gen. n., with a study of 
the variation of the internal anatomy (Elmidae). [36] 90: 
375-409, ill. (Sk*). A synopsis of the gen. Elmoparnus 
(Dryop.). [9] 73: 183-189, ill. (S). A synopsis of the 
Bolivian species of Cylloepus (Elmidae). [75] 6: 393-409, 
ill. (*). Hoffman, C. E. Limnological relationships of 
some northern Michigan Donaciini (Chrysomel.). [Trans. 
Amer. Micro. Soc.] 59: 259-274, ill. Mank, E. W. A n. 
sp. of Haliplus. [5] 47: 57-59, ill. Marshall, G. A. K.- 
Two new West Indian Curculionidae. [8] 76: 175-177. 
Saylor, L. W. Revision of the Scarabaeid beetles of the 
Phyllophagan subgen. Lislrochelus of the U. S., with dis- 
cussion of related stibgenn. [50] 89: 59-130, ill. (k*). 
Schedl, K. E. Zur einteilung und synonymic der Cryphal- 
inae (Scolyt.). [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Gesell.] 30: 583-591, 
ill. Swezey, O. H. Micromalthus debilis in Hawaii. [37] 
10: 459. Thery, A. Bupresti des nouveaux. [75] 6:160- 
169, ill. (S). Y. T. Dos nuevos buprestidos del Peru. 
[Flora y Fauna Peru.] 1 : 18-19. Zimmerman, E. C. On 
the genera of Anobiidae and Ptinidae found in Hawaii. 
[37] 10: 467-470 (k). Revision of the Hawaiian Allecu- 
lidae. [37] 10: 471-476 (k*). A new lowland Neoclytarlus 
from Oahu (Cerambyc.). [37] 10: 479-481. A new Pro- 
terhinus from the Waianae Mis., Hawaii (Aglycyderid.). 
[37] 10: 483-485, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Blanchard, E. E. Apuntes sobre 
Encirtidos Argentines. [106] 130: 106-128, ill. (k*). 
Bradley, J. C. Otras consideraciones sobre las especies 
americanas de Campsomeris (Scoliidae) de coloracion abso- 
lutamente negra. [106] 130: 3-12 (S*). Breland, O. P.- 
See under Lepidoptera. Bruch & Blanchard. See under 
Diptera. Cushman, R. A. A n. sp. of Lissonota (Ichneu- 
mon.). [10] 42: 156-158. Francke-Grosman, H. Beitrage 
zur Kenntnis der Beziehungen unserer Holzwespen zu 
Pilzen. [Verh. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 1120- 
1137, ill. Gosswald, K. Uber den Sozialparasitismus der 
Ameisen. [Verh. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
1149-1155. Hubrich & Bruch. Aus der Biologic argentin- 
ischer Ameisen. [Verh. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 1170-1171. Martorell, L. F. (see under Lepidoplera). 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 29 

Ogloblin, A. A. See tinder Small Orders. D'Rozario, A. 
M. See under Anatomy. Schwarz, H. F. Additional 
species and records of stingless bees (Meliponidae) from 
British Guiana based on specimens collected by the Terry- 
Holden Expedition. [40] no. 1078: 12 pp., ill. (K*). 
Skwarra, E. Sicdler und Siedlungsbedingungen auf 
Ameisenpflanzen. | Verb. VII Internal. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 
2: 1331-1339, ill. Smith, M. R. The identity of the ant 
Camponotus (Myrmentoma) caryae (Fitch). [10] 42: 137- 
141, ill. Walley, G. S. A revision of the Ichneumon-flies 
of the gen. Campoplegidea occurring in America north of 
Mexico. [Scientific, Agriculture] (20) 12: 647-734, ill. (k*). 
Weber, N. A. Rare Ponerine genera in Panama and Brit- 
ish Guiana (Formicid.). [5] 47: 75-84, ill. (*). Weyrauch, 
W. Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Zusammenarbeit bei 
sozialen Insekten, nach Festellungen an Vespa und Doli- 
chovespula. [Verb. VII Internat. Kongr. Ent. Berlin] 2: 
980-984. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Vegetation type maps of Cali- 
fornia and western Nevada. By A. E. Wieslander. Univ. 
of Calif. Press, Berkeley, California. 1932. 



OBITUARY 

The Philadelphia Inquirer for October 10, 1940, carried a 
dispatch from Bedford Hills, New York, of the preceding day, 
that Miss KATHERINE MAYO, best known for her book "Mother 
India," 1927, died at her home that day after a long illness, at 
the age of 72. She was born in Ridgeway, Pennsylvania. 

Miss Mayo spent five years in Surinam extending into 1906. 
Among the letters which Dr. Henry Skinner left at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia are some from 
Miss Mayo and her sister, Miss Gertrude Mayo, of the years 
1906 and 1907, referring to insects which she sent for the 
Academy. In her letter from Paramaribo of May 22, 1906, 
she mentions that she had sent ten boxes by consecutive mails 
since March 29; "All the insects in these boxes have been 
caught here in Paramaribo or in the brush of the immediate 
outskirts." After her return to the United States, she placed 
an advertisement in the Veivs for June and July, r>7 Suri- 
nam insects for sale Apply to Katherine Mavo, Frank ford 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '41 

Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa." It was of this that she wrote from 
Locust, New Jersey, August 22, "I have as many answers, now, 
as I have insects for; so it may be as well to discontinue the 
advertisement." Previously, on July 6, 1907, she wrote of a 
visit to the Academy which "makes me wonder if by any chance 
there might be a place in the Academy that I could apply for." 
Dr. Skinner's reply, not at hand, brought the letter of August 
22 : "I should have liked working at the Academy, but as you 
say and show, the conditions are not exactly practical." P. P. 
CALVERT. 



We regret to notice in recent numbers of Science announce- 
ments of the deaths of the following biologists interested in 
entomology : 

Dr. OTTO EMIL PLATH, professor of biology at Boston Uni- 
versity, on November 5, 1940, in his fifty-sixth year. His 
papers and book on the biology of bumble bees are well known. 

Miss GRACE ADELBERT SANDHOUSE, of the U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, specialist in identification 
of bees and wasps, on November 9, 1940, aged forty-four years. 
Her memoir on the North American Bees of the genus Osmia 
was reviewed in the News just a year ago. 

Dr. JOHN PATTILLO TURNER, assistant professor of zoology 
at the University of Minnesota, on November 11, 1940, in his 
thirty-ninth year. A paper on the black widow spider in a 
Minnesota winter was contributed by him to the News for 
December, 1939. 

Dr. F. W. EDWARDS, since 1937 deputy keeper of entomology 
at the British Museum of Natural History, on November 15, 
1940, at the age of ,forty_-sjx years. He was well-known for 
his work on the Diptera, especially the Nematocera, and was 
joint leader of the British Museum Ruwenzori Expedition of 
1934-35 to the high mountains of British East Africa. 

Prof. CHARLES WILLIAM WOODWORTH, emeritus professor 
of entomology at the University of California, on November 
19, 1940, in his seventy-sixth year. An obituary notice by 
E. O. Essig is in Science for December 20, 1940. He had 
recently been elected an honorary fellow of the Entomological 

Society of America. 

< 

Entomological News for December, 1940, was mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office on December 20, 1940. 



This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not lor 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 
not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 



These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and, only when necessary those at the top (being 
ongest in) are discontinued. 



Wanted. Nitidulidae for determination or exchange. Correspondence 
desired with those who will collect. H. R. Dodge, 78 Anne Street, 
Ointonville, Wisconsin. 

Wanted. To hear from specialists who would care to determine 
some family of insects for a share of the duplicates. We have many 
specimens, especially in some families of Diptera and Hymenoptera. 
H. E. Jaques, Iowa Insect Survey, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. 

Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae),of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Casilla 852, La Paz, Bolivia, 
S. America. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
Benito, Texas. 

Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
of Michigan Platysamia Columbia, that will emerge June, 1941. W. 
S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Michigan. 

Wanted Specimens of the genus Trox from North America. Will 
exchange or determine for duplicate material. Mark Robinson, 231 
Cherry St., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes, T. halesus 
and E. jucunda to exchange for fauna from other localities. H. W. 
Eustis, 2230 McDowell St., Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 



FOR SALE The fine Collection of C. W. Herr, consisting of 

1230 Tropical, and 2950 North American Lepidoptera, 
all expanded, also over 900 papered American specimens. 

All specimens named. 
MRS. C. W. HERR, Woodburn Oregon. 



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The volumes already published since 1931 comprise thousands of 
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Edwards, W. Horn, E. Lindner, J. W. S. Macfie, E. Martini, A. da Costa 
Lima, F. Silvestri, C. Menozzi, A. Reichensperger, F. Santschi, J. D. 
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non-economic) of the neotropical fauna. 

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A quarterly journal of general entomology published by the Pacific 
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but is in no way confined to that region. The systematic and biological 
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morphology, life history, and distribution. 

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Scarce Literature Now Available 

Contributions which appeared in the various publications of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia often have been 
unprocurable by students on account of the rarity of separata, 
which in years past were not retained for sale by the Academy. 
Nearly all papers published since 1880, however, are now avail- 
able and can be obtained from the Academy at moderate prices. 
In addition excerpts of nearly all other papers which appeared 
in the" Proceedings " or " Journal " since 1860 can be supplied. 

Our price lists of entomological and other publications now 
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ATTENTION 
WORKING ENTOMOLOGISTS 

We would call your attention to the increasing scarcity 
of many of the publications of The American Entomological 
Society, and advise you to obtain those desired before the 
publisher is unable to supply them, at least at the present 
prices. This refers to contributions published in the Proceed- 
ings of The Entomological Society of Philadelphia and in the 
Transactions of The American Entomological Society. We 
will be glad to give you prices on any available if you send 
us your desiderata, stating authors, volume and pagination. 
We also have a large number of entomological papers pub- 
lished in other journals, duplicated in the Society's library. 
In submitting your want list in this line, give order, author, 
journal, volume,, pagination and date. Address: 

The American Entomological Society, 1900 Race Street. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Subscriptions for 1941 are now due 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



FEBRUARY, 1941 



Vol. LII & N - No. 2 

~ M: W* 

_ 

CONTENTS 

Westfall, Jr. Notes on Florida Odonata .............. 31 

Pate A Synonymical Note on Crabro (Blepharipus) davidsoni Sand- 

house (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae: Pemphilidini) ........ 34 

Cresson New Genera and Species of North American Ephydridae 

(Diptera). . . ...................... 35 

Blake Ants Preying on Termites (Hymen.: Formicidae; Isoptera: 

Rhinotermitidae) ...................... 38 

Jones Futher Notes on Snail-collecting Aphis-lion Larva (Neuroptera: 

Chrysopidae) . ..... .... .......... 39 

Fox A New Opisodasys from Idaho (Siphonaptera: Dolichopsyllidae) . 45 
Abbott Modification of the Behavior of Dragonfly Nymphs with 

Excised Labia (Odonata) .................. 47 

Freeman A New Species of Amblyscirtes from Texas (Lepidoptera, 

Rhopalocera, Hesperiidae) ................. 50 

Hayes A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of Immature 

Insects. Part II. Odonata. . . .............. 52 

Current Entomological Literature .................. 56 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII FEBRUARY, 1941 No 2. 

Notes on Florida Odonata. 

By M. J. WESTFALL, JR., Baker Museum, Rollins College, 
Winter Park, Florida. 
(Continued from page 18) 

TRAMEA LACERATA. While at Sanibel from December 27, 
1939, to January 1, 1940, I saw two mating pairs and one 
single male of T. laccrata. The single specimen remained 
around the camp for two days and could have been collected 
if the sling shot had not broken. After having collected this 
species during the summer in North Carolina, there was no 
difficulty in identifying it in the field, as the general black 
coloration is very distinct. 

ARGIA BIPUNCTULATA. This species had been very un- 
common in our collection until the Spring of 1939. During 
the previous Spring I found a few at a roadside ditch in 
Orange County and collected 17 specimens on April 24, 1938. 
On May 13, 1939, over a hundred specimens, both male and 
female, were taken in a marshy area surrounding a very small 
pond which was nearly dry and not more than fifty feet across. 
Later many more were seen in the same place. In another 
similar locality about ten miles distant they were also found 
on May 14, but only a few were seen. Spaghnum moss seemed 
to be characteristic of the localities where this species occurred. 

ARGIA TIBIALIS. In central Florida this damselfly has been 
very rare in our experience. We have collected only one male 
in this vicinity, this being taken April 4, 1937, in Seminole 
County. In Nassau County, however, it was one of the com- 
monest of the Zygoptera in the summer of 1939, being common 
everywhere I collected. 

ENALLAGMA DURUM. On the flood plains of the St. John's 
River many of these large Enallagmas have been collected. For 
this part of the state, this is our only locality record except for 
a single male which I collected on a lake in Winter Park. In 
May, 1939, I visited the above mentioned plains and found . 

31 



FEB24 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

durum very common on a large Indian mound. There was a 
strong breeze blowing and they were found around thorn 
bushes which grew on the mound, and stayed on the side away 
from the wind. By going from one thorn bush to another 
more than a hundred of these Enallagmas were collected in a 
short time, one swing of the net catching three of them on 
several occasions. 

E. LAURENTI. In the late afternoon of November 15, 1939, 
a friend and I collected E. laurenti on a Winter Park lake 
from a canoe, using swatters almost entirely. These damsels 
were so common on the lily pads that four times as I struck at 
one another appeared so that two were taken at one swat. In 
a little over an hour we took 90 specimens, all but one of which 
were males. 

E. SULCATUM. A number of collectors have been quite de- 
lighted to receive this species from us. Certainly it is one of 
our commonest Enallagmas here, since in an afternoon it is 
no task to collect over a hundred around one small lake while 
collecting various other species. 

E. POLLUTUM and SIGNATUM. We have found since the 
paper on "Odonata at Winter Park, Florida," by E. M. Davis 
and J. A. Fluno was published in 1938, that our common Enal- 
lagma here is E. pollutum. Around the lakes and on the 
Wekiwa River they are abundant most of the year. Only 
about five specimens of signatum have been taken here. In 
Nassau County, a little more than 150 miles north of us, this 
situation seems to be reversed, and while catching several 
hundred signatum which fairly swarmed over the water at 
Boggy Creek and elsewhere, very few specimens of pollutum 
were taken. 

E. DUBIUM. Also in Nassau County while making a swoop 
for an E. weewa, a male of E. dubium came along just in time 
to be caught in the net. On June 7, 1940, I collected three 
more males at this same station. On September 11, 1940, a 
number of males were collected, as well as four mating pairs. 
Females were found just emerging. On the previous day I 
stopped at Satilla Creek in Bacon County, Georgia, where I 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 33 

had taken a pair of dubium a year earlier. At about 9:30 
A. M., I began searching for this species. About an hour later 
the males began to appear, but were not collected. Then about 
noon the females began appearing, and the pairs in tandem 
began alighting on floating vegetation where the females de- 
posited the eggs. Sixteen pairs were quite easily taken. The 
place where this species was found was along the roadside 
ditch into which Satilla Creek backs. The creek is bordered 
by a swampy area with a number of cypress trees in sight. 
The water is quite deep and dark. 

E. CONCISUM. This brilliant red and black damselfly has 
been uncommon here in the past, but was collected at almost 
every lake visited in Central Florida during the Spring and 
Fall of 1939. Certainly it was far from being uncommon, 
especially at the lakes with dead grass extending out into the 
water for some distance. They seemed to like to stay on this 
grass as far from the shore as possible, so that one usually 
waded in the water to collect them. Some were also collected 
in Nassau County. 

E. WEEWA. In March, 1935, one male of this species was 
collected on the Wekiwa River by Mr. E. M. Davis. Then I 
took another male in the same locality in May, 1939. No other 
specimens were taken by us until September 13, 1939, when 
I found them very abundant at certain points in Nassau County. 
They were first found at a small stream about five miles south 
of the Florida-Georgia state line. Also I collected them at a 
stream on the Nassau-Duval County line. Over 100 specimens, 
male and female, were taken in a short time. Three males 
were also collected in the same place on June 7, 1940. The 
streams where E. weewa was so abundant were small, flowing 
through low woods, which were overflowed by high water. The 
bottom was sandy, and the water quite dark, forming deep 
pools in some places. Over these pools E. weewa hovered as 
if motionless, then moved leisurely up and down the extent 
of the pool, hesitating here and there in mid-air. E. cardcnium 
was present and at first was confused with weewa, but soon 
could be distinguished from the latter by the heavier build of the 
body and different flight. I believe E. weewa may be more 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

common on the Wekiwa than the two records indicate, but that 
the few individuals are lost in the host of cardenium. 

TELEALLAGMA (ENALLAGMA) DAECKII. We have never 
taken this species in central or southern Florida, but on June 
7, 1940, I collected nine mating pairs in Nassau County. They 
were all taken at one station, in a grassy area at the edge of 
a creek which was almost dry. 

ISCHNURA KELLICOTTI. With a swatter this species is taken 
in large numbers on the local lakes, where it flies from one lily 
pad to another with a quick, nervous movement unlike that of 
any other of the Zygoptera with which I am familiar. Almost 
every lake with lily pads had its share of them during the 
Spring and Fall of 1939, males, and' both homochromatic and 
heterochromatic females. In a couple hours to collect a hundred 
specimens of /. keltic otti, together with additional specimens 
of other species, was not a difficult task with a swatter at one 
lake where I collected. 



A Synonymical Note on Crabro (Blepharipus) davidsoni 
Sandhouse (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae: Pemphilidini). 

During a recent visit to the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
at Cambridge, Mr. Nathan Banks called my attention to a 
species he described in 1921 as Blepharipus parkeri (Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer., XIV, p. 17), and inquired if it was not the same 
as that which Miss Grace A. Sandhouse named Crabro (Bleph- 
aripus} davidsoni in 1938 (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., XXXI, p. 1). 
Comparison of the type of Banks' parkeri, described from a 
series of females taken at Lexington, Massachusetts, with 
material of Crabro (Blepharipus} davidsoni, indicates that the 
two are indubitably one and the same species. Miss Sand- 
house's name must therefore be recorded as a synonym of 
Banks' earlier Blepharipus parkeri. Crossocerus (Blephari- 
pus} parkeri (Banks), which nests in old stumps and rotting 
logs, provisioning its galleries therein with a diverse assort- 
ment of leafhoppers, is a rather common and widely distributed 
form throughout the New England, Middle Atlantic, and North 
Central states. Davidson, for whom Miss Sandhouse named the 
species, and Landis presented an excellent account of its biology 
in 1938 (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., XXXI, pp. 5-8). V. S. L. 
PATE, Cornell University. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 35 

New Genera and Species of North American 
Ephydridae (Diptera). 

By EZRA T. CRESSON, Jr., Associate Curator, Dept. of Insects, 

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Discocerina flavipes new species. 

Whether this is a variety or subspecies of obscurella, or a 
distinct species, is difficult to determine at present. Its simi- 
larity to the Neotropical nitidiventris Hendel, the narrow-cheek 
form of obscurella, is apparent, differing only, it seems, in 
having the legs entirely yellow. In all the material I have seen 
of obscurella from North America, the femora are dark with 
at most their apices showing some dilution. In the present 
form the legs, including the coxae, are entirely yellow, although 
the femora may show some infuscation on the posterior sur- 
faces. In other respects the characters are those of that form 
of obscurella with narrow parafacies and cheeks. 

Very similar to obscurella but the legs mostly yellow; para- 
facies very narrow and conspicuously pale and show little or 
no dilatation ventrad. Tergite V of the male seems to be no 
more shining than IV and is sometimes not at all shining. 

Type. ; Bakersfield, CALIFORNIA, September 4, 1898; 
[A. N. S. P., no. 6607] l . Paratypes 2 $ , 1 9 ; with same 
data. 

HELAEOMYIA new genus. 

Genotype: Psilopa pctrolei Coquillett, 2898. 

This interesting insect, the "Petroleum fly," cannot well be 
retained in Psilopa. nor will it more comfortably go in Mima- 
psilopa Cresson nor Clasiopella Hendel. 

The face is somewhat gently convex and bifoveate, with two 
rather stout facials on each side, occupying the lower third of 
facial profile. The antennal spine is short and the third seg- 
ment but slightly elongate and not conoid. 
Helaeomyia californica new species. 

Very similar to the European Psilopa nitidula (Eallcn) in 
the color pattern of the legs, but the strong general setation 
and the strong second facial, places it near Psilopa dimidiata 
(Cresson), another member of the genus. 

1 This material was given me by Dr. C. W. Woodworth of the Uni- 
versity of California, in 1908. 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

Fore legs entirely black; antennae black with base of third 
segment slightly diluted. Yellow: apices of mid and hind 
femora, entire mid and hind tibiae and their tarsi except apices. 
Halteres white. Wing slightly dusky with some veins pale; 
posterior crossvein distinctly clouded. Shining, without any 
metallic reflections. 

Setation strongly developed. Head broader than high; dis- 
tinctly higher than long. Fronto-facial profile rather straight, 
oblique from anterior ocellus to mid face, with vertex rounded ; 
Frons about .6 width of head, twice as broad as long; cellars 
about as far apart as are the posterior ocelli; frontorbital 
aligned with frontal and well removed mesad. Face about .3 
width of head, scarcely twice as long as broad ; rather strongly 
convex but not gibbous in profile; foveal sulci slightly indi- 
cated ; upper facial almost at mid profile, cruciate ; second 
bristle one-half as long ; one to two setae ventrad. Cheek about 
as broad as third antennal segment; buccal very long. An- 
tennal spine as long as third segment ; arista with six hairs. 

Mesonotal setulae rather distinctly seriated; prescutellar rec- 
tangle, quadrate. Scutellum flat. Abdomen elongate-ovate; 
tergite V of male not longer than IV; genital segment well 
developed. 

Fore coxae with weak lateral marginal setae; fore femur 
minutely serrulated on antero-flexor margin. Vein II but 
slightly curving into costa ; second costal section slightly longer 
than third. 

Length, 2 mm. 

Type. Male; Davis, CALIFORNIA; June 9, 1936; (R. M. 
Bohart; sweeping lawn grass); [A. N. S. P., no. 6608] 2 . 
Paratypes. 1 female ; with same data. 1 9 ; Eldridge, Sonoma 
County, California; October 25, 1915; (J. A. Kusche). 
MIMAPSILOPA new genus. 

Genotype: Clasiopella metatarsata Cresson, 1939. 

Much like the Indo-Malayan Clasiopella Hendel, 1914, in 
the form of the antennae, but the arrangement of the facials 
simulates that of Helaeomyia Cresson and in this respect ap- 
proaches Leptopsilopa. 

Strongly setose species with long antannal spine and conoid 
third segment. Face distinctly convex medianly, the facials 
well separated and occupying the lower half or three-fifths of 

2 This type was placed in the Collection of the Academy by Dr. A. L. 
Melander, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 37 

the facial profile. 

Hydrellia bergi new species. 

Very similar to H. subnitens Cresson, 1931 in possessing 
such a conspicuous genital segment, but it has the legs includ- 
ing the tarsi, entirely black. 

Black, including antennae and tarsi; palpi and genital seg- 
ment, orange or yellow. Halteres lemon yellow. Wings with 
black veins. 

Frons almost opaque black, its areas but slightly differenti- 
ated. Face sericeous, yellow to golden; lunule more whitish; 
cheeks and occiput cinereous. Mesonotum including humeri 
and notopleura and scutellum, black with very sparse gray or 
brownish vestitun , almost shining; pleura cinerous especially 
ventrad but becon.ing darker dorsad and on metanotum. Ab- 
domen opaque black, becoming more shining and sparsely 
einerous laterad and apicad; ventral lobes cinereous. Legs 
somewhat cinereous 

Head scarcely broader than high. Frons strongly transverse; 
ocellars rather weak. Face more than one-fourth width of 
head, about twice as long as broad, evenly convex in profile, not 
definitely carinate ; facial series of about six fine bristles, extend 
well dorsad; parafacies linear almost to postbucca. Cheeks 
about as broad as third antennal segment. Arista with about 
six hairs. 

Mesonotal bristles and setulae rather well developed and the 
latter not numerous ; antesutural dorsocentral about as strong 
as postsutural one with an intermediate seta, and a second 
postsutural dorsocentral sometimes well developed. Abdomen 
ovate; tergites III to V of male long, subequal in length, the 
latter trigonal; genital segment large, always visible, the large 
pale protegen being most conspicuous. 

Legs slender with rather strong setation. Wings elongate, 
with costa II not much longer than III. 

Length, 2.2 mm. 

Type. Male ; Nigger Creek, Cheboygan County, MICHIGAN ; 
June 27, 1940; (C. C. Berg); [U. S. N. M.]. Paratytvs.- 
1 $ ; 1 9 ; Douglas Lake, Cheboygan Co., Michigan; July 5, 
1940; (C. C. Berg). 1 9 ; Cheboygan County, Michigan, 
June 25, 1940; (C. C. Berg). 
Hydrellia johnsoni new species. 

Very similar to H. tibialis Cresson, 1917, but entirely opaque 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

to subopaque. The frons uniformly opaque, almost velvety- 
black, but the mesofrons sometimes slightly differentiated in 
extreme dorsal aspect. Antennae entirely opaque black. Meso- 
notum, scutellum and abdomen concolorous, almost truly opaque, 
with tendency to gray or brownish; pleura more cinereous, as 
are also the coxae. Second costal section slightly longer than 
third. 

Type. Male; New Mill Pond, Mt. Desert, MAINE; July 25, 
1935 ; (William Procter) ; [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., no. 
6609] . 3 Paratypes. 8 $ , 6 9 ; with same data. 



Ant3 Preying on Termites (Hymen.: Formicidae; 
Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), 

In spite of the ease with which the capture of swarming 
termites by ants might, supposedly, be observed, there seems 
to be only one record extant for North America This is of an 
unnamed species taken in Louisiana by Iridomyrmex huntilis. 

This spring at Lincoln, Massachusetts, I was able to observe 
the following six ants taking alates of Reticulitermes flavipes'. 
Crcmatogastcr lineolata, Aphaenogaster fulva acquia, Lasius 
niger alienus var. americanus, Formica rufa Integra, F. neo- 
gagates, and F. pallidefulva nitidiventris. This is, so far, the 
roll of termitharpactic ants in North America. 

Wheeler (1936, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., 71: 159-243) 
has excellently summarized the ecological relations of ants to 
termites. On pp. 178 and 179 he distinguishes five relation- 
ships : (1) termitharpagy or predation, (2) cleptobiosis or 
theft of termite prey from termitharpactic ants, which is really 
an ant to ant relationship, (3) lestobiosis or theft of termite 
brood by ants, (4) plesiobiosis or utilization of termitaries by 
ants, (5) termitoxeny or friendly residence in the termite- 
inhabited part of the termitary. Termitharpagy has been con- 
sidered and cleptobiosis is not yet recorded for this, continent. 
Wheeler lists four North American termitolestic ants. His 
fourth category is represented in North America by, at least, 
an occasional colony of Or emato garter lineolata and probably 
of Camponotus castaneus americanus. Termitoxenic ants are 
not known, in the New World. CHARLES H. BLAKE, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 

'The type of this species has been placed in the Academy's Collection 
by Mr. Procter. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 39 

Further Notes on the Snail-collecting Aphis-lion 
Larva (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). 

By DAVID T. JONES, M.S., Ph.D., Associate Professor 
Zoology, University of Utah. 

IDENTIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION AND SNAILS CARRIED. 

Recently Dr. Roger C. Smith of Kansas State College, has 
examined the wing-venation of the snail-collecting aphis-lion, 
the larva of which has been previously described (Jones, 1929). 
He has tentatively identified it as Nodita virginica (Fitch). 
The specimen was collected two miles north of Bloomington, 
Indiana, but was in the pupal stage. After some time the 
adult emerged and the wings were mounted. These were later 
photographed by Calvin A. Richins of the University of Utah. 

In addition to the above, I am indebted to the following for 
aid in the study of this species: Prof. H. R. Eggleston, Dr. 
R. G. Guthrie, Roy Ash, Ralph Alexander, and Paul Crone 
of Marietta College, Ohio; Adrienne Satterfield (now Mrs. 
Huston Newman) of West Union, Ohio; Dr. Fernandus Payne 
and Dr. A. C. Kinsey of Indiana University; Dr. Carl J. 
Drake and Dr. E. R. Becker of Iowa State College; Dr. R. V. 
Chamberlin and Dr. Don M. Rees of the University of Utah; 
and the officials of the Smithsonian Division of the Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Historically, the first mention that I have found of such a 
snail-carrying aphis-lion larva is that of Banks (1905) who 
erroneously placed it in the Hemerobiid, rather than in the 
Chrysopid family, as Smith (1926) later confirms. No locality 
record was given. I quote this first mention by Banks. "The 
larvae of Hemerobius appear to be much less known than 
allied forms; I have not bred any, but a larva given me by 
Mr. Schwarz probably belongs to this genus; it has a broader 
head, a shorter body than Chrysopa; and the lateral processes 
of the thorax are very long; this specimen was taken among 
fallen leaves and carried the empty shells of several small 
molluscs." Smith (1926) lists no snail-carrying larvae in his 
very fine discussion of trash-carrying Chrysopid larvae. The 
author (1929) described the external features of the larva now 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

under consideration, giving two localities: Vinton County, 
Ohio, approximately seven miles west of Albany, which is about 
twelve miles east of McArthur; and Squaw Hollow, near 
Marietta, Ohio. The numbers, unreported therein, were from 
these localities respectively: five, which were preserved; and 
one, which escaped. Subsequent to this publication one more 
living specimen was taken at Squaw Hollow. Observations 
have recently been made (Archer, 1938) on a similar Chry- 
sopid, perhaps not the same species, in North Carolina and 
Alabama. He found only four specimens, one from each of 
the following four localities: Hayesville, North Carolina; 
Robbinsville Road in the northwest of Macon County, North 
Carolina; Clay, Jefferson County, Alabama; and Fort Payne, 
DeKalb County, Alabama. Archer reports the following 
species of snails carried : Retinella indentata paucilirata, Reti- 
nella indentata carolinensis wetherbyi, Polygyra rugeli juve- 
niles, Hawaiia minuscula, Euconulus sterkii, Euconulus chersi- 
nus, and Vertigo gouldii. Two insect crania were also listed. 
As this paragraph contains all the literature resulting from a 
search of over ten years, it is evident that the literature is as 
meager, as the specimens are rare.* 

During this time, however, the following locality records 
have accumulated for this species: Athens County, Ohio, 
midway, between Torch and Coolville, five live specimens and 
two dead specimens ; Meigs County, Ohio, two miles northeast 
of Rock Springs, near Chester, one live specimen; Morgan 
County, Ohio, on Turkey Run, one mile west of Stockport, one 
pupal case with snails intact, from which the adult insect had 
emerged; Adams County, Ohio, at Hill's Fork on the Pan- 
handle Road, one living specimen; and Bloomington, Indiana, 
two live specimens, and one pupa from which the adult emerged, 
the wings of which are mentioned above. 

The snails carried on the Ohio and Indiana specimens are of 
the following species : Punctum pygmaeum ( Drap. ) , Euconulus 

* Since this paper was submitted, Dr. Roger C. Smith has called 
attention to my overlooking the article by Gordon K. MacMillan. 
January, 1939, A snail, "taxi." Naut. Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 94-95. He 
thinks that the specimens Mr. MacMillan has are "unquestionably 
Chrysopid" rather than Hemerobiid. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 41 

fulvus (Muller) Striatura milium (Morse) ; Carychium exi- 
guuin (Say), Strobilops labyrinthica (Say), and Cochlicopa 
lubrica (Muller). The first two seem to be favorites, as they are 
chosen far more often than the proportion in which these 
species occur in the natural fauna. Fragments of insect skele- 
tons are also often used. 

BEHAVIOR, LOCOMOTION, TROPISMS AND FEEDING. 

The following observations on behavior chiefly of the Athens 
County specimens are submitted. Animals mechanically 
prodded "play possum", recovering in from ten to fifteen 
seconds if undisturbed. In walking there is a peculiar "feel- 
ing" or exploratory movement every few steps by the piercing 
spears. The animals at room temperature attained the follow- 
ing speeds in walking for thirty second periods: 11 cm. (in- 
cluding stops), 10 cm. (including stops), 16 cm., 16 cm., and 
16 cm. The last three were non-stop promenades. While the 
leg action is ordinary (the first and third femora on one side 
moving in the same direction, while the second on the same 
side is moving in the opposite direction), they have a "hitch- 
ing" stride. The spears can be approximated, and frequently 
are, when the animal stops. The animal stops "jeep-like", 
with head down and flattened against the table, the hind legs 
elevated thus raising the abdomen. 

When turned over on their backs, they somersault to regain 
the upright position instead of turning sidewise. Sometimes 
they somersault spears first. At other times they recover by 
placing the last pair of legs down first and then flopping over. 

They dislike excess moisture. They prefer a rather dry 
habitat of dead leaves. They choose dry instead of wet or 
moist surfaces. When placed in the light they turn and travel 
in the other direction. The more intense the light, the faster 
they travel, seeking darkness or at least shade. They respond 
negatively to heat, avoiding the warm dry hand or finger. They 
travel with equal facility on all inclines. They travel as easily 
vertically downward as vertically upward. When a vertical 
plane is placed at right angles to their course, they go up over 
it, rather than crawling along the junction of the plane with 
the table. In this they appear to be negatively thigmotropic, 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

unlike the positively thigmotropic trash-carrying Chrysopid 
larvae reported by Smith (1926). However, under certain 
circumstances, there is positive thigmotropism. They tend to 
wedge into crevices. Also they are very uncomfortable when 
divested of their cloak of shells, as described below. Smith 
found this also to be true with his trash-carriers, none of which 
are mentioned as snail-carriers. 

One evening Dr. Guthrie, Roy Ash, and the author, care- 
fully pulled the snails off the backs of two specimens and placed 
them in dirt containing many Strobilops labyrinthica and other 
small snails from the Lawrence Church region, Washington 
County, Ohio. As soon as they found themselves divested of 
their cloaks, they became frantic, rushing around and seizing 
the first objects available. One secured a lump of dirt, 
one Carychium, and one Enconulus and fixed them on its 
back. The other secured a large juvenile shell of Cochlicopa 
lubrica and a piece of dirt for its new cloak. After fastening 
these first objects on their backs, they behaved more leisurely. 
The next morning, however, they were so overloaded with 
small snails that each could walk only with difficulty. 

At this time the one Cochlicopa and the Euconulus mentioned 
above were seen to be living but they were withdrawn within 
their shells. This observation was made under a binocular, 
without removing the snails from the backs of the "snail-lions". 
The burdens of snails of each larva suspiciously and gradually 
disappeared during the next few days, after which most of the 
shells, including the two mentioned above, were found to be 
empty. These suspicions were confirmed later, both at Mari- 
etta College and at Indiana University, when living insects 
were seen to remove living snails from their burden, thrust 
the long sucking spears within the aperture into the body of 
the snail. The snails soon were deflated, much as the ordinary 
aphis-lions deflate plant lice. These observations change our 
concept of the burden. It is a "pantry" as well as a "cloak" 
and a "graveyard". However, the last hardly applies, for after 
the feast, the shell was more often discarded than replaced on 
the back, especially if a fresh supply of small snails were 
available. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 43 

FIXATION OF SHELLS AND HIBERNATION. 

It is very interesting to watch a larva "fix" a snail on its 
back. The larva seizes the snail shell between the curved 
sucking spears, as one would pick up an object with pincers. 
Both abdomen and head are elevated, by raising the third and 
first pairs of legs respectively, while the mesothoracic region 
is lowered, by widely spreading the second pair of legs. This 
allows the head to be thrown straight back and the abdomen 
to be elevated, at times almost to the vertical. The shell still 
clasped by the sucking-spear pincers is placed among the 
hooked hairs on the back, and worked back-and-forth only for 
a very short time, after which it sticks. The animal is so 
small, and the process completed so quickly, that it is difficult 
to observe with hand lens or binocular. Moreover, the animal 
goes through the process rarely while being watched, and never 
when you would like to have it thus perform. If the shells 
after "fixation" are removed and examined under the binocular, 
fine silk-like strands can be observed to be plastered over their 
surface. I think that spinnerets on the tip of the elevated 
abdomen secrete the semi-fluid silk, which quickly dries on the 
shell and elsewhere hardens to form strands, which when the 
shell is worked back-and-forth, engage the hooked hairs on 
the back. However, I have yet to observe the silk being 
secreted. The whole process of "fixing" a shell can be com- 
pleted in less than thirty seconds. The thoracic pedicels, the 
bristles of which are not hooked, serve as a "hay-rack" to 
support the overhanging portions of the burden. These have 
been previously described in detail (Jones, 1929). Some of 
the larger snails have been observed to escape from the cloak 
of the Squaw Hollow specimen. They continued to live quite 
normally, outliving the insect. 

Attempts to raise the larvae in captivity have all resulted in 
eventual failure, though some have been kept for several weeks 
in a jar filled partially with dry leaves, screened over the top. 
Such a jar kept during the winter indoors at room temperature 
yielded the following observations at Marietta College. A drop 
of water occasionally had to be inserted to relieve excessive 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

dryness. It was cautiously avoided, however, by the larvae 
which would crawl back among the dry leaves. Excessive 
humidity is to be avoided, as moulds tend to accumulate and 
the larvae die. In the latter part of November the larvae curl 
the edges of the leaves and hibernate. This is probably much 
later than hibernation under natural conditions as the room 
was quite warm. I uncoiled the leaf a few times and found 
they were using little or no silk in the construction of their 
"nest". As they coiled the leaves tighter finally, I decided to 
let them alone until Spring. Then I found nothing by frag- 
ments of the pupae and of wings too shattered for identifica- 
tion. Also some white oval eggs were present, but were so 
dry and brittle that they shattered. At Indiana University the 
successful emergence of the adult from the pupal case occurred 
so early in the morning that it was unobserved. Shortly after 
its emergence I found it on the underside of the screen cover- 
ing the jar. The body of the adult was still soft, moist, and 
light-colored. So eager was I to secure the wings for vena- 
tion-study that I killed the creature before the body attained 
maturity of color and rigidity. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ARCHER, A. F. 1938. An insect "Xenophora". Nautilus, 
Vol. 51, p. 105. 

BANKS, NATHAN. 1905. A revision of the Nearctic Heme- 
robiidae. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. Vol. 31 (32), No. 1, 
pp. 21-51. (examined, but now unavailable.) 

DEWITZ, H. 1884 (1885). Die Angelhaaren der Chrysopo- 
denlarven. Biol. Centralb. Bd. 4, S. 722-723. (unavailable.) 

JONES, DAVID T. 1929. A snail-collecting aphis-lion larva. 
A preliminary study of external features. Marietta Coll. Re- 
search Public., Vol. 1, No. 1, 9 pp., 3 plates. The Science 
Press, Lancaster, Penn. (Yet obtainable from the author, 818 
East 5th St., Vinton, Iowa or from Prof. H. R. Eggleston, 
Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio.) 

SMITH, ROGER C. 1926. The trash-carrying habit of certain 
lace wing larvae. Sci, Monthly, Vol. 23, pp. 265-267. 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 45 

A New Opisodasys from Idaho (Siphonaptera: 
Dolichopsyllidae). 

By IRVING Fox, Washington, D. C. 

The following new species of Opisodasys Jordan (1933, p. 
72) is named in honor of Dr. W. L. Jellison, who has re- 
cently (1939) redescribed the other known species of the genus. 
In that paper and in another recently published by Jordan 
(1939, p. 316), the male of O. robustus (Jordan) is described, 
and is shown to be the same as that of O. spatiosus I. Fox 
(1940, p. 65). Hence the latter name falls as a synonym of 

0. robustus. 

Through the courtesy of the authorities of the United States 
National Museum, the writer has had the opportunity to study 
the collections in their charge which include determined speci- 
mens of O. enoplus (Rothschild) and O. robustus, and type 
material of the following species: O. pseudarctomys (Baker), 
male and female; O. keeni (Baker), male and two females; 
and 0. vesperalis (Jordan), male and female. Since specimens 
of all the known species of the genus have been available for 
study, it has been possible to devise a key to aid in the determi- 
nation of the males. The type species of the genus is Cerato- 
phyllus vesperalis Jordan (1929, p. 28), by original designation. 
KEY TO THE SPECIES OF OPISODASYS JORDAN (MALES ONLY). 

1. Sternal plate VIII broad basally, truncate distally, 

O. jellisoni, n. sp. 
Sternal plate VIII narrow basally, not truncate distally.. 2 

2. Process of clasper bifurcate 3 

Process of clasper not bifurcate 4 

3. Lobes of process of clasper subequal. . . .O. pseudarctomys 
Posterior lobe of process much shorter than anterior, 

O. vesperalis 

4. Uppermost spiniform bristle of movable finger elbowed near 

base, not straight, apex directed upward. .O. robustus 

Uppermost spiniform bristle of movable finger not elbowed, 

straight or with apex directed downward 5 

5. Sternal plate VIII with an apical bristle O. keeni 

Sternal plate VIII without an apical bristle. . . .O. enoplus 



46 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Feb., '41 



Opisodasys jellisoni, n. sp. (Figs. 1, 2, 3.). 

$ . Preantennal region of head with two rows of bristles ; 
upper row consisting of seven bristles, lower row of three 
much longer ones. Post-antennal region with three bristles, 
in addition to a marginal row of five. Labial palpus almost 
reaching to apex of fore coxa, acuminate distally. Pronotal 
comb consisting of about 21 spines. Mesopleural suture with 
one bristle, mesepimeron with three bristles. Supraepisternum 
with one bristle, infraepisternum with three bristles; metepi- 
meron with two bristles. Modified segments. Movable finger, 
process of clasper and sternal plate VIII as shown in Fig. 1. 
Penis long and slender, spring short not completing a turn. 




Fig. 1. Opisodasys jellisoni, n. sp., process of clasper, movable finger 
and sternal plate VIII of male. 

Fig. 2. Idem, receptaculum seminis and sternal plate VII of female 
allotype. 

Fig. 3. Idem, sternal plate VII of female paratype. 

$ . Chaetotaxy of head and thorax not well shown by speci- 
mens available. Bristles of upper preantennal row reduced, 
some of them absent. Labial palpus not acuminate distally. 
Mesepisternum and mesepimeron each with four bristles. 
Supraepisternum with one bristle; metepimeron with three 
bristles. Sternal plate VII showing variation in depth of sinus. 
In the holotype the sternal plate VII has the shape shown in 
Fig. 2; while in a paratype it has the shape shown, in Fig. 3. 

Type host and type locality. Flying squirrel, Glaucomys 
sabrinns bangsi at Deer Park, Boise, Idaho, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 47 

Type material. Male holotype and female allotype from 
Glaucomys sabrinus bangsi at Deer Park, Boise, IDAHO, col- 
lected December 15-18, 1939, by W. H. Marshall; in the United 
States National Museum. Type.U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 54259. 
Male and female paratypes bearing the same data in the 
Author's private collection. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

Fox, IRVING. 1940. Notes on North American Dolichop- 
syllid Siphonaptera, Wash. Ent. Soc. Proc. 42 : 64-68, illus. 

JELLISON, WILLIAM L. 1939. Opisodasys Jordan 1933, a 
genus of Siphonaptera. Jour. Parasitol. 25 : 413-420, illus. 

JORDAN, KARL. 1929. Notes on North American fleas. Novi- 
tates Zool. 35: 28-39, illus. 

ID. 1933. A survey of the classification of the American 
species of Ceratophyllus s. lot. Novitates Zool. 39: 70-79. 

ID. 1939. On some Nearctic Siphonaptera. Novitates Zool. 
41: 316-320, illus. 



Modification of the Behavior of Dragonfly Nymphs 
with Excised Labia (Odonata). 

By CYRIL E. ABBOTT, Harding College, Searcy, Arkansas. 

About fifteen years ago certain experiments carried on with 
the nymphs of Anax and Acschna established the fact that 
those insects are capable of modifying their activities to the 
extent that they will learn to come to the experimenter for food. 

Recently it occurred to me that it might be of interest to 
perform similar experiments, using instead of normal speci- 
mens, those from which the labia had been removed. Unfortu- 
nately the relatively active Aeschnids were not obtainable, and 
it was necessary to use the more sluggish Gomphids and Libel- 
lulids instead. Yet, even with these, the results of the experi- 
ments exceeded expectations. 

Each of eleven specimens was treated in the following 
manner: a looped thread was slipped over the labium until it 
reached the point where the organ was attached to the head ; 
the thread was drawn tight, ligating the labium proximally ; 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

after which the useless organ was excised just distad of the 
ligature. This treatment seemed to have no seriously injurious 
effect upon the nymphs; for, although some of them did die 
shortly after amputation, so also did some untreated specimens ; 
on the other hand, some of the amputated specimens lived long 
after the experiments were terminated. Each experimental 
animal was kept in a preparation dish, containing, in addition 
to water, a little sand. Once each day an attempt was made to 
feed the insects by presenting each of them with a bit of meat 
impaled on the end of a dissecting needle. The materials 
varied somewhat : raw frog muscle was used, also hamburger, 
and once liver from a rat. 

As in the previous experiments with Aeschnids, one could 
detect in the behavior of these animals a period of indifference, 
followed by orienting movements of the head, and, finally a 
tendency to follow the food about the dish. But what was 
curiously different from the behavior of normal specimens was 
the fact that some of these nymphs actually learned to take 
food from the needle with the mandibles ! 

A detailed account of the experiment follows. Of the eleven 

specimens amputated at the beginning of the experiment, three 
died within two days of treatment ; three of the remaining in- 
sects gave no response at any time ; and one specimen responded 
once, six days after amputation. The responses of the remain- 
ing four specimens, since they are of special interest, are given 
in detail. 

No. Ill, a Libellulid, gave no response until the third day 
after amputation, when it accepted food placed in its mandibles. 
On the sixth day it made as if to seize the food; and on the 
seventh day it swam toward the food, "lunged" at it, and 
finally grasped this food with its mandibles. This behavior 
was repeated on the ninth day, rather feebly, however. The 
animal was dead on the tenth day. 

No. IV, a Gomphid, made slight movements toward the 
food the day following amputation. It gave no other response 
until the eighth day, when it followed the food about the dish. 
On the ninth day this nymph not only followed the food, but 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

finally succeeded in taking some of it with the mandibles. It 
died on the tenth day after amputation. 

No. V, a Gomphid, gave slight positive responses the day 
after amputation. Until the sixth day it gave no other definite 
response, although it invariably took food placed in its man- 
dibles. On the sixth day it attempted to seize the food, which 
it followed for some distance; on the seventh day it succeeded 
in obtaining some of the food. On the eighth day it only parti- 
ally responded, but again on the ninth day it duplicated its be- 
havior on the seventh. The experiment was terminated on the 
tenth day, as most of the other specimens had died. 

No. VII, a Gomphid, took food placed in its mandibles the 
day after amputation, but not until the sixth day did it swim 
to the needle and take food of its own accord. This it repeated 
on the seventh day. On the eighth day only feeble responses 
were given, and the experiment was discontinued. 

In considering these results it is well to remember that only 
a few specimens were used, that of these, only four gave the 
responses described, and that the responses were, in part, what 
one might expect to find in untreated animals. Nevertheless, it 
seems significant that some of the nymphs did respond as they 
did ; for this implies that others are capable of doing likewise. 
It is the more remarkable when one considers the sluggish habits 
of these myopic, mud-inhabiting forms, lacking the decisive 
movements and greater visual powers of the Aeschnids. Con- 
sider that the labium of the dragonfly nymph is used, not only 
for seizing prey, but for holding that prey while it is being 
consumed. The mandibles are poorly adapted to holding food, 
and they are placed very inconveniently for seizing it. 

In view of these considerations, and without implying that 
the modification exhibits any intelligence on the part of the 
nymph, I feel bound to maintain that it does indicate adaptive 
powers which are not easily explained on a purely mechanistic 
basis. The nymph is far from being the mechanically auto- 
matic thing some biologists claim. Moreover, the modification 
involves a modification of the organism as a whole. No theory 
of reflex action alone can account for the behavior of the ex- 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

cised nymph which swims to food, thrusts its head over that 
food, and employs its mandibles in a manner for which they 
are poorly fitted, and, under normal conditions, would never 
be employed. 



A New Species of Amblyscirtes from Texas 
(Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera, Hesperiidae). 

By H. A. FREEMAN, Lancaster, Texas. 

Amblyscirtes belli n. sp. 

$ . Upperside. Primaries, black with some fulvous overscal- 
ing toward the base and inner margin; three sordid white sub- 
apical spots, the top and bottom ones longer than the middle 
one ; a small sordid white spot in interspace Cui directly below 
the bottom subapical spot; a V-shaped, sordid white spot in 
interspace Cu 2 with the bars of the V pointing toward the 
outer margin of the wings, the upper bar twice as long as the 
lower one. The spots in some specimens slightly fulvous. 

Secondaries. Black with a few scattered fulvous hairs to- 
ward the base and inner margin of the wings. 

Underside. Primaries. Black, somewhat lighter than above 
except at the base, fulvous overscaling toward the costal margin 
and apex. The five spots on the upper surface reappear, more 
distinctly, and in addition there are three spots making a curved 
connection between the last subapical spot and the small spot 
in interspace Cui, with the curvature toward the outer margin 
below the apex. 

Secondaries. Black, nearly completely overscaled with gray 
in some specimens, in others the overscaling is restricted to the 
outer margin and base of the wings. Two indistinct, vestigial 
spots near the costa; one minute discal spot; a submesial row 
of connected spots forming an irregular line, bordered on the 
inside by dark scales and on the outside by lighter ones. All 
spots are dark hoary gray. 

Body above black with some long gray hairs on the thorax 
and anterior part of the abdomen ; beneath grayish ; sides of 
the abdomen black, gray scales forming lines between the seg- 
ments; palpi light gray, with a few scattered black scales; 
antennae black, ringed with sordid white; club black above, 
lighter beneath. Fringes of both wings sordid while between 
the veins black at the ends of the veins. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 51 

5 . Similar to the male but with reduced maculation. 

Expanse: Male, 24-29 mm., average size 26 mm.; female 
23-32 mm., average size 27 mm. 

Described from 109 specimens, 68 males and 41 females, 
collected by the author at Lancaster and two miles west of 
Vickery, Dallas County, TEXAS, during April, May, June and 
August of 1940. 

This species was placed as undescribed by Mr. E. L. Bell, 
American Museum of Natural History, New York, and in his 
honor I take great pleasure in naming it. 

Holotype male and allotype female in the collection of the 
author. Paratypes are being placed in the following collec- 
tions, three pairs, American Museum of Natural History, New 
York; one pair, United States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. ; one pair, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 
one pair, Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois ; one pair, The 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; one pair, collec- 
tion of Mr. F. Martin Brown, Colorado Springs, Colorado; 
one pair, collection of Mr. Lowell Hulbirt, Glendora, Cali- 
fornia; and one pair in the collection of Dr. A. W. Lindsey, 
Granville, Ohio. The remaining 87 paratypes will remain for 
the present in the collection of the author for determination 
purposes. 

Belli more closely resembles celia Skinner than any of the 
other species of Amblyscirtes. In preparing this description 
belli was compared with 37 specimens of celia contained in 
the author's collection and the following differences were noted. 

1. Although a dark species, celia is lighter than belli. None 
of the specimens in the type series were as light as any of the 
37 specimens of celia. 

2. Celia often has a spot near the end of the cell on the 
upper surface of the primaries. Belli never has a spot in that 
region. 

3. Celia is more completely overscaled with lighter scales 
on the under surface of both wings than is belli. 

4. The spots on the under surface of the secondaries of 
celia are white, contrasting with the brown rather plainly, 
whereas belli has dark hoary gray spots that are inconspicuous ; 
in some specimens they are nearly absent. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of 
Immature Insects. Fart II. Odonata 1 . 

By WM. P. HAYES. 

The study of immature aquatic insects has probably been 
given more attention than terrestrial forms for the reason that 
in most instances aquatic insects can be more easily reared and 
with such rearings has come a greater knowledge of the grow- 
ing stages. As pointed out in Part, I 2 of this work the writer 
is attempting to make available for investigators the literature 
containing tables or keys for the identification of the develop- 
mental stages of various insect orders. The following refer- 
ences have been gathered for use in class work devoted to the 
taxonomy of immature insects and many have been tried and 
found to have distinct value. It is realized that the list is 
probably not complete and the writer would welcome having 
his attention called to additional citations. 

Among aquatic nymphs (naiads) of the three orders Odo- 
nata, Plecoptera and Ephemerida, the Odonata have been given 
more intensive study by a greater number of students than the 
Plecoptera or Ephemerida. This perhaps can be attributed to 
the greater appeal to collectors that is possessed by the adults. 
Hence more study of younger stages and, as a result, we find 
more keys for their identification than we find in the other two 
orders. 

Attention should be called to the works of Lamb (1924) and 
Nevin (1929 and 1930) in which we are supplied with keys to 
the instars of the three species representing both suborders 
the Anisoptera and Zygoptera. From these it is apparent that 
we have scarcely made a beginning of our study of these forms. 
Moreover Calvert (1934, Proc. Amer. Philosophical Soc. Vol. 
73, pp. 63-64) in a study of growth rates and larval develop- 
ment in the genus Anax begins his summary of this work with 
the following highly significant statement, "Different indi- 

1 Contribution No. 200 from the laboratories of the Department of 
Entomology of the University of Illinois. 

*A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of Immature Insects, 
Part I Diptera. Ent. News, Vol. 49: 246-251, 1938; 50: 5-10 76-82 
1939. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 53 

viduals of Anax junius, a common North American species, and 
different parts of the same individual grow at different rates. 
This renders an exact definition of the characteristics of any 
one of the thirteen larval instars impossible. Nevertheless it is 
believed that the age of a given larva may be determined within 
an approximation of one or two instars. All possible char- 
acters should be taken into consideration in making such deter- 
minations." This condition perhaps occurs in all Odonata and 
probably in immature insects of all orders. It is an important 
consideration that must be kept in mind in using our available 
keys. So many of our key couplets are concerned with size, 
and from the above quotation it is apparent that statements of 
size mean very little, unless qualified by the words "when full 
grown" and even then how many of us are able to say when a 
larva or nymph is fully developed? 

I asked Dr. Calvert to add any references known to him 
which I had not included in my original draft. He has com- 
plied with my request and about half the number here listed 
have been furnished by him. 

ANDER, KJELL. 1926. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der schwe- 
dischen Odonaten 1. 2. Ent. Tids. 47 (1) ; 31-42, 14 figs., Taf. 
2. (Agrion hastulatum, lunulatum, a/'matum, paella; no keys, 
but interspecific comparisons.) 

ID. 1929. Ueber die Nymphe von Mesogomphus hageni 
Selys. Konowia 8 (2) : 159-162, 4 figs. (No keys, but com- 
parisons with allied forms.) 

AUSSERER, CARLO. 1869. Neurotteri tirolesi colla diagnosi di 
tutti i generi europei. Parte I. Pseudo-Neurotteri. Annuario Soc. 
Nat. Modena 4: 71-156, Tav. viii-ix. Also separately paged 
1-88. (Analytic table of genera of larvae facing p. 84 (16). 

BARBICHE (Abbe). 1884-87. Faune synoptique des Odo- 
nates ou Libellules de la Lorraine. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz 
(2) 16: 11-20, 17: 85-163. Also paged separately 1-93, Metz 
Imprimerie Even Freres 1887 (on cover), Impr. Verronnais 
(Fischer Succ.) 1883 (on title-page). (Key to genera of 
larvae pp. 87-89 (15-17). 

BARNARD, K. H. 1937. Notes on dragonflies of the S. W. 
Cape with descriptions of the nymphs and of new species. Ann. 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

S. Afr. Mus. 32: 169-260, 32 figs. (Key to genera of nymphs 
pp. 182-3.) 

BRAUER, F. u. Low, F. 1857. Neuroptera austriaca. Die 
im Erzherzogthum Oesterreich bis jetzt aufgefundenen Neur- 
opteren u. s. w. Wien, Carl Gerald's Sohn. Pp. i-xxiii, 1-80, 
5 Taf. (Synopsis of genera of Odonate larvae, pp. xiv-xvi.) 

BRUES, C. T., and MELANDER, A. L. 1932. Classification 
of insects. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 73. Cambridge, Mass., 672 
pp., (Key to families pp. 164-167). 

BYERS, C. F. 1927. The nymph of Libellula incesta and a 
key for the separation of the known nymphs of the genus Libel- 
Ma. Ent. News 38: 113-115. 1927. (Key to species pp. 
114-115). 

ID. 1927. Notes on some American dragonfly nymphs (Anis- 
optera). Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 35: 65-74, (Key to species of 
Anax, pp. 68-69 and to species of Trained- p. 73). 

ID. 1930. A contribution to the knowledge of Florida 
Odonata. University of Florida Publ. Biol. Sci. Series 1 ( 1 ) ; 
1-327, 19 figs., 11 pis. (Key to spp. of nymphs, pp. 34-39, 
table for Enallagma spp., pp. 194-195). 

ID. 1936. The immature form of Brachymesia gravida, 
with notes on the taxonomy of the group (Libellulidae). Ent. 
News 47: 35-37, 3 figs., 60-64. (Key to genera of Corduliinae 
and Libellulinae, pp. 60-64). 

ID. 1937. A review of the dragon-flies of the genera Neuro- 
cordulia and Platycordulia. Misc. Publ. No. 36. Mus. of 
Zool., Univ. Mich., pp. 1-36. 8 pis. (Key to species, p. 9). 

ID. 1940? A study of the dragonflies of the genus Prog- 
omphus (Gomphoides) with a description of a new species. 
Proc. Florida Acad. Sci. 4: 19-85, tables, 1 graph, 6 pis. 1939. 
(Key to 3 spp. of nymphs, pp. 58-59.) 

CABOT, L. 1872. The Immature State of the Odonata. 
III. Cat. Mus. of Comp. Zool., No. V (Mem. of same 2) Part I. 
Subf. Gomphina, pp. 1-17, Pis. I-III. 1881. Part II. Subf. 
Aeschnina, Mem. of same 8 (1): pp. 35-39. 1890. Part III. 
Subf. Cordulina, Mem. of same 17 (1) ; pp. 37-41. 

CALVERT, P. P. 1893. Catalogue of Odonata (Dragonflies) 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 55 

of the vicinity of ' Philadelphia, with an introduction to the 
study of this group of insects. Trans. Ainer. Ent. Soc., 20: 
152a-272. (Key to genera of nymphs, pp. 225-227). 

ID. 1928. Report on Odonata, including notes on some in- 
ternal organs of the larvae collected by the Barbados-Antigua 
Expedition from the University of Iowa in 1918. Univ. loiva 
Stud. Nat. Hist. 12 (2) : 1-54, Pis. I-V. (Generic keys to 
four Libelluline genera, pp. 15, 18; tables to spp. of Tramea 
and Erythcmis pp. 29, 34.) 

ID. 1934. The rates of growth, larval development and 
seasonal distribution of dragon-flies of the genus Anax Aesh- 
nidae). Proc. Amcr. Philosophical Soc., 73 (1) : 1-70, 4 Pis. 
(Key to species of Anax, pp. 46-47.) 

COWLEY, J. 1933. The larvae of the European species of 
Gomphus Leach. Ent. Mo. Mag. 69: 251-252, pi. vii. 

DJAKONOV, A. M. 1926. [Our Libellulidae Keys for the 
identification of Libellulidae and their nymphs.] In Russian. 
Exkursion Fauna des Leningraders Gouvernements. Moscow 
and Leningrade 72 pp. 8 (Paper not seen). 

DUFOUR, LEON. 1852. fitudes anatomiques et physiolo- 
giques, et Observations sur les larves des libellules. Ann. Sci. 
Nat. (3) Zool. 17 (2) : 65-110, Pis. 3-5. (Statement of generic 
and specific characters of Aeschna 3 spp., Libcllula 2 spp., 
Calopterix 1 sp., Agrion 1 sp. pp. 67-73.) 

ERASER, F. C. 1925. The true position of the genera Oro- 
gomphus and Chlorogomphus as demonstrated by a study of 
the larva of 0. atkinsoni and O. campioni and by a comparison 
of the latter with the larva of Anotogastcr nipalensis. Rcc. hid. 
Mus. 27 (5) : 423-429, pis. ix, x. 

ID. 1933-36. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon 
and Burma. Taylor & Francis, London. Odonata. Vols. I-III. 
(No keys to larvae, but characters of the larvae of some of the 
larger groups are given.) 

(To be continued.) 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

No. 150 in this issue is VI Congr. Internac. Ent. Madrid. 

GENERAL. Andre & Lamy. See under Arachnida. 
Anon. Damage to scientific institutions in London. [68] 
92: 548. Balduf, W. V. More ambush bug prey records 
(Hemiptera). [19] 35: 161-169. Blatchley, W. S. Obituary 
by J. S. Wade. [10] 42: 204-208. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. 
-The perfect description. [19] 35: 175. Fernald, H. T.- 
Comments on C. B. Williams' paper, "On 'type' specimens." 
[7] 33: 625. Fuller, H. S. Black-flies bite woodchuck. [19] 
35: 155. Gibson, A. Controlling insects from the air a 
review of work conducted in Canada. [150] 2: 867-872, ill. 
Kellogg, Vernon Lyman. Obituary, portrait and biblio- 
graphy by R. W. Doane. [7] 33: 599-607. Le Cerf, F.- 
" Aberrations" et nomenclature. [150] 2: 943-950. Metalni- 
kov & Metalnikov. Utilisation des microbes dans la hitte 
contre les insectes nuisibles. [150] 2: 555-566. Poche, F. 
Stabilitat der wissenschaftlichen Namen oder Stabilitat der 
Nomenklaturregeln. [150] 2: 951-957. Quilis Perez, M.- 
Calculo de las fajas isocondicionales y de las lineas de 
maximo desarrollo para los insectos [150] 2: 447-454, ill. 
Influencia de los factores climaticos en el calculo de los 
ciclos biologicos de los insectos. [150] 2: 621-633. Reich- 
enow, E. Consideraciones sobre el desarrollo de las rela- 
ciones ecologicas entre los artopodos y los protozoos por 
ellos transmitidos. [150] 2: 501-508. Sandhouse, Grace A.- 
In Memoriam, obituary and bibliography by Cushman and 
Russell. [10] 42: 187-189, ill. Scotland, M. B. Review 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 57 

and summary of studies of insects associated with Lemna 
minor. [6] 48: 319-333, ill. Scott, H. General and zoogeo- 
graphical considerations regarding the Coleoptera associ- 
ated with giant lobelias and senecios in eastern Africa. 
[150] 2: 443-446. de Seabra, A. F. Considerations sur 
1'entomologie du ble. [150] 2: 607-610. Swank. G. R See 
under Coleoptera. Tragardh, I. Some problems of modern 
forest entomology. [150] 2: 887-890. Uvarov, B. P.- 
Locust as an international problem. [150] 2: 535-543, ill. 
Weyrauch, W. Observaciones entomologicas en el valle 
de Chanchamayo y en Tingo Maria. [Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
"Javier Prado"] 4: 346-359. Williams, C. B. On "type" 
specimens. [7] 33: 621-624. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Abbott, C. E. A 

modification of the feeding reaction of Aeschna (Odonata). 
[19] 35: 171. Bliss, C. I. The relation between exposure 
time, concentration and toxicity in experiments in insecti- 
cides. [7] 33 : 721-766. Finlayson & Green. A note on the 
effect of certain foods upon fecundity and longevity in 
Microcryptus basizonus (Hymen.). [4] 72: 236-238. Nisi- 
kawa, Y. The respiration of the pupa of Bombyx mori in 
and outside of cocoon. [Trans. Kansai Ent. Soc.] 10: 27-32. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Andre & Lamy. 

Coloration tegumentaire, ressemblance protectrice et 
mimetisme chez les Acariens. [150] 2: 413-439. Beier, M. 
Zur Phylogenie der troglobionten Pseudoscorpione. 
[150] 2: 519-527. Pierce, W. D. A rare myriapod from 
Anacapa Island, compared with two Texas species. [38] 
158-171, ill. Senevet, G. Quelques Ixodides de la Guyane 
francaise: especes nouvelles d'lxodes et d'Amblyomma. 
[150] 2:891-898, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Berner, 
L. Ovoviviparous mayflies in Florida [Pro. Fla. Acad. 
Sci.] 4: 280. Byers, C. F. A study of the dragonflies of 
the genus Progomphus (Gomphoides) with a description of 
a new species. [Pro. Fla. Acad. Sci.] 4: 19-85, ill. Carpenter, 
F. M. A revision of the Nearctic Hemerobiidae, Beroth- 
idae, Sisyridae, Polystoechotidae and Dilaridae (Neurop- 
tera). [Proc. Amer. Acad. A. & S.] 74: 193-280, ill. (k*). 
Cope, O. B. The morphology of Psocus confratemus 
(Psocid.). [Microent.] 5: 91-115, ill. Davis, C. Family 
classification of the order EmbiopU'rn. |7| 33: f>77 <'S_>. (k). 
Eglin, W. Die Neuropteren der inngchung von Basel. 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

[Rev. Suisse Zool.] 47: 243-251. Kennedy, C. H. Pala- 
emnema joanetta, a new dragonfly from Panama (Odonata). 
[7] 33: 626-628, ill. Milne & Milne. A n. sp. of Rhyaco- 
phila described from metamorphotypes (Trichop.). [19] 35: 
153-155, ill. Pieltain, C. B. Sobre el parasitismo del 
Eoxenos laboulbenei. [121] 1: 304-305. Ross, E. S. A 
revision of the Embioptera of North America. [7] 33: 629- 
676, ill. (k*). Spieth. H. T. Studies on the biology of the 
Ephemeroptera, II. The nuptial flight. [6] 48: 379-390. 

ORTHOPTERA. Handford, R. H. Egg deposits of a 
type not usually produced by Melanoplus m. mexicanus in 
Manitoba. [4] 72: 235. Rehn, J. A. G. A new genus of 
Tropinotine locusts from Brazil (Acridid.). [Notulae Nat.] 
No. 66: 9 pp., ill. Spencer, G. J. The effect of hailstorms 
on grasshoppers. [4] 72: 233-234. 

HEMIPTERA. Balduf, W. V. See under General. 
Ball & Beamer. A revision of the genus Athysanella and 
some related genera (Cicadellid.) [Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.] 
26: 5-82, ill. (k*). Craig, F. W. The periodical cicada in 
West Virginia. [W. Va. Univ. Bull.] 14: 39-43, ill. David- 
son & DeLong. Studies of the gen. Empoasca (Cicadell.), 
VII: Six n. spp. from Mexico. [7] 33: 608-611, ill. de la 
Torre-Bueno, J. R. Biological notes on Arizona Heter- 
optera. [19] 35: 157. Tollius vanduzeei n. sp., with notes 
on the genn. Tollius and Stachyocnemus (Alydidae). [19] 
35: 159-161, ill. Doering. K. C. A contribution to the 
taxonomy of the subfamily Issinae in America north of 
Mexico (Fulgoridae). [Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 83-167, 
ill. (k*). Drake, C. J. Dos nuevas especies del genero 
Blissus de la Argentina. [Notas Mus. de la Plata] 5: 223- 
226, ill. Lindsay, D. R. The genus Norvellina. [Univ. 
Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 169-213, ill. (k). Oman, P. W. 
Three n. spp. of Deltocephalus (Cicadell.). [10] 42: 201-203, 
ill. Osborn, H. The Membracidae of Ohio. [Ohio State 
Univ. Studies] Bull. 37: 51-101, ill. (k). 

LEPIDOPTERA. Brown, Gabriel & Goodson. New 

forms and spp. of the gen. Catastictia. [19] 35: 170-171, 
(S). Busck, A. Notes on North American Microlepidop- 
tera with descriptions of new genera and species. [38] 39: 
87-98, ill. Clarke, J. F. G. The European genus Moro- 
phaga in North America. (Tineidae). [38] 39: 114-117, ill. 
Comstock, J. A. Notes on the life history of Aseptis per- 
fumosa. [38] 39: 104-105, ill. The early stages of Trachea 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 59 

fumeola, [38] 39: 106-107, ill. Notes on the early stages of 
Euphydryas gilletti. [38] 39: 111-113, ill. Dammers, C. M. 
Euphydras chalcedona. [38] 39: 123-125. Dethier, V. G. 
The final stages of Polites mystic. [38] 39: 108-110, ill. 
Evans, W. H. The type of the gen. Pyrropyge (Hes- 
periid). [6] 48: 405-411. Fernald, H. T. The monarch 
butterfly (Danaus menippe) in Florida. [Pro. Fla. Acad. 
Sci.] 4: 252-254. Field, W. D. Distribution notes and 
comments upon a collection of Mexican Lepidoptera. [Univ. 
Kansas Sci. Bull.] 26: 339-354. Fletcher, T. B. A new 
California plume-moth (Alucitidae). [38] 39:99-103. Hein- 
rich, C. Correction of a misused generic name (Olethreut.). 
[4] 72: 242-243, (*). Kane, H. B. An American Silk- 
worm. [Nat. Hist.] 47: 19-23, ill. Klots, A. B. A new 
Brenthis from Alaska (Nymphal.). [6] 48: 413-414. Mc- 
Dunnough, J. A new Pseudexentera from hickory 
(Eucosmid.). [4] 72: 243-244, ill. Medlar, W. P. Notes 
on the life histories of two western North American moths. 
[38] 39: 118-122, ill. Sweetman, H. L. The migration of 
a Pierid butterfly in Texas. [19] 35: 173-174. 

DIPTERA. Erikson, G. E. See under Hymenoptera. 
Fairchild, G. B. Notes on Tabanidae from Panama: II. 
The gen. Dichelacera and related genn. [7] 33: 683-700, ill. 
(k*). Notes on the Simuliidae of Panama. [7] 33: 701-719, 
ill. (k*). Haeussler, G. J. See under Hymenoptera. 
Haseman & McLane. The history and biology of the 
juniper midge (Contarinia juniperina). [7] 33: 612-614, ill. 
Hinman, E. H. The problem of races of Anopheles quadri- 
maculatus in the United States. [150] 2: 937-942. Huckett, 
H. C. The North American spp. of the genn. Leucophora 
and Proboscimyia (Muscid.). [6] 48: 335-365, ill. (k*). 
Martini, E. Beziehungen der Anopheles maculipennis 
Rassen zur Umwelt und zur Malarialage. [150] 2: 903-909. 
Steyskal, G. Additional specimens of Lasia purpurata 
(Acrocerid.). [19] 35: 158. Vargas, L. El indice maxilar 
en algunos Anopheles americanos. [Rev. Inst. de Salubrid. 
y Enferm. Trop., Mexico] 1 : 275-289. 

COLEOPTERA. Balthasar, V. Neue Phanaeus-Arten. 
[Folia Zool. et Hydrobiol.] 9: 238-247. Eine vorstudie zur 
monographic der gattung Canthon. [Folia Zool. et Hydro- 
biol.] 9: 179-238. Bruch, C. Miscelaneas entomologicas. 
[Notas Mus. de la Plata] 5: 193-206, ill. Darlington, P. J. 
Stomus pumicatus in America (Carabid.). [4] 72: 252. 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '41 

Fiedler, C. Die sudamerikanischen arten der gattung 
Acalles (Cryptorhynchid.). [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Gesell.] 
30: 820-842. (*). Henderson, L. S. A revision of the 
genus Listronotus (Curculionid.). [Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.] 
26: 215-337, ill. (k*). Jeannel, R. Sur la distribution 
geographique des Catopidae. [150] 2: 493-499, ill. Linsley, 
E. G. A reclassification of the tribe Obriini of Leconte 
(Cerambyc.). [6] 48: 367-377, (k*). Mansour, K. The 
classification of the Coleoptera and post-embryological re- 
search. [150] 2: 405-411, ill. Saylor, L. W. Synoptic re- 
vision of the beetle genn. Cotalpa and Paracotalpa of the 
U. S. with description of a new subgen. (Scarab.). [10] 42: 
190-200, ill. (k*). Soraci, F. A. Distribution in New Jersey 
of (Myllocerus) Corigetus? castaneus (Curculion.). [6] 
48: 318. Swank, G. R. A method of mounting small beetle 
genitalia. [4] 72: 238-240, ill. Ting, P. C. Revisional 
notes concerned with Cimbocera and related genera. 
(Curculionid.). [38] 39: 128-157, ill. (*). Wenzel, R. L. 
A genus of histerid beetles new to the United States. [91] 
30: 516-519, ill. Zariquiey Alvarez, R. Observaciones 
sobre la copula en los Bathysciinae (Silphid.). [150] 2: 
441-442. 

HYMENOPTERA. Brown, R. W. The comb of a 
wasp nest from the upper cretaceous of Utah. [Amer. Jour. 
Sci.] 239: 54-56, ill. Clausen, C. P. The oviposition habits 
of the Eucharidae. [91] 30: 504-516, ill. Cockerell, T. D. A. 
Bees obtained by the Los Angeles Museum-Biological 
Survey. [38] 39: 172. Erikson, G.^E. The Tipulid prey of 
a Crabronid. [19] 35: 172. Finlayson & Green. See under 
Anatomy. Gaul, A. T. A note on the biology of Polisti- 
phaga arvalis (Ichneumon.). [4] 72: 240-242. A note on 
rearing the brood of Polistes fuscatus (Vesp.). [6] 48: 391- 
393. Haeussler, G. J. Parasites of the Oriental fruit moth 
in Japan and Chosen and their introduction into the United 
States. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. 728: 62 pp., ill. 
Michener, C. D. A new carpenter bee from the Great 
Basin Region. (Xylocopidae). [38] 39: 126-127. Pate, V. S. 
L. Three new Nyssonine wasps from the southwestern 
United States (Sphecidae). [Notulae Nat.] No. 63: 7 pp. 
Rau, Phil. Co-operative nest-founding by the wasp Pol- 
istes annularis. [7] 33: 617-620. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Entomophagous insects. By C. 
P. Clausen. McGraw-Hill. 688 pp., ill. 



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COLEOPTERA 

1075. Robinson (M.) Studies in the Scarabaeidae. II. (66: 

141-159, figs., 1940) 40 

DIPTERA 

1064. Fisher (E. G.)- Costa Rican Mycetophilidae. (65: 227- 

236, 1 pi., 1939) 20 

1063. James (M. T. O.) The genus Dolichopus in Colorado. 

(Dolichopodidae). (65: 209-226, 1939) .35 

HYMENOPTERA 

1078. Bequaert (J.) Notes on oriental Polistes wasps. (Ves 

pidae). (66: 265-273, figs., 1940) 20 

680 Franklin (H. J.) The Bombidae of the New World. 

(38: 177-486; 39: 73-200, 1913) 10.00 

1067. Hopper (H. P.) A synoptical revision of the tribe 
Trogini of the U. S. and Canada (Ichneumonidae). 
(65: 307-346, 1 pi., 1939) 80 

1071. Krombein (K. V.) Studies in the Tiphiidae. IV. A 
revision of the Myrmosinae of the New World, with 
discussions of the Old World species. (65: 4-1 5-465; - 
1 pi., 1939) 1.00 

1066. Linsley and Michener. A revision of the No. Amer. 

Nomadidae. (65: 265-305, 4 pis., 1939) .80 

1068. Michener (C. D.) A revision of the genus Neolarra 

(Nomadidae). (65: 347-362, ill.. 1939) 35 

1028. Pate (V. S. L.) Studies in the Pemphredonine wasps. 
, I. New gen. and sps. of the Ammoplanoid complex 
(Sphecidae). (Trans., 63: 89-125, 2 pis.. 1937) . . .80 

1072. Pate (V. S. L.) : The taxonomy of the Oxybeline wasps. 
(Sphecidae). L. A revision of the gen. Belomicroides, 
Brimocles and Belomicrus, with particular reference 
to the Nearctis sps. (66: 1-99, 2 pis.. 1940). 1.80 

1077. II. The classification of the gen. Belomicrus and 

Enchemicrum. (66: 209-264, figs., 1940) 1.00 

LEPIDOPTERA 

1079. Braun (A. F.) Notes and n. sps. in the Yponomeutoid 

group (Microlepidoptera). (66: 273-282, figs., 1940) . .20 

1076. Fox (R. M.) A generic review of the Ithomiinae. 

(Nyrnphalklae). (66: 161-207, 4 pis.. 1940) 1.00 

1060. Williams and Bell. New sps. of Pel'icia. with remarks 

on the genus (Hesperiidae). (65: 135-159. ill.. 1939 .50 

1074. New Neotropical Hesperiidae and notes on others. (66: 

121-140, figs., 1940) AO 

NEUROPTERA. 

1065. Rehn (J. W. H.). Studies in the No. Amer. Mantis- 

pidae. (65: 237-263, 1 pi., 1939) 60 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

MARCH, 1941 

Vol. LII No. 3 



CONTENTS 

Williams The Relations of the Spermatophore to the Female Repro- 
ductive Ducts in Lepidoptera . . . 61 

Hayes A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of Immature 

Insects. Part II. Odonata 66 

Rau A Population Study of a Bumblebee Colony, Bombus american- 

orum Fabr. (Hymen.: Bombidae) 70 

Pyle Triungulins of a Rhipiphorid Beetle Borne by Elis quinque- 

cincta Fabr. (Coleoptera) 74 

F"orbes Does He Stridulate? (Lepidoptera; Eupterotidae) 79 

Denning Descriptions of Three New Species of Mexican Chimarrha 

(Trichoptera : Philopotamidae) 82 

Calvert Cardinal Feeding on a Mantid (Orthoptera : Mantidae). . . 85 
Current Entomological Literature 86 

Review of Buxton's The Louse, an account of the lice which infest 

man, their medical importance and control 88 

Obituary Dr. Charles Wardell Stiles, Charles William Leng, Dr. Levi 

W. Mengel, Samuel Henshaw, . . 90 



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ENT. NEWS, VOL. LI I. 



Plate I. 




SPERMATOPHORES AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS, 
LE PI DOPTER A- WILLIAMS. 

Fig. 1. Scepsis fitk'icoUis, 2. Apantcsis urge, 3. Isia -Isabella, 
4. Ilstignienc acraca, 5. Pcridroiiiu margaritosa, 6. Platyscuta 
I'idens, 7. Se/iinia inaryiiiata, 8. Antograplia hrassicac, 9. Cato- 
cala palaeo(/aiua, 10. C. ainafri.r, 11. Plathypena scahra, 12. 
Coryphista nicadi f badiaria, 13. l^lasealii finilclla, 14. Carpo- 
capsa pomonella. 15. Halisidota tessellaris, 1C>. //. curvac. 17. 
Pandeinis liiiniaht. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII MARCH, 1941 No J> 

The Relations of the Spermatophore to the Female 
Reproductive Ducts in Lepidoptera. 

By JOSEPH L. WILLIAMS, University of Pennsylvania and 

Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. 

(Plate I.) 

Spermatophores of Lepidoptera have been known for many 
years. Balbiani, Hagen, Norris and Stitz discuss them in con- 
nection with their principal subject. The first study devoted 
entirely to spermatophores is that of Petersen, 1907. The only 
other work on this subject is that of the author, 1939. Higher 
Lepidoptera have the seminal duct extending from the bursa 
copulatrix or its duct to the vagina. The sperms follow this 
path from the Spermatophore in the bursa to the vagina and 
thence to the spermatheca. The purpose of this paper is to 
discuss the relationship of the Spermatophore to the bursa 
copulatrix and to the seminal duct. 

I wish to thank Dr. Philip P. Calvert for his kindness dur- 
ing the progress of this investigation, Mr. John W. Cadbury, 
3d. for identifying the specimens and Dr. A. Glenn Richards, 
Jr., for criticisms and helpful suggestions. 

Females were captured by means of a light trap described by 
the author, 1939. The reproductive organs were dissected in 
physiological salt solution and the contents of the bursa ob- 
served. The diagrams were drawn with the aid of a camera 
lucida using the same power of the same microscope through- 
out. 

Although the shapes of the bursa and Spermatophore vary 
to a considerable degree even in the same family, the females 
observed, according to this study, are of classes A. 15 and C. 
Class A is composed of those females having the Spermato- 
phore in direct communication with the seminal duct. Since 
most of the females observed belong to this class, the burvi 
and Spermatophore of only a few serving as types are figured. 

61 



; 



62 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[March, '41 



Some specimens had more than one spermatophore ; each rep- 
resents a pairing, but only one at a time communicates with 
the seminal duct (fig. 6). Members of class B do not have the 
spermatophore communicating directly with the seminal duct, 
but with a duct that leads to a secretion-filled reservoir. 1 The 
seminal duct extends from this reservoir to the vagina. A last 
class of primitive moths C has no seminal duct. The spermato- 
phore opens into the bursal duct, which extends to the vagina. 
The anatomy of this type is given in a forthcoming paper. 

The insects are taxonomically arranged in descending order. 
Names used are those of the McDunnough check list unless 
otherwise indicated. 



Class A 



Macro-lepidoptera 
Superfamily Noctuoidea 
Family Amatidae 
Scepsis fnlvicollis Hbn. Fig. 1 

Family Arctiidae 
Subfam. Arctiinae 
Apantcsis argc Dru. Fig. 2 

Isia Isabella A. & S. Fig. 3 

Estigmenc acrea Dru. Fig. 4 

Family Phalaenidae 
Subfam. Phalaeninae 
Agrotis ypsilon Rott 2 
Feltia subgothica Haw. 
Peridroma margaritosa Haw., 

Fig. 5 

Subfam. Hadeninae 
Scotogramma trifolii Rott. 
Polia subjuncta G. & R. 
P. legitima Grt. 
P. renigera Steph. 
Orthodes sp. ? 



Ccramica picta Harr. 
Protoleucania albilinea Hbn. 

Subfam. Amphipyrinae 
Agroperina hclva Grt. 
Oligia fractilinca Grt. 
Platysenta vidciis Gn. Fig. 6 

Elaphria grata Hbn. 
Anorthodcs tar da Gn. 
Galgnla partita Gn. 
Prodenia ornithogalli Gn. 
Ogdoconta cincreola Gn. 

Subfam. Heliothiinae 
Hcliothis obsoleta Fabr. 
Schinta arcigera Gn. 3 
S. marginata Fig. 7 

Subfam. Acontiinae 
Erastria carneola Gn. 

Subfam. Plusiinae 
Autographa brassicac Riley Fig. 8 
A. oo* 



1 Bursa usually without any secretion. In these species it is only the 
reservoir that is filled with a secretion. 

Bursa and spermatophore similar to that of Peridroma margaritosa 
Haw. 

3 Bursa and spermatophore similar to that of S. marginata. 

* Bursa and spermatophore similar to that of A. brassicae. 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



63 



Subfam. Catocalinae 
Catocala palaeogama Gn. Fig. 9 
C. amatrix lib. Fig. 10 

C. ultronia Hb. 5 
Cacnurgina crassiuscitla Haw. 
Anomis sp. 

Subfam. Hypeninae 
Plathypena scabra Fabr. Fig. 11 

Subfam. Herminiinae 
Blcptina caradrinalis Gn. 
Pal this atigitlalis Hbn. 

Family Notodontidae 
Dasylophia anguina A. & S. 

Superfamily Bombycoidea 6 
Family Lasiocampidae 
Lasiocainpa qucrcus L. 7 

L. callunae* 

Gastropacha qiiercifolia L. 
Cosmotriche potatoria L. 
Malacosoma a-mcricana Fabr. 7 
M. ncnstria L. 7 

Superfamily Geometroidea 

Family Geometridae 

Subfam. Sterrhinae 
Hacinatopis grataria Fabr. 



Subfam. Larentiinae 
Coryphista tneadi i. badiaria Hy. 
Edw., Fig. 12 
Subfam. Ennominae 
Sciniothisa nigrocominae Warr. 
Vitrinclla panipinaria Gn. 
Micro-lepidoptera 
Superfamily Pyralidoidea 
Family Pyralidae 
Subfam. Pyraustinae 
Des-inia fnneralis Hbn. 
Nomophila noctuclla D. & S. 
Loxostcge siinilalis Gn. 
Phlyctaenia ferntgalis Hbn. 

Subfam. Chrysauginae 
Galasa nigrinodis Zell. 
Subfam. Crambinae 
Chilo puritellus Kit. 

Subfam. Phycitinae 
Tlascala finitclla Wlk. Fig. 13 

Ephcstia kiihniclla Zell. 

Superfamily Tortricoidea 
Family Olethreutidae 
Subfam. Laspeyresiinae 
Carpocapsa pomonella L. Fig. 14 



Class B 

H. caryae Harris Fig. 16 

Superfamily Tortricoidea 
Family Tortricidae 
Pandemis liinitata Rob. 



Fig. 17 



Macro-lepidoptera 
Superfamily Noctuoidea 
Family Arctiidae 
Subfam. Arctiinae 
Halisidota tessellaris A. & S. 

Fig. 15 

Class C 

Without a seminal duct. Tcgcticula alba Zell. 

Superfamily Incurvarioidea (=yiicciisi'll<i Rik-y) 

Family Prodoxidae Proxodus quinquepunctella Cham. 

Members of the superfamily Incurvarioidea have the spcrm- 
atophore opening into the bursal duct, which extends to the 
vagina. 

5 Bursa and spermatophore similar to that of C. anuitri.v. 

6 All members of this superfamily except /!/. anicrictiixi are from 
Mey rick's revised handbook of British Lepidoptera, London, 1928. 

' The spermatophore is too small to be certain of its relation to the 
seminal duct. 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

In the three species listed under class B, it might he argued 
that the secretion-filled reservoir is not a part of the bursa 
copulatrix, hut a swollen part of the seminal duct. Such a dis- 
tinction is of comparative morphological interest. It is only a 
forensic argument here. Whatever the morphological homol- 
ogy'of this reservoir may be, it is functionally the same; namely 
a secretion-filled sac through which the sperm must pass in 
order to reach the narrow duct leading to the vagina. In this 
sense they are exceptions to the general rule in the higher 
lepidoptera. A comparison of the bursa copulatrix and seminal 
duct of Carpocapsa poinonclla (fig. 14) and Panel cmis limi- 
tata (fig. 17) suggest that in the Tortricoidea at least the 
secretion-filled reservoir had best be considered a pouch on or 
just off the seminal duct. 

SUMMARY. 

61 species representing 52 genera in 18 subfamilies of 9 
families of 6 superfamilies of Lepidoptera were examined. The 
six superfamilies were Noctuoidea (39 species), Bombycoidea 
(6 species), Geometroidea (4 species), Pyralidoidea (8 
species), Tortricoidea (2 species) and Incurvarioidea (2 
species). Two types of relationship of the spermatophore to 
the seminal duct were noted. (1) In 56 of the species repre- 
senting all superfamilies except Incurvarioidea, the spermato- 
phore opens into the seminal duct. (2) In only three species, 
one of which is debatable, representing two genera (1 Noctu- 
oid and 1 Tortricoid) the spermatophore does not open directly 
into the seminal duct. In these the open end of the spermato- 
phore connects with a secretion-filled reservoir; this reservoir 
in turn connecting with the seminal duct. 

The spermatophore, of course, is secreted by the male at the 
time of pairing. It is so formed and hardened in the bursa 
copulatrix of most Lepidoptera that the sperm leaving its open 
end pass directly into the seminal duct leading to the vagina. 
Thus the first stage of the frequently torturous wandering of 
the sperm within the female moth is assured by the structure 
of the spermatophore, as already reported by Norris and Peter- 
sen. But in rare cases the spermatophore empties into a secre- 



1H. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 65 

tion-filled reservoir in turn connecting with the seminal duct. 
In these exceptional cases the first stage of sperm migration 
cannot be so simple. How sperm may traverse such a secre- 
tion-filled reservoir is not known. 

The most primitive families of moths have a fundamentally 
different type of female reproductive system. One of these, the 
Yucca Moth, is being treated in a separate paper. No seminal 
duct is present. The spermatophore opens into the bursal duct, 
which extends to the vagina. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

BALBIANI, E. G. 1869. Stir le mechanisme de la feconda- 
tion chez les Lepidopteres. C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, 68, pp. 
781-84. 

HAGEN, H. 1882. t)ber ein eigenthiimliches Organ in der 
Begattungstasche zweier Tineiden. Zool. Anz. 5, pp. 18-21. 

NORRIS, M. S. 1932. Contributions towards the study of 
Insect Fertility The structure and operation of the repro- 
ductive organs of the genera Ephcstia and Plod'ui ( Lepidop- 
tera, Phycitidae) Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 595-611, 5 pis. 

PETERSEN, \Y. 1907. Uber die Spermatophoren der Schmet- 
terlinge. Zs. wiss. Zool. 88, pp. 117-30, 1 pi. 2 fig. in text. 

STITZ, H. 1901. Der Genitalapparat der Mikrolepidopteren. 
Zool. Jahrbucher, 14, pp. 135-76, 5 pis. 

WILLIAMS, J. L. 1939. The occurrence of spermatophores 
and their measurements in some British Lepidoptera. Trans. 
Soc. British Ent, 6, part 6, pp. 137-48, 2 pis. 

ID., (in press) The internal genitalia of Yucca Moths, and 
their connection with the alimentary canal. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Parts of the reproductive organs of the species indicated at 
the bottom of the plate and in the list on pages (>2-f>3. 

Abbreviations: M, Bursal cavity; N, Bursal duct ; ( ). Neck 
of spermatophore ; S, Seminal duct ; T, Reservoir ; U, Head of 
spermatophore ; W, Reservoir. 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of 
Immature Insects. Fart II. Odonata. 

By WM. P. HAYES. 
(Continued from page 55.) 

GARMAN, P. 1917. Zygoptera or damselflies of Illinois. 
Bull. Til. State Lab. Nat. Hist. 12 (4): 411-587, Pis. Iviii- 
Ixxiii. (Various keys to genera and species). 

ID. 1927. The Odonata or dragonflies of Connecticut. Guide 
to the Insects of Connecticut. Part V, Hartford, Conn. Gcol. 
& Nat. Hist. Survey Bui., 39: 1-331, 67 figs., pis. i-xxii. 
(Various keys to families, genera and species). 

HAGEN, H. A. 1853. Leon Dufour iiber die Larven der 
Libellen mit Beriicksichtigung der fruheren Arbeiten. Stett. 
Ent. Zcit. 14: 98-106, 237-238, 260-270, 311-325, 334-346. 
(Statement of characters of families, genera and species of 
Libellulidae 9 spp., Gomphidae 2 spp., Aeschnidae 7 spp., 
Calopterygidae 1 sp., Agrionidae 2 spp., pp. 261-270, 311-313.) 

ID. 1880. Essai d'un synopsis des larves de Calopterygines. 
C. R. Soc. Ent. Bclg. 33 ; Ixv-lxvii. Also separately pp. 5-7. 
(Brief statements of characters of two "legions", 7 genera and 
subgenera, pp. Ixv-lxvi.) 

ID. 1885. Monograph of the earlier stages of the Odonata 
(Subfamilies Gomphina and Cordulegastrina). Trans. Amcr. 
Ent. Soc., 12: 249-291. (Key to genera p. 249, characters of 
the twoi subfamilies, pp. 286, 287). 

HOWE, JR., R. H. 1922. Odonate Larvae of New England. 
Psyche 29: 1 p. supplement. Oct. -Dec. [Pictorial key to 
Anisopteran Nymphs or Larvae.] 

ID. 1925. Pictorial key to the Larvae. (Libellulidae and 
Cordulegasterinae). Psyche 32: Supplement not paged. Dec. 

ID. 1917-1923. Manual of Odonata of New England. Mem. 
Thoreau Mus. Concord, Mass., Vol. 2. 8 parts, 138 pp. and 
supplement. .(Nymphs in Parts VI and VII?). 

ID. 1927. Memoir of the David Mason Little Memorial 
Museum of Natural History I. Manual of the Odonata of 
New England Part III. Larvae-Anisoptera. (Larvae of the 
Cordulegasterinae, Macromiinae & Corduliinae, pp. 139-149.) 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 67 

JACOBSON, G. G. & BIANCHI, V. L. 1905. [Orthoptera and 
Pseudoneuroptera of the Russian Empire]. St. Petersburg, A. 
F. Levrien. (Key to larvae as far as some families and sub- 
families only p. 846. Entirely in Russian.) 

KARXV, H. H. 1934. Biologic der \Yasserinsekten, etc. F. 
Wagner, Wien. 311 pp. (Key to genera and species, pp. 103- 
105). 

KARSCH, F. 1893. Die Insecten der Berglandschaft Adeli 
im Hinterlande von Togo (\Yestafrika) nach dem von den 
Herren Hauptmann Eugen Kling ( 1888 und 1889) und Dr. 
Richard Biittner (1890 und 1891) gesammelten Materiale, u. 
s. w. Berlin. Ent. Ztschr. 38: 1-266, 6 pis., 35 text figs., 1 map. 
(Keys to 11 spp. nymphs, pp. 41-48.) 

KENNEDY, C. H. 1915. Notes on the life history and ecol- 
ogy of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Washington and Oregon. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns. 49: 259-345. 201 figs. (Many compara- 
tive notes on nymphs. Key to species of Macromia, p. 322). 

ID. 1917. Notes on the life history and ecology of the 
dragonflies (Odonata) of Central California and Nevada. Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mns. 52: 483-635, 404 figs. (Many comparative 
notes on nymphs. Key to species of Ophiogomphus, p. 544. 
Comparative figs, of nymphs 4 spp. Goiuplnis, pp. 571, 573, and 
2 spp. Acslina, pp. 585-590.) 

ID. 1924. Notes and descriptions of naiads belonging to the 
dragonfly genus Helocordnlia. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 64 (12) : 
1-4, pi. 1. 

ID. 1936. The habits and early stages of the dragonfly, 
Gomphaeschna furcillata Say. Proc. Indiana Acad. Scl. 45: 315- 
322, figs. 

KLOTS, E. B. 1932. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands. Odonata or Dragonflies. Scicn. Surv. Porto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands, xvi (i) Ne^t> York Acad. Sci. 107 pp., 7 
pis. (Keys to some groups.) 

LAMB, L. 1924. A tabular account of the differences be- 
tween the earlier instars of Pantala flarcscens (Libelluliilur. 
Odonata). Trans. Amcr. Ent. Soc., 50: 289-312, pi. \. i Key 
to instars of this species, p. 309). 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

ID. 1929. The later larval stages of Pantala. Trans, cited 
55: 331-333. 

LAMPERT, K. 1910. Das Leben der Binnengewasser. 2te 
Auflage Leipzig, 856 pp. (Key to genera, p. 198). (Ite Auf- 
lage 1899.) 

LIEFTINCK, M. A. 1930. Fauna Buruana; Odonata III. A 
review of the dragonfly-fauna of Boeroe, in the Moluccas, with 
descriptions of new or interesting species, and an account of 
their larvae. Treubia, 7 Suppl. (6) : 305-330, pis., vi-ix 8 figs. 
(Comparative table for Anax fumosus and guttatus larvae, 
p. 329.) 

ID. 1931. A revision of the genus Epophthalmia Burm. 
(Corduliinae), with notes on habits and larvae. Treubia 13 (1) : 
21-80, 1 col. pi., 29 figs. (Key to larvae of 3 spp., p. 73.) 

ID. 1932. Notes on the larvae of two interesting Gomphi- 
dae from the Malay Peninsula. Bull. Raffles Mus. Singapore 7 : 
102-115, 2 figs., pis. ii-iv. Comparative table for larvae 2 spp. 
of Sicboldius, p. 106.) 

ID. 1933. The life history of Procordulia artcmis Lieft. 
with comparative notes on the biology of P. sumbawana 
(Forster). Intern. Rev. gcsammt. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr. 28 
(5/6) : 399-435, 14 figs. (Comparative statement of the larvae 
of the 2 spp., p. 433.) 

ID. 1934. Notes on a few Gomphidae from the Indo-Aus- 
tralian Archipelago, with descriptions of new spp. and larvae. 
Tijds. Ent. 77: 18-36, 7 figs. (Comparative statement of 
larvae of 2 spp. of Mesogomphus, p. 23.) 

ID. 1940. Revisional notes on some species of Copcra Kirby, 
with notes on habits and larvae (Platycneminidae). Treubia 17 
(4) : 281-306, pis. 10-14, 1 map, 5 figs. (Comparative state- 
ments and figs, of larvae of 2 spp. of Copcra, pp. 301-303.) 

LONGFIELD, CYNTHIA. 1937. The dragonflies of the British 
Isles, i Warne, London & New York, 220 pp., 38, pis. (The 
nymph of each sp. is described, but there are no keys.) 

LUCAS, W. J. 1900. British dragonflies (Odonata). Gill, 
London, 356 pp., 57 figs., 27 color, pis. (Key to nymphs, pp. 
40-44, 330-331.) 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 69 

ID. 1930. The aquatic (naiad) stage of the British dragon- 
flies. Ray Soc. Vol. 117, London. Dulau and Co., Ltd., xii, 
132 pp., 30 figs., 35 pis. (Key to species, pp. 19-25.) 

MARTIN, ROSEMARY D. C. 1939. Life histories of Agrion 
acquabilc and Agrion maculatum (Agriidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. 
Amer. 32 (3) : 601-619, 5 figs., 3 tables, pis. i-iv. (Tables ii 
and iii give measurements of nine organs of 12 successive in- 
stars for these 2 spp. respectively.) 

MAY E. 1933. Libellen oder Wasserjungfern (Odonata) 
In Die Ticrivelt Dcutschlands und dcr angrenzcndcn Mecrcs- 
tcilc. Part 27, iv, 124 pp., 134 figs. (Keys to families, genera 
and species, pp. 87-117.) 

MUNCHBERG, P. 1930. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Biologic 
der Odonaten Nordostdeutschlands, I. Die Biologic des Genus 
Sympctrum Newm. Sitsbcr. Gcs. naturf. Frcunde 1930 (4/7) : 
205-234, figs. (Key to 4 spp. p. 233.) 

ID. 1930. Zur Biologic der Odonatengenera BracJiytron 
Evans und Acsclina Fbr. Zweite Mitteilung der "Beitrage zur 
Kenntnis der Biologic der Odonaten Nordostdeutschlands." 
Ztschr. Morph. Okol. Ticre 20 (1) : 172-232, 15 figs. (Com- 
parative descriptions of larvae of B. hafnicnse and 7 spp. 
Aeschna.) 

ID. 1932. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Biologic der Libellen- 
unterfamilie der Cordulinae Selys. Intern. Rei>. ycsamt. Hydro- 
biol. u. Hydrogr. 27 (2/3), 265-302, 11 figs. (No keys, but 
tables showing differences between last 5 instars of Cordulia 
aenca, p. 283, and first 12 instars of Sonwtochlora mctallica, 
p. 287.) 

ID. 1932. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Biologic der Odonaten- 
familie der Gomphidae Bks. Ztschr. Morph. Okol. Ticrc 24 
(3/4) : 704-735, 12 figs. (No keys; table of differences be- 
tween last 4 larval instars of Ophiogomphus serpentinus, p. 
725.) 

ID. 1933. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Biologic der Lestinae 
Calv. Intern. Rev. gcsaint. Plydrobiol. u. Hydrog. 28 (3/4) : 
141-171, 12 figs. (Tables give body lengths of successive in- 
stars of Sympcnna fusca, p. 161, Lestes 2 spp., pp. 164-169.) 

ID. 1938. Ueber die Entwicklung und die Larve der Libelle 
Sympctrum pcdcnwntanum Allioni. zugleich ein Beitrag ueber 
die Anzahl der Hautungen der Odonatenlarven. Arch. Xatur- 
gcsch. (N. F.) 7: 559-568, 2 figs. (No keys; table with data 
on 1st to 9th exuviae of .9. pcdcmontamnn, pp. 561-562.) 

(To be continued.) 



70 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

A Population Study of a Bumblebee Colony, Bombus 
americanorum Fabr. (Hymen.: Bombidae). 

By PHIL RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 

This is a population study of one colony of Bombus ameri- 
canorum Fabr., removed on August 23, 1939, from its nest at 
Pacific, Missouri. While this species normally nests in the 
ground, this one was found in an old rodent's domicile in the 
hollow portion of a fallen log near a field of red clover. 

Important studies in population problems of social insects 
have been made by such able investigators as Emerson 1 , Boden- 
heimer 2 , and others, but the life conditions of social insects are 
so intricate and the studies of colonies so difficult that many 
data must yet be gathered before extensive generalizations may 
be made. In regard to population studies of bumblebees, Boclen- 
heimer says that "no reliable data are yet known on the dura- 
tion of development, on longevity, or on total egg-production" 
and that the "lack of the relation between the number of cells 
and the number of individuals in the nest is even greater than 
in the wasps". For certain species of American bumblebees, 
however, Plath 3 and Frison 4 have recently supplied many of 
the missing data ; but even so, the last word has not yet been 
said on bumblebee populations ; therefore, when I had the 
opportunity to take a colony of B. americanorum late in the 
season, I decided to gather what information I could add to the 
meager knowledge of bumblebee populations. 

The date when the nest was taken, August 23, is about four 
weeks before the colonies break up for the winter; that is if the 
information which Frison obtained for this species in Illinois 
holds also for Missouri, which is quite likely. The colony as 
taken was complete except for .three workers, which spent the 
night away from home and were taken on their return next 
morning. 

1 Population of Social Insects. Ecological Monographs 9 : 287-300, 
1939. 

2 Population Problems of Social Insects. Biol. Rev. 12 : 393-430, 1937. 

* Bumblebees and Their Ways. pp. 199, N. Y., 1934. 

* A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Bionomics of Bremus 
americanorum. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 23 : 644-665, 1930, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 71 

The food reserves in the nest were scanty; there were only 
four cocoons full of honey, and one full and three half full 
cocoons of pollen. In addition, six others gave evidence of 
having at one time served as pollen containers. None of the 
containers were sealed. These were the old cocoons from which 
insects had emerged and were later used as containers. 

Frison, who has very thoroughly worked up the life history 
of B. amcricanorum, says that Psithyrus variubilis is the com- 
mon social parasite of this bumblebee. I looked carefully for 
evidence of this parasite in the colony but found none ; nor was 
there any evidence of damage done by other parasites. Only a 
few foreigners were found in the nest ; one caterpillar that 
might have been J'itiila cdmandsii (since it resembled a figure 
in Plath's book) ; four adult beetles, Har pains herbivngus Say. 
(L. L. Buchanan det.), whose interest in the nest could not be 
determined; a half-dozen nymphs and a half-dozen empty egg 
cases of the woodroach Parcoblatta sp. The beetles and roaches 
were evidently scavengers and probably in no way injured the 
colony. 

A CENSUS OF THE COLONY. 
Immature Population. 

Eggs ; two batches totaling 

Larvae ; small, about V 2 grown or less 26 

Larvae ; medium, males or workers in act of spinning cocoons 
Larvae; large, queens in act of spinning cocoons. . . . 

Large cocoons containing adult queens 58 

Thirty-five of the above were fully pigmented and 
winged, ready to emerge as adults ; 23 had white bod it--, 
some of which were just beginning to become pig- 
mented. 
Large cocoons containing quiescent larvae of queens. . 

Cocoons with workers 

Cocoons ; small, with male pupae 

Of the 48 listed above, 8 were fully formed ready to 
emerge, 17 were only partly pigmented, 23 were com- 
pletely white. 
Small cocoons with quiescent larvae (sex unknown). . . . 46 

Since the sixe of adult workers and adult males are 
the same ( Plath ) one may legitimately expect the 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

cocoons also to be the same size for both castes ; 
therefore, the 46 listed above may be either males or 
workers. 



Total of immature organisms in colony. .238 



L S 



Adult Population. 

Foundress queen; only one in colony with frayed wings. ... 1 

Adult workers; dried pinned specimens, 14 to 17 mm. 5 . ... 95 

Dwarfed workers. 6 4 

Young queens; dried, pinned specimens, 20-22 mm 26 

Young queens; dried, pinned specimens, about 18 mm 3 

Workers which returned next day. 3 



Total number of adults in colony 132 

The tables show that the immature organisms totaled 238 
and the adults 132, thus giving a grand total for the colony of 
370. How many of the immature organisms would have 
reached maturity before the coming of winter is not known; 
it probably would depend upon climatic conditions. At any 
rate, the colony at that late date would, have no use for addi- 
tional workers, and actually we do not find any immature 
workers in the nest, granting that the 46 small cocoons with 
larvae, whose sex could not be determined, are males. If these 
46 larvae are males, then the colony would have had, before 
the close of the season, a population of 94 males ; they would 
then almost have equaled the workers in number, whose total 
was 102. 

It is interesting to note that there were no males in the 
nest on August 23, but that 29 new queens were there. The 
emerging date for males was still some time off because of the 
48 males still within their cocoons, only eight were so far along 
in their development as to have the bodies pigmented. In con- 

5 Measurements of adults of this species according' tu Plath (p. 164) 
are : queens 22 mm., workers 17 mm., males 17 mm. 

* There were four dwarfed workers in this colony and Prison (p. 660) 
finds that workers of this species produced in the early part of the 
season are often very small. For certain social wasps (Ecology 20: 
440, 1939) it was found that workers of the first brood, probably due 
to undernourishment are often of small size. 



Hi, '41 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 73 

trast to this when queen cocoons were cut open it was found 
that 35 out of the 58 were completely formed, with wings ex- 
panded, and ready to emerge. In this nest, at least, the queens 
became adult sometime before the males. 

It is also interesting to note that while 29 adult queens were 
in the nest, there were, in addition, 85 cocoons (58, 17, and 10; 
see table) which contained immature queens that would have 
emerged before the close of the season had the colony not been 
disturbed. This would have given a total of 114 queens. Since 
apparently there would have been no more worker bees becom- 
ing mature, our total population of workers is 102. This colony, 
then, would have produced before the end of the summer 114 
queens and 102 workers. 

An item of much importance, also, in a colony of this kind 
is the amount of mortality among the bees during the working 
season. In populations of social insects generally, it is not 
always easy to study the relation of the number born to the 
number that survive to the end of the season. In bumblebees, 
however, a study of this kind is comparatively easy, since each 
adult leaves behind a telltale cocoon from which it hatched, 
and unlike other social insects, the cells are not used a second time 
for brood. Therefore when we counted 132 adults in the 
colony, we would expect to find 131 empty cocoons in the not 
(deducting 1 cocoon for the queen which was born elsewhere). 
A count actually gave us 137 empty cocoons, showing that the 
total loss of adult insects for the summer was only six. A sepa- 
ration of the cocoons into two sizes, queen cocoons and worker 
cocoons, showed no loss of queens ; there were 29 queens in the 
colony and 29 large empty cocoons. The six bumblebees that 
had been lost, came from among the worker caste. The lack 
of mortality of the queens was only to be expected, since thev 
were young and had probably spent no time outside the nest. 
The mortality among worker bees is indeed low and proves, for 
this colony at least, that in a world of enemies, Boinhus aincri- 
cauonun with her big body, flashy colors, audible hum and 
severe sting holds her own very well. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

Triungulins of a Rhipiphorid Beetle Borne by Elis 
quinquecincta Fabr. (Coleoptera). 

By ROBERT W. PYLE, Biological Laboratories, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Among the specimens of Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymen- 
optera collected at Sycamore Mills (near Philadelphia), Penn- 
sylvania, during August, 1938, were a male and female Elis 
quinquecincta Fabricius. Subsequent examination of the 
Hymenoptera disclosed the fact that each of these two speci- 
mens had four triungulins attached to it. On the male one was 
attached to the hairs of the right side of the clypeus, one to the 
hairs of the prothorax, and one between the tarsal claws of 
each middle leg. The female Elis bore two attached to the 
hairs of the prothorax, one at the apex of the right hind wing, 
and one on the basal portion of the left hind wing on the anal 
vein. 

These triungulins had been killed, as was the host, in a 
cyanide bottle and were quite dry when discovered. They were 
cleared in potash and mounted in gum damar, and probably be- 
long to the genus Rhipiphorus; they may be described as 
follows : 

Length 0.34 mm., width 0.12 mm. Body uniformly intensely 
black with the eyes slightly darker. The entire body much 
flattened dorso-ventrally, about twice as wide as thick through- 
out. 

Head triangular, one-twelfth wider than long; the front 
border forming a blunt point. Eyes set upon the posterior 
corners of the head, and appearing, in specimens cleared in 
potash, to be composed of four or five ommatidia of more or 
less uniform size. Antennae three-jointed, cylindrical; a small 
basal joint, a short second joint, and the third joint more than 
twice as long as the second. Two apical setae, one much larger 
than the other, are set in the apex of the second joint. The 
apical seta of the third joint is long and extremely thin, its 
apex seen only after careful scrutiny under an oil immersion 
lens. The antennae and setae are about as long as the head. 
The palpi are about one-fourth the length of the head, three- 
jointed; joints cylindrical. Mandibles large, somewhat tri- 
angular, bluntly pointed; concealed beneath the head when 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



75 



closed and capable of overlapping slightly. They are set, on 
the posterior border, into a socketlike depression. Labrum 
with a number of setae along the ventral exposed portion. 
There is also one ventral in front of each antenna, one ventral 
back of each eye, and one along each side of the median ventral 
groove that runs the entire length of the head passing dorsad 
to the closed mandibles. 




Thorax about as long as the abdomen ; prothorax the longest, 
and metathorax the shortest. Each sternum is armed, on the 
anterior portion, with two very heavy bristles, one on each side. 

The abdomen is relatively short in comparison to its width 
and is composed of nine segments in addition to an apical 
membranous process. Each segment bears a number of setae 
on the posterior margin ventrally ; these are arranged in tour 
longitudinal rows on each side with another row on the lateral 
margins of the segments. In addition to these the eighth seg- 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

ment bears laterally a pair of long bristles. The dorsal part of 
the body is devoid of bristles or setae. 

The legs are about one-half the length of the body, and about 
equal in size. The femora are somewhat thickened, the tibiae 
more slender, and the tarsi apparently composed of three slender 
joints supported by a process equally long, but even under oil 
immersion their structure is exceedingly difficult to ascertain. 
Each part of the leg bears a number (4-8) of bristly hairs of 
varying lengths. 

The method of attachment of these triungulins to the host 
is the same as has been described by Brues (1924) for Horia 
m-aculata Swed. Several hairs, or in some cases one hair, are 
grasped in such a way that they pass along the median ventral 
groove of the head dorsad to the mandibles which close below 
them. That this method of attachment is secure is attested by 
the fact that the specimen attached to the apex of the hind wing 
of the female Elis was extended at an angle and the legs were 
directed posteriorly. This wasp, being a fairly rapid flyer, 
must have given her passenger quite a dizzy ride. No ridges 
were observed on the mandibles as is the case of Horia inacu- 
lata. 

Reference of these triungulins to the genus Rhipiphorus is 
based upon a few distinguishing characteristics. Rhlpiphorus 
is the only genus in which the eyes are set upon the posterior 
corners of the head with the antennae just anterior to them 
(Boving and.Craighead, 1931, p. 281, figs. E. & G.). In all 
other genera the antennae are located upon the anterior half of 
the head with the eyes either upon the anterior half or near the 
middle. In some the eyes are located upon the posterior 
corners, but the antennae are well forward. Cros (1920) 
states that the numbers of ocelli are good characters for dis- 
tinguishing between the various triungulins. He states the 
Sitarini possess two ocelli, RJripiphoridac three, Macrosiagon, 
Emmenadia, Rhizostylops four, Stylops several and the other 
Mcloidac (Horiini, Mcloini, Lyttini*) one. Boving and Craig- 
head (1931), on the other hand, figure (p. 281 fig. E.) Rhipi- 
phorus solidagims Pierce with five ocelli. The triungulin in 
question has four or five ; the exact number being difficult to 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 77 

determine due to their extremely small size. It seems that the 
position of the eyes and antennae rather than the numher of 
ocelli is a better character for distinguishing this genus from 
closely related ones. Chobaut (1919) figures Rliipidins dcnsi 
(p. 204), but although the eyes are located upon the posterior 
corners of the head the antennae are far forward. R. dcnsi also 
possesses many more bristles than the triungulin in question. 

The mandibles of this triungulin are broader than those 
shown, in most figures, and do not correspond well with those 
figured by Boving and Craighead (1931). This difference, I 
believe, is due to the amount of clearing done in potash. The 
anterior border of the mandible is much thicker than the pos- 
terior portion. Consequently, at first sight the mandibles appear 
to be thin hooked structures and it is only after detailed study 
of a number of specimens that the posterior portion is evident. 
The position of the mandibles eliminates the possibility of these 
specimens belonging to the Ep-icauta or Macrobasis as described 
by Milliken (1921), since the mandibles of those genera are 
visible from above at all times. In the specimen in question the 
mandibles are well concealed by the labrum when closed. Other 
genera, Tetraouy.r, Zonitis Horia, Mcloc, with the mandibles 
placed so that they are not visible from above, have the anten- 
nae and the eyes located more toward the anterior portion of 
the head; this distinguishes them from Rhipiphorus. As is 
common with all genera having the mandibles so placed, these 
triungulins have a median ventral groove running the entire 
length of the head on the ventral surface. It is in this that 
the hair of the host is pressed by the mandibles. 

The tarsus is worthy of note. It appears to be composed of 
three more or less equal joints which are supported by an 
equally long process. The structure of the tarsus is very diffi- 
cult to determine, even using an oil immersion lens, and its 
clarity depends upon the amount of clearing in potash. Cros 
(1920) states that the specimens of Mdoini he observed pos- 
sessed tarsi which terminated in three similar curved claws, of 
equal thickness or sometimes with the median one stouter and 
straight. These types he termed "en fourche" and "en trident 



78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | March, "41 

de Neptune". Brues (1924) describes the tarsus pf Horia 
rnaculata as "reduced to a single curved claw on each leg". 
Pierce (1904) describes Rhipiphorus (Myodites auct.} solid- 
aginis, Pierce : "Tarsus apparently three-jointed with a long 
claw, almost entirely concealed by a large, transparent, fleshy, 
elliptical sucker which is double its length." The triungulin 
found upon Ells also has the tarsus three-jointed, but the so- 
called sucker is only as long as the tarsus. Unfortunately, 
Pierce's figures are not sufficiently detailed to show the form 
of the tarsus in that species. 

The presence of these triungulins, genus Rhipiphorus, upon 
both male and female Elis qumquecincta led me to examine 
other specimens of this wasp to see if they also bore triung- 
ulins. Accordingly, I examined the collection of Prof. C. T. 
Brues, which he so kindly placed at my disposal. This series 
contained specimens taken in various parts of the United 
States from Texas and Chicago eastward. In no case was I 
able to discover any triungulin upon any of the specimens in 
this collection, although they had been taken at various times 
during the entire season. This is not, however, the first case 
of triungulins having been found associated with wasps. 
Barber (1915) has noted Macrosiagon flavipennis in the cocoon 
of the wasp, Bcmbe.r spitwlac. The presence of these Rhipi- 
phorid triungulins upon Elis qninquccincta can probably be 
explained as a case of mistaken host as the Elis were taken 
while feeding upon some flowers. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BARBER, H. S. 1915 Macrosiagon flavipennis in Cocoons 
of Bern hex spinolae Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 17: 187-88. 

BOVING, A. G. and F. C. CRAIGHEAD. 1930-1 An Illus- 
trated Synopsis of the Principal Larval Forms of the Order 
Coleoptcra. Entom. Americana v. 11: 1-351. 

BRUES, C. T. 1924 Triungulin Larvae from the Williams 
Galapagos Expedition. Zoologica V (11) 125-36. 

CHOBAUT, A. 1919 Description des deux sexes, de 1'oeuf 
et de larve primaire d'un nouveau Rhipidius de Provence. Bull. 
Soc. Entom. de France, 1919 p. 200-206, 2 figs. 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

CROS, AUGUST. 1920 Notes sur les larves primaire des 
Meloidae avec indication de larves nouvelles. Ann. Entom. Soc. 
France vol. 88: 261-79. 

MILLIKEN, F. B. 1921 Results of Work on Blister Beetles 
in Kansas. Bull. U. S. Dept. Agric. No. 967. 

PIERCE, W. D. 1904 --Some Hypermetamorphic Beetles 
and their Hymenopterous Hosts. Univ. of Nebraska Studies 
4: 153-90. 



Does He Stridulate? (Lepidoptera : Eupterotidae). 

By WM. T. M. FORBES, Department of Entomology, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

Tamphana marmorca Schaus is a striking little moth, more 
or less related to the North American Apatdodcs, one of the 
odd American group which has, roughly speaking, the vena- 
tion and strong frenulum of the Notodontidae, larva of the 
Lasiocampidae and appearance of the Bombycidae, a group 
which I should rate as a subfamily of Eupterotidae, though 
Schaus places it with the Bombycidae 1 . 

For the Apatelodinae as a whole the genitalia are of normal 
character: uncus well developed and articulated with the in- 
flated tegumen, as in Bombycidae, Geometridae, Sphingidae, 
etc. ; valves well developed, normal in character and articulation, 
their inner side articulating with a transtilla above and a normal 
juxta below ; tegumen and vinculum forming a normal ring, 
the latter with a more or less distinct saccus ; gnathos showing 
a slight peculiarity in being often continuously chitinized with 
the tegumen, though the two elements show separate systems 
of sculpture in Olccclostcra, at least. 

The genera as a whole fall into two groups, which do not 
correspond to the venational groups used in "Seit/.",, but do 
correspond with the few known larvae. In the first, typified 
by Epla, the eighth segment is highly modified, chitinized, and 

1 See Seitz's "Macrolepidoptera of the World" vol. vi, pp. 675, 692, pi. 
89, fig. k8. 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

toothed or spined dorsally and ventrally ; uncus reduced and 
more or less membranous, and aedeagus long and slender ; but 
the valves, while a little reduced in size and simplified, are 
normal in general structure, position, attachments, and obvi- 
ously in function. The larvae show masses of very character- 
istic hair-scales. Qucntalia is typical of this group, which 
includes Anticla, Zcnwla, Colla and Epia. In the last two 
the specialization has gone further and the last two segments 
are hopelessly fused. 

The other type is that of true A pat clod 'cs. The uncus is 
strongly chitinized and clearly articulated, is most often forked, 
and plainly fully functional ; the eighth segment is unmodified, 
the aedoeagus very short and stout, usually simple, and the 
valves are large and complex, often showing some trace of a 
clasper, and typically with a hairy lobe projecting posteriorly 
from the costal articulation. The known larvae have tufts and 
pencils of fine hair. A pat clod cs, Olceclostera,'Arotros, Drap- 
atclodcs, Colabata, Compsa and Drcpatelodes belong to this 
group, though with some variation, Compsa, e.g., has lost 
the juxta. 

Tamphatia (see figure 1) falls quite outside this picture. 
The uncus is as reduced as in any Epiine, but is wholly separate 
from the large inflated tegumen, which latter has large rough 
lateral extensions. The eighth segment is not chitinized dor- 
sally or ventrally, but has two lateral chitinizations on its inner 
face, ending below in hooks {Accessory sclent c of the figure) ; 
I can find no juxta, transtilla or gnathos, but on the other hand 
the saccus is longer than in any other Apatelodine. Most 
extraordinary of all are the valves. The main part of these, 
corresponding to valvula, sacculus and clasper, are reduced to 
two little hairy lobes, the right one subsessile, the left attached 
by a slender stem, and both obviously functionless rudiments ; 
but above these there are two unsymmetrical and highly chiti- 
nized masses, attached by a broad sliding articulation to the 
side lobes of the tegumen, and extending up nearly to meet the 
sides of the uncus. The right one is broader at the base, 
occupying the whole midventral line, and ends ventromesally 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



81 



Tequmen 



kcessoru 
Sclerite 



Arti cul ati on_|_ J? _J 

SXridulatorq 
Scraper 

Lef t Co ft a 



Vinculum_ _\V._1_ 



SQCCUS 



rti culation 




-Stridulatoru 
File 

ftiyttt Costa. 

_Valve Proper 



Fig. 1. Male genitalia of Tanipluiiia nuinnorca. 

in a black horizontally striated knob; while the left one over- 
lies it, is narrower, less obviously striated (the faint striations 
are not shown in the figure) and ends mesally in a blunt 
ridge which lies on the striated area of the right one. 

This has all the appearance of a stridulatory organ, with file 
and scraper ; and we hope some good field observer in Panama 
or elsewhere will report on the mating behavior. The species 
is not too rare at Barro Colorado Island, though only males 
are before me. 

It is also a curious problem how mating is managed in this 
species; the uncus and valves, which together form the usual 
clasping apparatus, are obviously non-functional; there is no 
adequate modification of the eighth segment to take their place. 



82 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

I may only note that the aedeagus is tremendously developed, 
ending in a heavy circular hook. It would doubtless be strong 
enough to hold an attachment, but it is a mystery how it could 
be engaged and disengaged. 



Descriptions of Three New Species of Mexican 
Ghimarrha (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae). 

By DONALD G. DENNING, University of Minnesota, St. Paul. 
In December, 1938, Mr. Janus Ridley made a short collecting 
trip into northeastern Mexico. While collecting in the Mexican 
state, Nuevo Leon, approximately 200 miles south of the Texas 
border, three new species of Chimarrha were taken. I wish to 
express my thanks to Mr. Nathan Banks for examining these 
specimens, and to Mr. Ridley for presenting them as a gift to 
the University of Minnesota. 

Chimarrha betteni n. sp. 

$ . Wing expanse 13 to 16 mm. Head blackish, thorax, 
antennae, palpi and legs fumose. Setae of head and thorax 
black and light brown. Wing membranes fumose, black setae 
quite dense along costal portion of wings and sparsely scattered 
over remainder. Three hyaline areas, devoid of setae, distri- 
buted over f orewings as follows : a narrow nearly straight line 
extending from fork of R 2+ 3 to! M 3 ; a wide V-shaped spot, at 
fork of Mi+2 and M 3 ; a short narrow line just beyond tip of 
Anal veins. Ocelli small and inconspicuous. Second segment 
of maxillary palpus with a group of long stout black setae 
distally, extending almost two-thirds length of third segment 
of maxillary palpus. Spurs 1-4-4; spur of foreleg small and 
inconspicuous. Venation typical for genus. 

Genitalia as in Fig. 1. Eighth tergite heavily sclerotized 
curved ventrad distally with a median laminate process extend- 
ing to the cercus, curving anteriorly and fusing to the antero- 
dorsal angle of tenth tergite, distal margin of this process much 
more heavily sclerotized than remainder ; eighth tergite, on each 
side of this median process, produced caudad into a thin, flat 
ovate projection, bearing a few rather long setae. Sternite of 
ninth segment heavily sclerotized, almost completely covered by 
eighth sternite, ventral lamina narrowly attenuated. Ninth 
tergite heavily sclerotized, sickle-shaped, curved caudad dis- 
tally ; bearing the semi-ovate cercus along posterior margin ; 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

entire margin of cercus and ninth tergite with a brush of dense 
rather long setae ; proximally this tergite fused to postero- 
ventral angle of eighth tergite. Small ovate structure, covered 
with small setae, between distal end of ninth and tenth tergites, 
barely discernible when viewed laterally. Tenth tergite extend- 
ing caudad over aedeagus, saddle-shaped, posterior margin 
curved dorsad about even with cercus. Clasper small, narrow, 
widest portion about three times width of base; ventral margin 
elongated dorsad into blunt finger-like projection, dorsal margin 
with two short blunt angulations. Aedeagus weakly sclerotized, 
distally two splinter-like sclerites. 

9 . Wing expanse 16 mm. Very similar in size, color and 
general characteristics to male. 

Holotypc Male, Villa Allende, Nuevo Leon, MEXICO, De- 
cember 6, 1938, (Janus Ridley). Deposited in University of 
Minnesota collection. Allotypc Female, same data as for holo- 
type. Parat\pes 2 males, same data as for holotype . 

Chimarrha ridleyi n. sp. 

$ . Wing expanse 10 mm. Head, thorax and antennae 
blackish, setae of head and thorax brown ; palpi and legs 
fumose. Wing membranes fumose, short black pubescence very 
sparsely scattered. Four small hyaline areas distributed over 
forewings as follows: a narrow line extending from fork R^r, 
to M ]+2 ; a rounded hyaline spot near fork of Mi +2 and M 3 ; 
a narrow line a short distance beyond this fork, and extending 
across cell M L . ; a, relatively wide line near tip of Anal veins 
extending from near Cu to margin of wing. Ocelli small and 
inconspicuous. Second segment of maxillary palpus with a 
group of stout black setae distally extending almost one-fourth 
length of third segment of maxillary palpus. Spurs 1-4-4. spur 
of fore tibia relatively stout and prominent. Venation typical 
for genus. 

Genitalia as in Fig. 2. Ninth segment heavily sclerotized, 
sternite broadly triangular, proximal fifth covered by eighth 
segment, ventral lamina short, triangular, bearing a few, small, 
fine setae; dorsally ninth tergite narrowed; to about one-fourth 
width of eighth tergite, along lateral margin an anteriorly 
directed blunt angulation. Tenth tergite relatively simple, com- 
posed of a pair of narrow plates, extending caudad about two- 
thirds length of aedeagus, postero-ventral corner shortly 
attenuated; dorso-distal portion with a small, wide, flattened 
triangular projection; distally tenth tergite weakly sclerotized. 
Small rounded clasper, base of tenth tergite, bears a few long 



84 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[March, '41 



fine setae. Clasper with base narrow, greatly widened distally, 
postero-dorsal corner elongated dorso-caudad ; postero-ventral 
corner blunt, directed ventrad ; distal margin serrate, it and 
rounded ventral margin bearing fairly long, fine, light-colored 
setae, concave inner surface with no setae. 

Holotype Male, Villa Allende, Nuevo Leon, MEXICO, De- 
cember 6, 1938, (Janus Ridley). Deposited in University of 
Minnesota collection. 

Chimarrha pylaea n. sp. 

$ . Wing expanse 12 mm. Head and thorax blackish, an- 
tennae black, palpi and legs fumose. Setae of head and thorax 
dark brown. Wing membranes fumose. covered with short 
black sparse pubescence. Five small hyaline areas, all devoid 
of setae, distributed over the forewing as follows : a small spot 
along RI near fork of Ro +3 and R4+s ; a narrow line extending 
from fork R 4 +r, to M U2 ; a small round spot at fork of M i+ o 
and MS; a narrow line, just beyond this fork extending from 
M 1+ o across to M 3 ; a fairly wide line near tip of Anal veins 
extending from near Cu to margin of wing. Ocelli small and 
inconspicuous. Second segment of maxillary palpus with a 
group of stout black setae distally, extending 1 slightly less than 
one-fourth length of third segment of maxillary palpus. Spurs 
1-4-4; spur of fore tibia relatively stout and prominent. Vena- 
tion typical for genus. 





Terminalia of males of Chimarrha, left lateral views : 1. Ch. betteni 
n. sp., 2. Ch. ridlcyi n. sp., 3. Ch. pylaea n. sp. 

Genitalia as in Fig. 3. Sternite of ninth segment heavily 
sclerotized, ventral lamina short, triangular, directed slightly 
dorsad, a few fine setae present, dorsally ninth tergite narrowed 
to about one-tenth width of eighth tergite, lateral margin with 
an acute angulation directed anteriorly. Clasper convex, pos- 



Hi. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL xr.ws 

tero-ventral angle fingerlike, curved dorsad, almost reaching 
ventral margin of aedeagus; proximo-dorsal angle wide, blunt, 
directed dorsad ; viewed laterally two small teeth along distal 
margin; mesal margin serrate entire length. Convex outer 
surface with a few fine setae along margins, concave inner sur- 
face with no setae. Tenth tergite a thin narrow plate, gradu- 
ally tapering ventro-caudad, extending caudad about two-thirds 
length of aedeagus; proximal half of plate moderately sclero- 
tized, distal half only weakly sclerotized. Small rounded 
cercus, at base of tenth tergite, bearing a few long fine setae. 
Distal portion of aedeagus with a dorso-caudad directed lobe, 
bearing a small splinter-like sclerite. 

Holotypc Male. Monterey, MEXICO, December 4, 193S. 
small stream, (Janus Ridley). Deposited in University of 
Minnesota collection. 



Cardinal Feeding on a Mantid (Orthoptera: MantidaeV 

Early in the morning of October 19, 1940, a cold day (26 F. 
at 6 A. M.), I saw a male cardinal on the porch, under an 
arborvita tree, apparently eating leaves and white fruits of a 
silver lace vine which had been left on the floor when the vine 
was cut back for the winter. After close watching I saw that 
the "green leaves" were the front wings of a mature mantid 
(Paratenodera siucusis) and the "white fruits" were bits of 
the internal organs. All four wings in turn were picked up 
and passed through the bill from side to side, beginning at the 
thin outer edge and working toward the base, in such a way 
that the bird seemed to be squeezing out any substance that 
could be extracted. The base of the wing was "nibbled" thor- 
oughly and then the wing was tossed aside. Between dealing 
with wings, the bird ate most of the thorax, discarding the 
tougher chitin of the back, and the femora of most of the 
legs. He then started on the abdomen and dragged out the 
contents bit by bit until he had consumed at least half. By 
that time the bird was obviously "stalled" and he would eat a 
bit, then sit back and wait until he was able to take another 
beakful. Finally he had to give up and leave the rest tor 
another time which never came as we gathered up the frag- 
ments. 

I did not see the beginning of the feast so I do not know if 
the bird caught the mantid or found it dead. If the latter, it 
must have just died as it was flexible and juicy- -AMELIA S. 
CALVERT, Cheyney, Pennsylvania. 



86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
In the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of. or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Alexander, C. P. Records and descrip- 
tions of North American crane-flies. [119] 24: 602-644, ill. 
Anders, C. Living- aerials. [Nat. Mag.] 34: 94-96, ill. 
Anon. A new entomologist joins Ward's staff. [118] 14: 
1-2, ill. Anon. Collections of insects for illustrating im- 
portant biological concepts. [118] 14: 9-10, ill. Fletcher, F. 
C. Collecting and preservation of Coleoptera. [118] 14: 
8-9, ill. Ruediger, E. Insekten als krankheitsiibertrager. 
[Ent. Jahr.] 1938-39: 149-1 bO. Schtepetilnikova, V. A. For 
the ecologv of the Azof-Black Sea race of Trichogramma 
evanescens". [Bull. Plant Protection USSR] 1940: 161-165. 
Teale, E. W. The Golden Throng. Dodd, Mead & Co. 
1940. 208 pp., ill. von Tunkl, F. F. Bemerkungen iiber die 
art der fundortangaben vom wissenschaftlichen standpunkt. 
[Ent. Jahr.] 1938-39: 113-120, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Fallis, A. M.- 
(see under Diptera). Rollick, F. S. J. (see under Diptera). 
Huzimatu, K. The life history of a new cynipid fly, Kleid- 
otoma japonica. [Sci. Rep. Tohoku Imp. Univ.] 15:457- 
480, ill. Mitchell, R. T. The alimentary tract of Vespula 
maculifrons (Vespid.). [43] 41: 29-38, ill. Sidorovnina, 
E.P. On the hibernation of the egg-parasite of the bug 
(Eurygaster integriceps) Microphanurus semistriatus. 
[Bull. Plant Protection USSR] 1940: 183-184. Tsuda, M. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 87 

Metamorphose von Glyphotaelius admorsus. [Annota- 
tiones Zool. Japonenses] 19: 195-197, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Strelnikov, I. D. 

-Heat production by movement and its importance in the 
ecology of nocturnal butterflies. [Izvestiia Nauchwoo Inst.] 
23 : 293-338. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Carpenter, 
F. M- A revision of the nearctic Hemerobiidae, Berothi- 
dae, Sisyridae, Polystoechotidae and Dilaridae. [Pro. Amer. 
Acad. Arts & Sci.j 74: 193-280, ill. Carriker, M. A., Jr.- 
Studies in neotropical Mallophaga Part II. New genera 
and species. [Lloydia] 3. 281-300, ill. Hubbard, C. A. A 
review of the fleas of the genus Meringis with two new 
species. [Pacific Univ. Bull.] 37: 4 pp., ill. A review of 
the western fleas of the genus Malaraeus with one new 
species, and the description of a new Thrassis from Nevada. 
[Pacific Univ. Bull.] 37: 4 pp., ill. A check list of the fleas 
of the Pacific Northwest. [Pacific Univ. Bull.] 37: 4 pp. 
Montgomery, B. E. A revision of the genus Diastatops 
(Libellulidae) and a study of the leg characters of related 
genera. [Lloydia] 3: 213-280, ill. Yoshi, R. On some Col- 
lembola from Hokkaido. [Annotationes Zool. Japonenses] 
19: 185-190, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Rehn, J. A. G. On the species of the 
genus Camposia (Acridid. Cyrtacanthacrid.). [Notulae 
Naturae] No. 68: 11 pp., ill. (ks*). Urquhart & Corfe.- 
The European praying mantis (Mantis religiosa) in On- 
tario. [Canadian Field-Nat.] 54: 130-132, ill. 

HE/MIPTERA. da Costa Lima, A. Insetos do Brasil. 

Hemipteros. Volume 2. 1940. 351 pp., ill. (k). Novopols- 
kaia, E. New data concerning the biology of the apple 
sucker in the Crimea. [Bull. Plant Protection USSR] 1940: 
96-98. Snipes. Carvalho & Tauber. Biological studies of 
Ornithocoris toledoi, the Brazilian chicken bedbug. [Iowa 
State Coll. Jour. Sci.] 15: 27-37, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA Bell, E. L. A new genus and some 
new species of Hesperiidae from Peru, in the Bassler Col- 
lection. [40] No. 1094: 7 pp., ill. Bobinskaia, S. G. Basic 
ecological factors regulating the increase of Polychrosis 
bortana in Kakhetia. [Bull. Plant Protection USSR] 1940: 



88 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

78-86. Clark, A. H. Butterflies of Farmville, Virginia. [91] 
31: 38-40. Davenport, D. The butterflies of the satyrid 
genus Coenonympha. [Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 
Coll.] 87: 215-349, ill. Kotzsch, H. Das praparieren der 
Schmetterlinge. [Ent. Jahrb.] 1938-39: 5-15. ill. Miller, H. 
D. O. Observations on sod web-worms (Crambus spp.) in 
Kansas. [Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.] 43:267-281, ill. 

DIPTERA. Bequaert, J. Notes on Hippoboscidae 17. 
The Hippoboscidae of the Antilles. [115] 19: 305-327. Cope, 
O. B. The morphology of Esthiopterum diomedeae (Mal- 
lophaga). [117] 5: 117-142, ill. Fallis, A. M. Studies on 
Oestrus ovis. [Can. Jour. Res.] 18: 442-446, ill. Rollick, 
F. S. J. The flight of the dipterous fly Muscina stabulans. 
[Philosoph. Trans. Ry. Soc. Lond.] (B), 230: 357-390, ill. 
Rubcov, I. A. Geographical expansion and evolution of 
gadflies in connection with the history of their hosts. [Pri- 
roda] 1940, No. 6: 48-60, ill. Seevers, C. H. New Termi- 
tophilous Diptera from the neotropics. [Zool. Ser. Field 
Mus. Nat. Hist.] 24: 175-193. ill. Alexander, C. P. See 
General. 

COLEOPTERA Blaisdell, F. E. A monographic 

study of the species belonging to the melyrid genus Tricho 
chroides. [1] 66: 283-306, ill. Studies in the Melyridae. 
No. 12. [1] 66: 319-324. Murayama, J. Nouvelle note sur 
les Scolytides du Manchoukuo. [Annot. Zool. Japon.] 19: 
229-237. 

HYMENOPTERA. Linsley, E. G. A revision of the 
genus Oreopasites (Nomadid.). [1] 66: 307-318, ill. 
Mitchell, R. T. (See under Anatomy). Rees & Grund- 
mann. A preliminary list of the ants of Utah. [Bull. Univ. 
Utah] 31: 11 pp. Snodgrass, R. E. The male genitalia of 
Hymenoptera. [Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 99: 86 pp.. ill. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Synonymic list of butterflies of 
Korea. By D. M. Seok. Korea. 1939. 391 pp., ill. 



THE LOUSE, AN ACCOUNT OF THE LICE WHICH INFEST MAN, 
THEIR MEDICAL IMPORTANCE AND CONTROL. By PATRICK A. 
BUXTON, M. A., M. R. C. S., L. R. C. P., D' T. M. & H., 
Director, Department of Medical Entomology, London School 
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Professor of Medical Ento- 
mology, University of London. A William Wood Book. The 
Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, 1940. 8^4 x5^ inches, 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 89 

pp. ix, 115, 5 tables, 28 text figures, $3.00. The author, writ- 
ing in November, 1939, says in the preface: "At the present 
moment the control of the louse has become extremely im- 
portant in civil as well as military life. It may therefore be of 
service to publish an account of the insect, its relations to 
disease and the methods that may be used for controlling it. 
The present book was originally written as part of a larger 
work on medical entomology which is in preparation. It was 
designed for readers with some knowledge both of entomology 
and medicine : I trust that it has now been made comprehen- 
sible to those who lack the one or the other." 

A better general description of the book could hardly be 
written. It is full of valuable information and data of all 
kinds. It should be most useful to physicians, nurses and 
sanitation entomologists working in the war zone and of value 
to all students wishing a concise yet comprehensive summary 
to date of our knowledge of these insects and their relation to 
medicine, as well as to any intelligent layman who may have 
reason to use it. Essentially a highly concentrated compilation 
of data and results of responsible work on the louse, its biology 
and medical importance, much that is inconclusive has been 
omitted from text and bibliography. The student is thus saved 
the labor of sifting the literature for himself. 

The author justifiably devotes only the first 22 pages to the 
zoological position of the Anoplura and the external and in- 
ternal anatomy of Pedicnliis hiuncnius. The next 30 pages are 
concerned with the individual and collective biologies of head 
and body lice. Twenty-seven more have reference to the 
medical importance of P. linnianus with full discussions of 
the entomology of Typhus, Trench and Relapsing fevers to- 
gether with development of their causative organisms while in 
the body of the louse and the methods by which they are trans- 
mitted to man. Ten full pages on control followed by six on all 
aspects of Phthirus pnhis, and an appendix of 5 pages on meth- 
ods of rearing and artificially feeding lice for experimental 
purposes complete the main text. There are 7 pages of refer- 
ences and an adequate index. 

There is nothing superfluous in the book, yet Mr. Buxton 
avoids condensing his material to the point of unreadability. 
Moreover, the selection of illustrations, graphs and tables seems 
most fortunate and should be very helpful if only because they 
are brought together in one volume. Helpful too are the cross 
references in the text to figures, other sections ot the 
book and bibliography, and the citation of all temperature read- 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '41 

ings in both Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales. Finally, it 
seems to this reviewer that the author has succeeded admirably 
in making the volume intelligible to either a medical student 
or an entomologist. 

Perhaps the only disappointing feature is the short treat- 
ment accorded Phthims pitbis. Although not as important 
medically, or as thoroughly studied biologically, as Pcdiculus 
humauns, very brief accounts of this species are the rule in 
most reference works. Undoubtedly Mr. Buxton has felt justi- 
fied in reducing his discussion of the crab-louse, but in com- 
parison with the rest of the text, this section seems to be 
somewhat less comprehensive. 

The total content and its arrangement, together with its 
convenient size will combine to make this book a most valuable 
tool in the hands of medical and entomological workers. Per- 
haps it is not too bold to suggest that for these very reasons 
it may make a great contribution toward controlling major out- 
breaks of lice and louse-borne diseases in war ravaged Europe. 
If the years to come prove this to be so, Mr. Buxton will have 
performed a service for which humanity itself can be pro- 
foundly grateful. JOHN W. CADBURY, 3rd. 



OBITUARY 

We regret to record the deaths of the following Entomolo- 
gists, of whom we hope to give longer notices in future issues : 

Dr. CHARLES WARDELL STILES, author of papers on ticks, 
and long secretary of the International Commission on Zool- 
ogical Nomenclature, on January 24 ; 

CHARLES WILLIAM LENG, prominent Coleopterist and Di- 
rector of the Public Museum of Staten Island, New York, on 
January 25 ; 

Dr. LEVI W. MENGEL, Lepidopterist, Director emeritus of 
the Reading, Pennsylvania, Museum and Art Gallery, on Feb- 
ruary 3 ; 

SAMUEL HENSHAW, Coleopterist, Director emeritus of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, on 
February 5. 



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COLEOPTERA 

1080. Blaisdell (F. E., Sr.) A monographic study of the 
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(66: 283-306, 1 pi., 1941) .45 

1082. Studies in the Melyridae. No. 12 (66: 319-324, 1941) .20 

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1081. Lindsley (E. G.) A revision of the genus Oreopasites. 

(Nomadidae). (66: 307-318, fig., 1941) .. .25 

ODONATA 

1069. Needham (J. G.) Studies on Neotropical Gomphine 

dragon-flies. (65: 363-394, 2 pis., 1939) 70 

ORTHOPTERA 

1061. Hebard (M.) Studies on Orthoptera which occur in N. 
Am. north of the Mexican boundary. X and XL (65: 
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1062. Rehn (J. A. G.). A new genus and 4 n. sps. of Acri- 
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1070. The South Am. sps. of the Oedipodine Gen. Trimerotro- 

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\7 1 T TT v , A 

VoL LH No ' 4 



CONTENTS 

Balduf Take Offs by Prey-Laden Wasps (Hymen : Pompilidae?, 

Sphecidae) 91 

Hayes A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of Immature 

Insects. Part II. Odonata ... 93 

Knull Two New Texas Buprestidae (Coleoptera) . 98 

Irwin A Preliminary List of the Culicidae of Michigan Part I. 

Culicinae (Diptera) 101 

James Notes on the Nearctic Geosarginae (Diptera :Stratiomyiidae). 105 

Henry Clinton Fall Memorial Publication Fund 108 

Smith A Note on Noctuid larvae found in Ant's Nests (Lepidoptera: 

Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 109 

War Damage to Entomology 109 

Current Entomological Literature 110 

Review of Clausen's Entomophagous Insects. 116 

Review of Felt's Plant Galls and Gall Makers 117 

Obituary: Hermann Schwarz, Dr. George W. Bock, August Knetzger. 

Charles L. Heink, Mrs. Vitae Kite, Dr. Clarence Preston Gillette. 118 



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JNTOMOLQGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII APRIL, 1941 No 4. 

Take Offs by Prey-Laden Wasps 
(Hymen- : Pompilidae?, Sphecidae). 

By W. V. BALDUF, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

In the summer of 1939, I chanced to observe two isolated 
instances that indicate certain predatory wasps at least occasion- 
ally ascend on foot to some elevated vantage point in order to 
take off by flight when burdened heavily with paralyzed prey 
they are in the process of transporting to their nesting sites. 
No effort has been made to review the similar cases that have 
doubtlessly been recorded in the literature. 

The first instance involved a rather large black wasp that 
resembled a pompilid in general appearance, and a medium- 
sized green adult tettigoniid orthopteran. In the brief glance 
afforded me, I was unfortunately not able to identify either 
predator or prey more fully. It was about 5 :00 P. M., of 
August 8 and on the back porch of my mother's home at Oak 
Harbor, Ohio, that I happened upon the wasp standing on the 
porch floor astride the long-horn. Presumably the hopper had 
been seized in the honeysuckle vines that decorated the adjacent 
end of the porch, for tettigoniid stridulations had emanated 
from this growth on previous days. 

When first seen, the wasp had already chewed a hole through 
the vertex of the captive's head and stood feeding from the 
perforation. But in a few seconds, she started gingerly toward 
the wooden porch post four feet away, and upon reaching it 
climbed approximately four feet vertically on it. remaining 
astride the victim all the time as she proceeded. From this high 
point she took off through the air without further delay, and, 
carried by a stiff wind attained an elevation of about 15 feet 
just before she disappeared beyond my vision. 

The second instance was observed as I walked through the 
campus woods of the University at 7:45 A. M., of August 1. 
There I came across a cicada-killing wasp, Sphccius spcciosus 

91 



AP* 7 ^ 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

(Dru.) in possession of an already inactivated large green 
cicada, probably Tibicen linnei (Sm. and Grosb.). Curious to 
learn what was to happen next, I came to a stop not more than 
two feet from where the wasp stood over her prey. In a mom- 
ent, speciosus, standing astride of and dragging her catch, pro- 
ceeded toward me and climbed at once upon my left shoe, then 
successively up the outside of a trouser leg, over the shirt front 
and a shoulder, and around the back of the neck to the top of 
the head. Whereas the horizontal approach to the shoe was 
made slowly, the vertical climb was accomplished with a burst 
of speed that recalled the sudden response made by an airplane 
when the accelerator is pushed quickly down for the take off. 
The ascent to the height of six feet and three inches was there- 
fore completed in only a few seconds. From that more advan- 
tageous elevation, speciosus promptly zoomed away among the 
trees with her load, and was gaining elevation slowly as she 
faded from view. 

In order to determine the approximate carrying power of this 
wasp during flight, I weighed a female freshly killed in a cyan- 
ide jar and two females of Tibicen linnei that had probably 
fallen dead out of trees on the day they were found. One of 
the cicadas weighed 1.4 grams, the second 2.1 grams, whereas 
the wasp balanced the chinomatic scale at 0.3536 gram. 
Sphccius speciosus is therefore probably capable of flying a 
prey load four to six times greater than her own weight to her 
nesting site. 

In most cases, the cicada killer presumably overcomes her 
captives where she catches them in- trees and would therefore 
usually not be obliged to ascend on foot to some vantage point 
in order to take off. In their struggle with the living cicadas, 
some speciosus probably chance to fall to the ground, as may 
have been true in the instance described above. Although pos- 
sibly exceptional, this case is nevertheless of interest in show- 
ing that such accidents need not frustrate the wasp in her 
activity of provisioning her nest. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

A Bibliography of Keys for the Identification of 
Immature Insects. Part II. Odonata. 

By WM. P. HAYES. 
. (Continued from page 69.) 

NEEDHAM, J. G. 1897. Preliminary studies of N. American 
Gomphinae. Can. Ent., 29 (7) : 164-168, (8) : 181-186, pi. 7. 
(Key to genera, pp. 167-168). 

ID. 1903. Aquatic insects in New York State. Life histories 
of Odonata Suborder Zygoptera Damselflies, N. Y. State Mus. 
Bull. 68: 218-276, figs. 3-17, pis. 5, 11-19. (Key to families, 
subfamilies, genera and species.) 

ID. 1918. Aquatic insects. In Ward and Whipple, Fresh 
Water Biology. Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1918. pp. 876-946. 
(Key to genera, p. 928-932.) 

ID. 1930. A Manual of the dragonflies of China. A mono- 
graphic study of the Chinese Odonata. Zool. Sin. (A) 11 (1) : 
1-344, Index 1-11, pis. I-XX. (Many keys to nymphs as far 
as genera throughout the book, to spp. of Libellula, p. 124, 
Orthctnim, p. 129, and Rhyotheinis, p. 141.) 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and BETTEN, C. 1901. Aquatic insects in 
the Adirondack's. N. Y. State Museum Bui, 47. Odonata: 
429-540. (Various keys mostly to genera). 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and FISHER, E. 1936. The nymphs of 
North American Libelluline Dragonflies. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 
62: 107-116, pis. vi, vii. (Key and verification table to genera, 
pp. 113-115.) 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and GYGER, M. K. 1937. The Odonata of 
the Philippines. Philip. Jl. Sci. 63 (1) : 21-101, 10 pis. (Many 
keys to nymphs of Anisoptera as far as genera throughout the 
paper.) 

ID. 1939. The Odonata of the Philippines. II. Suborder 
Zygoptera. Philip. Jl. Sci. 70 (3) : 239-314, pis. 11-22, 2 figs. 
(Keys to nymphs as far as genera, pp. 244-260.) 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and HART, C. A. 1901. The dragonflies 
(Odonata) of Illinois. Part I. Petaluridae, Aeschnidae and 
Gomphidae. ///. State Lab. Xut. I list., Hid. 6: (1) 1-94. pi. 1. 
(Keys to families, genera and spp.) 



94 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and HEYWOOD, H. B. 1929. A handbook 
of the dragonflies of North America, vii, 378 pp., many figs. 
Thomas Co., Springfield, 111. (Many keys as far as genera, 
many tables to spp. throughout the book.) 

NEEDHAM, J. G. and NEEDHAM, P. R. 1927. Guide to the 
study of fresh water biology, 88 pp. Amer. Viewpoint Soc., 
N. Y. (Key to genera, pp. 14-20, pis. 4-7.) 

NEVIN, F. R. 1929. Larval development of Sympctruin 
vicimim (Odonata: Libellulidae). Trans. Amcr. Ent. Soc. 55: 
79-102. (Key to instars of this species, p. 100.) 

ID. 1930. A study of the larva of Calopteryx (Agrion} 
msi.culata. Trans. Amcr. Ent. Soc. 55: 425-448, pi. xvii. (Key 
to instars, p. 446.) 

NUNNEY, W. H. 1894. Larvae-nymphs of British dragon- 
flies. Science Gossip (n. s.) 1 (4) : 80-82, 3 figs.; (5) : 100- 
102, figs. 1-5; (6) : 129-131, figs. 7-15; (7) : 148-150, figs. 16- 
26; (8): 176-177. (No keys, but diagnostic synopsis of 30 
spp., pp. 176-177.) 

PETERSON, ALVAH. 1939. Keys to the orders of immature 
stages (exclusive of eggs and pronymphs) of North American 
insects. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amcr. 32 (2) : 267-278. (Keys lead- 
ing to Odonata, pp. 268-270.) 

PULKKINEN, A. 1927. liber die Larven einiger Odonaten 
III. Notulae cntom. 7: 11-12. (Keys to 3 spp. of Leucor- 
rhinia and 7 spp. of Sympetrum of Finland.) 

Ris, F. 1909. Die Siisswasserfauna Deutschlands. Odonata. 
Jena. Heft 9, pp. 1-67, 79 figs. (Keys to genera and some 
species, pp. 44-65). 

ID. 1911. Uebersicht der Mitteleuropaischen Corduliinen- 
Larven. Mitt. Schivcis. Ent. Gcs., 12 (2) : 25-41. 3 figs. (Key 
to genera and some species, pp. 27-28). 

ID. 1920. Ubersicht der Mitteleuropaischen Lestes-Larven. 
Festschrift Zschokke No. 22, 14 pp., 7 figs., Basel. (Key to 
6 spp., pp. 4-6). 

ID. 1921. The Odonata or Dragonflies of South Africa. 
Ann. S. Afric. Mus. 18 (3) : 245-452, pis. v-xii, 6 figs. (No 
S. African larvae, except that of Chlorolestcs, are described 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

or figured, but the more striking characters of Gomphine (p. 
339), Aeschnine (p. 357), Corduline (p. 375) and Libelluline 
(pp. 383-4) nymphs are given.) 

ROSTER, DANTE ALESSANDRO. 1885. Contributo all'ana- 
tomia ed alia biologia degli Odonati. Boll. Soc. Ent. ltd. 17: 
256-268, tav. iii, iv. (Distinguishes 2 groups of Odonate larvae: 
Caudobranchiati and Rectobranchiati, p. 259.) 

ID. 1886. Cenno monografko degli Odonati del gruppo 
Ischnura. Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital., 18: 239-258, tav. ii-vi. (Dis- 
tinguishes two species of Agrion, pp. 241-245). 

ID. 1888. Contributo allo studio delle forme larvali degli 
Odonati Cenno iconografico delle larve-ninfe dei caudobranch- 
iati. Boll. Soc. Ent. Ital, 20: 159-170, tav. i-iv. (Distinguishes 
various species of Agrionidae, pp. 162-170). 

ROUSSEAU, E. 1908. Contributions a la connaissance des 
metamorphoses des Odonates d'Europe. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 
52: 272-291. (Summary of characters distinguishing nymphs 
of 4 spp. of Sympctnnn, p. 291.) 

ID. 1909. fitude monographique des larves des Odonates 
d'Europe. Ann. Biol. Lacustrc. 3: 300-366, 47 figs. (Vari- 
ous keys to genera and species). 

ID. 1921. Les larves et nymphs aquatiques des insectes 
d'Europe, Vol. 1. Office de Publicite Anc. Etabliss J. Lebe- 
gue & Co., 967 pp. Brussels, (Odonata pp. 101-161, Keys 
to genera and some spp.) 

SCHMIDT, E. 1929. Libellen, Odonata. In Die Ticrwclt 
Mittclciiropas. Bd. 4, Lief. Ib, pp. 1-66, 55 figs. Leipzig, Quelle 
Meyer. (Tabulation of family and some generic characters, 
pp. 63-64, fig. 55). 

ID. 1936. Die mitteleuropaischen Aesclma-Larven nach 
ihren lezten Hauten. Deutsche Ent. Ztschr. 1936 (I/II) : 53- 
73, 15 figs. (Key to 10 spp. and subspp., pp. 60-63.) 

ID. 1936. Die europaischen Leucorrhinia-Larven, analy- 
tisch betrachtet. Arch. Naturgcs. (N. F.) 5 (2) : 287-295, 9 figs. 
(Key to 5 spp., p. 289.) 

ID. 1936. Die westpalaarktischen Gomphiden-Larven nach 
ihren letzten Hauten. Scnckcnbcriiiana 18 (5/6) : 270-282, 10 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

figs., 1 table. (Key to 11 spp, pp. 274-277.) 

SEEMAN, M. T. 1927. Dragonflies, Mayflies and Stoneflies 
of Southern California. Jour. Eut. and ZooL, 19: 1-69, figs., 
pis. i-iv. (Odonata pp. 5-39, figs. Keys to genera and some 
spp.) 

TILLYARD, R. J. 1910. Monograph of the genus Synthcmis. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 35 (2) : 312-377, pis" iv-ix, 3 
figs. (Table of differentials of nymphs 3 spp. of Synthemis, 1 
sp. of Metathemis, 1 sp. of Choristhemis, p. 373.) 

ID. 1911. On the genus Cordulcphya. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. 
S. Wales 36 (2) : 388-422, pis. xi, xii. (Larvae of 2 spp. de- 
scribed, compared with each other, p. 405, and with other 
Corduline larvae, pp. 406-409.) 

ID. 1912. On the genus Diphlcbia, with descriptions of 
new species, and life-histories. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 
36 (3) : 584-604, pis. xix, xx. (Comparative descriptions of 
nymphs of D. Icstoidcs and D. nymphoides, pp. 597-599.) 

ID. 1916. Life-histories and descriptions of Australian 
Aeschninae with a description of a new form of Tclcphlcbia 
by Herbert Campion. Linn Soc. London Jour. Zool. 33: 1-83, 
4 figs., 9 pis. (Comparative table for known larvae, p. 75.) 

ID. 1917. The biology of dragonflies. Cambridge, Univer- 
sity Press, xii, 396 pp., (Contains synopsis of nymphal char- 
acters, pp. 259-280). 

ID. 1926. The Insects of Australia and New Zealand. 
Angus & Robertson, Ltd., Sydney, Pp. xv, 560, many figs., 44 
pis. (Characters of nymphs of many subfamilies, pp. 76-86.) 

TILLYARD, R. J. and FRASER, F. C. 1939. A reclassification 
of the order Odonata. Based on some new interpretations of 
the venation of the dragonfly wing. By R. J. Tillyard. Con- 
tinuation thereof. By F. C. Fraser Part II. Australian Zool. 
9 (3) : 195-221, 11 figs. (Characters of larvae of families 
Amphipterygidae, p. 204, Chlorocyphidae, p. 206, Polythoridae, 
p. 208, Epallagidae, p. 210, and Agriidae, p. 211.) 

TUMPEL, R. 1901. Die Geradflugler Mitteleuropas Mit 20 
von W. Miiller nach der Natur gemalten farbigen und 3 
schwarzen Tafeln nebst zahlreichen [92] Textabbildungen. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 97 

Eisenach, M. Wilckens. Pp. [2], 308. (Diagnoses of the spp. 
of the larvae of Odonata, pp. 69-72.) 

ID. 1908. (Same title) Neue billige Ausgabe mit einem 
Anhang: Neuere Beobachtungen. Gotha Friedrich Emil 
Perthes. Pp. [4], 324, 96 textfigs., 23 pis. (Diagnoses of the 
spp. of larvae of Odonata, pp. 69-72, taf. 12.) 

WALKER, E. M. 1912. North American dragonflies of the 
genus Aeshna. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Scries 11 : i-viii, 
1-213, 8 figs., 28 pis. (Key to species, pp. 66-69.) 

ID. 1913. New nymphs of Canadian Odonata. Can. Ent., 
45: 161-170, pis. i, ii. (Key to two species of Boyeria p. 164, 
comparisons of spp. of Nehalennia, Enallagma, Neurocorduha, 
Tctragoncuria, Somatochlora, Lcucorrhinia.) 

ID. 1914. The known nymphs of the Canadian species of 
Lestcs. Can. Ent., 46: 189-200, pis. xiii, xiv. (Key to species 
pp. 190-191). 

ID. 1914. New and little known nymphs of Canadian Odo- 
nata. Can. Ent., 46: 349-356, 369-377, pis. xxiii, xxv. (Key 
to two species of Lestcs, p. 349, comparative table of Aeshna 
palmata and umbrosa p. 373.) 

ID. 1915. Notes on the Odonata of the vicinity of Go Home 
Bay, Georgian Bay, Ontario. Suppl. 47th Ann. Rep. Dcpt. 
Marine & Fisheries, Fish. Branch : 53-94, pis. iii-ix. ( Many 
comparative notes on nymphs, key to Boyeria 2 spp.. p. 74.) 

ID. 1916. The nymphs of Enallagma cyathigerum and E. 
cahcrti. Can. Ent. 48: 192-196, pi. ix. 

ID. 1916. The nymphs of the North American species of 
Lcucorrhinia. Can. Ent., 48: 414-422, pis. xii. xiii. (Key to 
6 spp., pp. 415-416). 

ID. 1917. The known nymphs of the North American species 
of Sympctrum. Can. Ent., 49: 409-418, pis. xix, xx. (Key to 
species pp. 410-413). 

ID. 1925. The North American dragonflies of the genus 
Somatochlora. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Scries, 26: 1-202, 
17 figs., 35 pis (Key to species, pp. 52-54). 

ID. 1928. The nymphs of the Stylurus group of the genus 
Gomphus with notes on the distribution of this group in 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Canada. Can. Ent., 60: 79-88, 1 fig., pis. 1-3. (Key to species, 
p. 81). 

IL>. 1932. The nymph of Complins quadricolor Walsh. Can. 
Ent. 64: 270-273, pi. 9. 

ID. 1933. The nymphs of the Canadian species of Ophio- 
gomphus. Can. Ent. 65 : 217-229, pis. 11-14. (Key to 8 species, 
p. 219). 

ID. 1934. The nymphs of Aeschna juncca L. and sub- 
arctica Wlk. Can. Ent. 66: 267-274, 2 figs., pis. 11, 12. 

ID. 1937. A new Macroinia from British Columbia (Cordu- 
liidae). Can. Ent. 69: 5-13, 4 figs., pi. 1. (Comparative notes 
on nymphs of 2 spp., pp. 10-11.) 

WESENBERG-LUND, C. 1913. Odonaten Studien. Intern. 
Rev. gesamt. Hydrobiol. u. Hydrogr. Leipzig, 6: 155-228, 373- 
422. (Key to methods of oviposition, p. 167). 

WILLIAMS, F. X. 1936. Biological studies in Hawaiian 
Water-Loving Insects. Part II. Order Odonata (Dragonflies 
and Damselflies). Proc. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. 9: (2) 273-349, 
pis. vii-xviii, 10 figs. (Key to species of Megalagrion of the 
Island of Oahu, Hawaii, pp. 347-348). 

WILLIAMSON, E. B. 1900. The dragonflies of Indiana, 24th 
Ann. Rcpt. Indiana Dcpt. Gcol. and Nat. Resources, pp. (3), 
233-333, 1003-1011, 7 pis. (Uses Calvert's 1893 key to genera, 
pp. 244-246). 



Two New Texas Buprestidae (Coleoptera). 

By JOSEF N. KNULL, The Ohio State University, Columbus. 

Acmaeodera gillespiensis n. sp. 

$ . Slightly more robust than A. obtusa Horn., but of 
same general form. Head, pronotum and ventral surface 
bronze, elytra dark blue with yellow markings as follows : basal 
three-fourths of sides of pronotum, an irregular transverse 
basal band exclusive of umbone and scutellar regions, an irreg- 
ular transverse median band, also one on apical fourth and one 
at apex, none of bands touching suture. 

Head with slight frontal depression ; surface densely coarsely 
punctured, punctures separated by fine lines, densely pubescent ; 
antennae reaching to middle of pronotum when laid along side, 
serrate from the fifth joint. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 99 

Pronotum convex, two median depressions and a basal de- 
pression each side ; margins entire, not visible from above ; wider 
at base than in front, widest in middle ; sides broadly rounded ; 
surface densely coarsely punctured, punctures larger than on 
head, a transverse basal corrugated stripe, pubescence dense. 
Scutellum not evident. 

Elytra at base same width as base of pronotum, wider than 
pronotum just back of base which is widest point; sides ex- 
panded back of base, constricted in front of middle, widened 
back of middle, broadly rounded to rounded apices, apical 
margins serrate; disk somewhat flattened, with depression at 
scutellum, first and third costae raised ; surface deeply, coarsely, 
densely punctured, punctures arranged in rows, separated by 
less than their own diameters, interspaces with finer punctures, 
pubescence not dense. 

Abdomen beneath coarsely densely punctured, pubescent, last 
ventral without carina. Prosternal margin straight, not reach- 
ing front angles. 

Length 10.3 mm. ; width 4 mm. 

Holotypc female collected in Gillespie County, TEXAS, June 
20, 1940, by D. J. and J. N. Knull, in collection of writer. 

According to Fall's key* this species would come under the 
truncate group and should stand next to obtusa Horn. It is 
distinguished by the large densely placed punctures of the pro- 
notum, much larger punctures of elytra, lack of carina on last 
ventral, raised third costa and very sinuate elytral margin when 
viewed from the side. 

Mr. M. A. Cazier kindly compared the specimen with the 
type of A. perforate, Caz. 
Cinyra roburella n. sp. 

$. Larger and more robust than C. yracilipcs (Melsh.), 
pronotum and elytra dark bron/.e, head, ventral area and legs 
cupreous, more shining than above. 

Head 1 convex, a median line extending from pronotum one- 
third down front; surface rugose on front, with irregular 
smooth callosities, median one prominent, vertex finely punc- 
tured, pubescent; clypeus deeply cmarginate ; antennae reaching 
to extreme hind angles of pronotum \vhcn laid along side 
s, scape stout, second joint twice as long as wide, third 



* H. C. Fall, N. Y. Ent. Soc., V. 7, pp. 1-37, 1899. 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

joint longer than scape, fourth joint longest, following joints 
decreasing in length, joints four to eleven inclusive flattened, 
serrate. 

Pronotum broader than long, widest at base, constricted at 
apex; sides broadly rounded in front, subparallel at base; disk 
convex, a transverse basal depression, faint median depression 
and lateral depression on each side, small pit in front of scu- 
tellum ; lateral marginal carina extending nearly to front ; sur- 
face confluently punctured, punctures larger than on vertex, 
pubescence lacking. Scutellum triangular, concave, glabrous. 

Elytra wider than pronotum, widest back of middle ; sides 
rounded in front, constricted at middle, broadly rounded pos- 
teriorly, apices truncate ; disk convex, with irregular depres- 
sions ; surface irregularly costate, densely punctured, punctures 
smaller than on pronotum, pubescence very short, inconspicuous. 

Abdomen beneath densely punctured, pubescent ; last abdom- 
inal truncate, outer angles produced. Posterior tarsi shorter 
than tibiae. 

Length 16.3 mm. ; width 5.5 mm. 

9 . Differs from male by antennae reaching just past middle 
of pronotum. 

Holotype male collected from oak in the Davis Mountains, 
TEXAS, July 4, 1936, by the writer. In addition to the holo- 
type, allotype and paratypes in collection of the writer from the 
same locality bearing dates June 13 to Aug. 20, collected by D. 
J. and J. N. Knull. Paratype labeled Chisos Mtns., Tex. July 
17, H. A. Wenzel, in the Wenzel Collection at The Ohio State 
University. 

This species should stand next to C. gracilipcs (Melsh.) 
according to Chamberlin's key.** However it differs by being 
more robust, dull, and having a convex pronotum, more densely 
punctured dorsal surface and by structure of the male genitalia. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. W. S. Fisher for comparing 
the species with the Schaeffer types. 



** W. J. Chamberlin, Ent. News, V. 31, pp. 211-244, 1920. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 101 

A Preliminary List of the Culicidae of Michigan 
Part I. Culicinae (Diptera).* 

By WILLIAM H. IRWIN. 

This paper presents a list of the Culicidae, subfamily Culi- 
cinae, and the names of the counties of Michigan from which 
the author has records. Previously published records are in- 
cluded. This list includes 18 species new for the state and 
extends the knowledge of distribution of the previously reported 
species. This study was based upon a total collection of approxi- 
mately 33,000 specimens of which about 15,000 are larvae and 
the remainder adults. Six hundred thirty specimens were 
loaned to the author from the collections of the Department of 
Entomology, Michigan State College, by Professor E. I. Mc- 
Daniel. Also the writer had the privilege of examining a 
collection of 300 specimens made by C. W. Sabrosky, Michigan 
State College, and another of about 80 specimens made by 
R. R. Dreisbach, Midland, Michigan. All others were collected 
by the writer. Most of the collections by the author were made 
in the years 1935-1939. Every species included in this list is 
represented by specimens in the writer's collection. The names 
used are those employed by Edwards (1932). 

1. AEDES ABORIGINIS Dyar. Five females collected from 
Cheboygan County. 

2. AE. AURIFER (Coquillett). Cheboygan and Emmet Coun- 
ties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

3. AE. CAMPESTRIS Dyar and Knab. One female collected 
by R. R. Dreisbach in Midland County, 1937. 

4. AE. CANADENSIS (Theobald). Algers, Cheboygan, 
Emmet, Genesee, Luce, Washtenaw, Wayne and Wcxford 
Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

5. AE. CINEREUS Meigen. Cheboygan, Crawford, Emmet, 
Ingham, Midland, Presque Isle, and Washtenaw Counties. 

6. AE. COMMUNIS (DeGeer). Algers, Cheboygan, Emmet, 
Luce, and Washtenaw Counties. Also reported for Michigan 
by Matheson, 1924. 

* Contribution from the Biological Station and the Department of 
Zoology, University of Michigan. 



102 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

7. A^E. DIANTAEUS Howard, Dyar and Knab. Cheboygan 
County. 

8. AE. EXCRUCIANS (Walker). Alpena, Berrien, Calhoun, 
Cheboygan, Emmet, Ingham, Kent, Keweenaw (Isle Royale), 
Lapeer, Leelanau, Livingston, Luce, Midland, Tuscola, and 
Washtenaw Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Mathe- 
son, 1924. 

9. AE. FITCHII (Felt and Young). Algers, Alpena, Ber- 
rien, Cheboygan, Emmet, Ingham, Keweenaw (Isle Royale), 
Lapeer, Livingston, Luce, Midland, Montcalm, Presque Isle, 
Roscommon, Tuscola, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties. Also 
reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

10. AE. FLAVESCENS (Muller). Cheboygan, Ingham, and 
Midland Counties. 

11. AE. IMPIGER (Walker). Algers, Cheboygan, and Wash- 
tenaw Counties. 

12. AE. IMPLACABILIS (Walker). Cheboygan County. 

13. AE. INTRUDENS Dyar. Algers, Cheboygan, Emmet, 
Ingham, Keweenaw (Isle Royale), Luce, Mackinac, Midland, 
Presque Isle, Roscommon, Washtenaw, Wayne, and \Vexford 
Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

14. AE. LATERALIS (Meigen). Algers, Cheboygan, and 
Wayne Counties. 

15. AE. PULLATUS (Coquillett). Cheboygan, Midland, and 
Roscommon Counties. 

16. AE. FUNCTOR (Kirby). Algers, Cheboygan, Emmet, 
and Luce Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 
1924. 

17. AE. RIPARIUS (Dyar and Knab). Cheboygan and 
Emmet Counties. 

18. AE. SPENCERI (Theobald). Cheboygan and Ingham 
Counties. 

19. AE. STICTICUS (Meigen). Allegan, Arenac, Emmet, 
Luce, and Van Buren Counties. Also reported for Michigan 
by Matheson, 1924. 

20. AE. STIMULANS (Walker). Calhoun, Cheboygan, 
Emmet, Ingham, Kent, Keweenaw (Isle Royale), Lapeer, Liv- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 103 

ingston, Midland, Washtenaw, and Wayne Counties. Also 
reported for Michigan by Pettit, 1903. 

21. AE. TRICHURUS (Dyar). Cheboygan, Emmet, Lake, 
Midland, Oscola, and Roscommon Counties. Also reported 
for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

22. AE. TRISERIATUS (Say). One specimen collected from 
Emmet County. 

23. AE. VEXANS (Meigen). Alpena, Berrien, Cheboygan, 
Emmet, Genesee, Gratiot, Ingham, Kalamazoo, Kent, Washte- 
naw, Wayne, and Wexford Counties. Also reported for 
Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

24. ANOPHELES MACULIPENNIS Meigen. Cheboygan, 
Emmet, Genesee, Ingham, Kent, Midland, Presque Isle, Wash- 
tenaw, Wayne, and Wexford Counties. Also reported for 
Michigan by Pettit, 1903. 

25. AN. PUNCTIPENNIS (Say). Cheboygan, Emmet, Gene- 
see, Midland, Montmorency, Presque Isle, Washtenaw, and 
Wexford Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Pettit, 
1903. 

26. AN. QUADRIMACULATUS Say. Cheboygan, Emmet, Gene- 
see, Ingham, Montcalm, and Washtenaw Counties. 

27. AN. WALKERI Theobald. Cheboygan, Emmet, Genesee, 
Ingham, Kent, and Washtenaw Counties. Also reported for 
Michigan by Dyar, 1922. 

28. CULEX APICALIS Adams. Cheboygan, Emmet, Genesee, 
Ingham, Wexford, and Van Buren Counties. Also reported 

for Michigan by Jewell and Brown, 1929. 

29. C. PIPIENS Linnaeus. Cheboygan, Emmet, Genesee, 
Ingham, Washtenaw, \Vayne, and Wexford Counties. Also 
reported for Michigan by Pettit, 1903. 

30. C. PECCATOR Dyar and Knab. One specimen collected 
in Ingham County, August, 1938, by E. I. McDaniel. 

31. C. SALINARIUS Coquillett. Cheboygan, Genesee, Ing- 
ham, and Midland Counties. 

32. C. TARSALIS Coquillett. Cheboygan and Emmet Coun- 
ties. 

33. C. TERJiiTANS Walker. Cheboygan, Emmet, Genesee, 
Ingham, St. Joseph, Washtenaw, Wayne, and Wexford Coun- 



104 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

ties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

34. MANSONIA PERTURBANS (Walker). Cheboygan, Emmet, 
Mackinac, and Wexford Counties. Also reported for Michigan 

by Pettit, 1903. 

35. PSOROPHORA CILIATA (Fabricius). Ingham, Kent, 

Livingston, and Wayne Counties. Also reported for Michigan 
by Pettit, 1903. 

36. Ps. FEROX (Humboldt). Collected from Ingham County, 
1933. Also reported for Michigan by Pettit, 1903. 

37. THEOBALDIA IMPATIENS (Walker). Cheboygan County. 
Also reported for Michigan by Jewell and Brown, 1929. 

38. TH. INCIDENS (Thomson). Cheboygan and Emmet 
Counties. 

39. TH. INORNATA (Williston). Cheboygan, Emmet, and 
Genesee Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 
1924. 

40. TH. MELANURA ( Coquillett ) . Wexford County. 

41. TH. MORSITANS (Theobald). Cheboygan, Emmet, and 
Washtenaw Counties. Also reported for Michigan by Mathe- 
son, 1924. 

42. URANOTAENIA SAPPHIRINA (Osten Sacken). Berrien, 
Cheboygan, and Ingham Counties. Also reported for Michigan 
by Pettit, 1903 and recorded for Washtenaw County by Hin- 
man, 1935. 

43. WYEOMYIA SMITHII (Coquillett). Cheboygan County. 
Also reported for Michigan by Matheson, 1924. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

BRADLEY, G. H., 1936. On the identification of mosquito 
larvae of the genus Anopheles occurring in the United States. 
So. Med. Jour., 29: 859-861. 

DYAR, H. G., 1922. The mosquitoes of the United States. 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 62: 1-119. 

ID. 1928. The mosquitoes of the Americas. Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. no. 387. 616 pp. Washington, D. C. 

EDWARDS, F. W., 1931-1933. Diptera, Family Culicidae. In 
Wytsman's Genera Insectorum, vol. 33, fasc. 194, 258 pp. 



lii. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 105 

HINMAN, E. HAROLD, 1935. Biological notes on Uranotaenia 
spp. in Louisiana (Culicidae, Diptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 
28: 404-407. 

HOWARD, L. O., H. G. DYAR and F. KNAB, 1912-1917. The 
mosquitoes of North and Central America and the West Indies. 
Carnegie Inst. Wash., vol. 1, 520 pp.; vol. 2 (plates) ; vols. 3 
and 4, 1064 pp. Washington, D. C. 

JEWELL, MINNA E., and HAROLD W. BROWN, 1929. Studies 
on northern Michigan bog Lakes. Ecol., 10: 427-475. 

KING, W. V., G. H. BRADLEY and T. E. McNEEL, 1939. 
The mosquitoes of the southeastern States. U. S. D. A., Bu. 
Ent. and PI. Quar., Misc. Pub. 336, 90 pp. 

MATHESON, ROBERT, 1924. The Culicidae of the Douglas 
Lake region (Michigan). Can. Ent., 56: 289-290. 

ID. 1929. A handbook of the mosquitoes of North America. 
Springfield, III. 268 pp. 

PETTIT, R. H., 1903. Mosquitoes and other insects of the 
year 1902. Mich. St. Agr. Col. Exp. Sta., Ent. Dept., Spec. 
Bull. 17, pp. 1-12. 

TULLOCH, GEORGE S., 1939. A key to the mosquitoes of 
Massachusetts. Psyche, 46; 113-136. 



Notes on the Nearctic Geosarginae 
(Diptera: Stratiomyiidae). 

By MAURICE T. JAMES, Colorado State College, Fort Collins. 

In a previous paper 1 I published an account of the Nearctic 
Geosarginae which, in the light of further study and with the 
accumulation of additional information, is in need of revision. 
The present paper attempts to bring this review up to date. 
Revised Key to the Genera. 

1. Scutellum spined Nothomyia (belongs to Stratiomyinae). 

Scutellum unspined (Geosarginae) 

2. Second segment of antennae produced into third in a finger- 

like process, especially visible on inner side, Ptecticus 

1 Canad. Ent., 47, pp. 267-275, 1935. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Second segment of antennae sometimes convex, but not 
produced into a finger-like process 3 

3. Eyes densely and conspicuously pilose Chloromyia 

Eyes bare 4 

4. Anterior ocellus remote from other two by a distance much 

greater than length of base of ocellar triangle (ex- 
cept in G. perpulcher) ; distance from r-m to origin of 

R2+s greater than length of r-m Gcosargus 

Ocelli approximately equidistant from each other 5 

5. Abdomen relatively short and broad, much wider than 

thorax and (excluding segment five) no longer than 
broad ; eyes of male contiguous, divided into definite 
zones of different sized facets ; distance from r-m to 

origin of R^+s greater than length of r-m 6 

Abdomen barely, if any, wider than thorax, and two to 
three times as long as wide ; eyes in both sexes sepa- 
rated and not divided into zones of different sized 
facets ; origin of RS+S, in American species known to 
me, before, at, or but slightly beyond r-m 7 

6. Discal cell small ; posterior veins weak, evanescent toward 

wing margin ; anal cell as broad as combined basal 

cells Microchrysa 

Discal cell of usual size; posterior veins evident to wing 
margin ; discal cell wider than basal cells individually, 
about two-thirds their combined width, 

Cephalochrysa 2 

7. Lower squama with a strap-like projection (Neotropical and 

Old World) Chrysochroma 

Lower squama without such a projection (Nearctic and 

Neotropical ) Merosargns 

Ptecticus trivittatus melanopus, ssp. nov. 

In all respects a typical P. trivittatus, except that the tarsi 
and the apical two-thirds of the hind tibiae are black, the front 
and middle tibiae are blackish anteriorly on the apical two- 
fifths ; and each antenna bears on the inner side of the third 
segment a pair of black spots, one near the base of the arista, 
the other at the opposite apical corner. 

2 See Ent. News, 50, p. 218, 1939. 



lii, '41] KXTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 107 

Holotype, $ , Columbus, OHIO, Sept. 1, 1939 (J. Enke) 
Ohio State University collection. 

CHLOROMYIA FORMOSA Scopoli. Two males, Rochester, New 
York, July 16, 1939 (Amer. AIus. Nat. Hist.). This is the 
first record in America of this common Palaearctic species. 
GEOSARGUS LUCENS Loew. 

Sargus luccns Loew, 1866, Cent., VII, 11 ( $ ). 
Sargus tricolor Loew, 1866, Cent., VII, 12. ( 9 ). 
Macrosargns chivis Williston, 1895, Canad. Ent., 17: 123 

.(*'.;*) 

A widely distributed and somewhat variable species. I have 
seen a female from Clarksville, Tennessee, which agrees with 
the form described as tricolor, but I believe this is merely a 
color variation. 

MICROCHRYSA POLiTA L. and M. FLAVICORNIS Meig. are 
both widely distributed throughout the United States, but evi- 
dently neither is of common occurrence. 

CEPHALOCHRYSA Kertesz. To this genus belong the four 
species which in my previous paper I assigned to Isosargus. 

MEROSARGUS CAERULIFRONS Johnson. This species, formerly 

placed in Gcosargus, is a true Merosargus. 
Merosargus beamed, n. sp. 

$ . Head black, with a green cast, especially on the face ; 
the vertex, post-vertical area, and middle of front as far as the 
frontal calli, however, metallic green ; frontal calli ivory white, 
subinterrupted ; black areas of front densely punctured. Front 
broadest below ; ratio of vertex on posterior margin, front an- 
terior to unpaired ocellus, and front at calli, 11 : 9:11. Pile on 
upper part of front black and brownish-yellow intermixed, on 
lower part of front and face short, black; on cheeks, longer, 
yellow. Antennae brownish-yellow, their pile black; arista at 
base somewhat more blackish, thickened, and black-haired; seg- 
ments subequal in length. 

Thorax, except a slender notopleural margin, wholly metallic 
green, the dorsum, however, especially behind the suture and 
on the scutellum and metascutellum with a decided violet cast ; 
dorsum with short, inconspicuous, erect, black pile and with 
longer, rather conspicuous, appressed yellow pile; pile elsewhere 
white, except on the metanotal slopes, where there is some long 
black pile intermixed with the more abundant white. 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Legs yellow, except the last two or three segments of the 
front and hind tarsi, the apical three-fifths of the hind tibiae, 
and the apical three-fourths of the hind femora (especially 
above) ; pile in general black on black areas and also on apical 
segments of middle tarsi, otherwise yellow. 

Halteres yellow, somewhat darkened on knob. Wings hya- 
line ; veins brown, almost black in places ; R 2+3 arising slightly 
beyond r-m, converging somewhat toward RI but ending inde- 
pendently of it. 

Abdomen widening gradually to apex of fourth segment ; 
length almost three times maximum width ; color metallic green 
with violet reflections, unmarked with yellow except narrow 
base of second and narrow apex of fourth segments of venter, 
and genitalia, the latter wholly bright yellow ; pile short, black, 
inconspicuous ; the basal three segments, and to a much less 
extent the fourth and base of the fifth segments, have, in addi- 
tion, on the' sides of the terga a long, pale yellow pile which 
greatly obscures the black. Length, 8.5 mm. 

Holo,,ype, $ , Baboquivari Mountains, ARIZONA, July 19, 
1932 (R. H. Beamer). Snow Entomological Collection, Uni- 
versity of Kansas. 

Runs in Curran's key (Amer. Mus. Nov., 534, p. 1-2) to 
cingulatus Schiner ; but the lack of extensive yellow markings 
will readily distinguish it from cingulatus, the described Mexi- 
can species not included in Curran's key, and, indeed, from 
most other described species of the genus. M. cacrulifrons, 
which also has the unicolorous abdomen, may at once be dis- 
tinguished by its yellow pleura. 



Henry Clinton Fall Memorial Publication Fund. 

The Pacific Coast Entomological Society has recently received 
a gift of securities valued at $1000. from the estate of the late 
H. C. Fall, to be known as the Henry Clinton Fall Memorial 
Publication Fund, according to the January issue of the Pan- 
Pacific Entomologist. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 109 

A note on Noctuid larvae found in Ant's Nests 
(Lepidoptera; Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 

A collection of a part of a colony of Formica ntfa obscuripes 
Forel, together with some of the material of the nest was made 
at Seattle, \Va.4iington, in March, 1939. This material, includ- 
ing the ants, was placed in an observation nest in the laboratory 
and kept for two months. The ants were given generous 
amounts of honey and water, as well as bits of insects for food. 
During this time 6 female and 4 male moths emerged from 
pupal cases in the rubble of the nest. Examination of the nest 
material revealed 1-? pupal cases still occupied, and 8 larvae not 
yet pupated. The pupal cases of the moths were made from 
fragments of the nest straw, leaves, etc., held loosely together 
by silk. When a newly emerged moth alighted in the nest a 
passing ant would attack it, but the numerous larvae and pupae 
were undisturbed by the ants. 

Noctuids of the genus Epizcuxis are known to lay eggs in 
decaying leaves (Holland, W. J. "The Moth Book" 1937) and 
other forest detritus. C. V. Riley (Amer. Naturalist ; vol. 17, 
1883 also Insect Life; vol. 4, 1892) reports the common occur- 
rence of the larvae of E. aincricalis Guenee in nests of / ; . ru(a. 
Wheeler (Ants, 1910) describes the caterpillars as neutral 
synoeketes, obtaining their food as scavengers in the middens 
of the nests. 

It is remarkable, however, that the adults of these moths 
which are evidently subject to attack by the ants, would have 
an opportunity to oviposit on an ant mound. 

Several of the moths which emerged in the laboratory were 
sent to Prof. Wm. T. M. Forbes, who confirms my identifica- 
tion in saying that these are probably a pale western race of 
Epizcu.vis amcricalis Guenee. FALCONER SMITH, B-258 Bio- 
logical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 



War Damage to Entomology. 

An identical note in the January, 1941, issues of the 
Entomologists' Monthly Magazine and The Entomologist, 
London, states that "Owing to enemy action almost the whole 
of the archives of the Society for British Entomology and 
practically the whole of the stock of back numbers of Trans- 
actions and Journal have been completely destroyed, including 
the current list of names and addresses of members." Our 
sympathy to our British colleagues. 



110 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
In titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k) ; 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
In the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Goodnight, C. J. Insects taken by the 
southern pitcher plant. [Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci.] 33: 
213. Hayes, W. P. Some recent works on the classifica- 
tion of immature insects. [103] 14: 3-11. Lutz, Adolpho. 
Obituary with portrait by T. Borgmeier. [105] 11: 963-966. 
McColloch, James Walker. Obituary by G. A. Dean. 
[103] 14: 1-2. Murphy, M. Household Insects. [Georgia 
Dept. Ent.] Bull. 21: 1-39, ill. Needham. J. G. Insects 
from the seed pods of the primrose willow, Jussiaea angus- 
tifolia. [10] 43: 2-6, ill. Pinto, C. (See under Diptera). 
Plaumann, F. Ueber das Sammeln im brasilianischen Ur- 
wald. [105] 11: 908-920. Shelford & Twomey. Tundra 
animal communities in the vicinity of Churchill, Manitoba. 
[84] 22: 47-69. ill. Smart, J. Notes on the localities [in 
British Guiana and Trinidad] from which the Ceratopo- 
gonidae mentioned in Dr. Macfie's paper were taken. [107] 
A, 9: 194-195. Smart, J., et al. Instructions for Collectors. 
No. 4a. Insects, vi -f- 164 pp., ill. London, British Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.). Spencer, J. G. The control of human lice 
under war conditions. [4] 73 : 20. Travassos, L., et al. 
Relatorio da excursao cientifica do Institute Oswaldo Cruz 
realizada na zona da Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil, 
em outubro de 1938. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 208-315, 
ill. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 111 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. de Beaumont, J. 

Le determinisme des metamorphoses chez les Insectes 
(Hormones de metamorphose). [41] 18: 49-57. Bolwig, 
N. The reproductive organs of Scatophila unicornis (Dip- 
tera). [107] A, 15: 97-102, ill. Bouvier, G. Note sur 
1'Armature genitale des Tabanides. [41] 18: 57-61, ill. 
Burt, E. T. A filter-feeding- mechanism in a larva of the 
Chironomidae (Diptera). [107] A, 15: 113-121, ill. Cope, 
O. B. The morphology of Esthiopterum diomedeae (Mal- 
lophaga). [117] 5: 117-142, ill. Eltringham, H. The larval 
gland in Lachnocnema bibulus (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae). 
[36] 90: 452-453. ill. Fox, I. The Siphonapteran thorax. 
[10] 43: 6-10, ill. Fraser, F. C. A comparative study of 
the penes of the family Gomphidae (Odonata). [36] 90: 
541-550, ill. Mitchell,' R. T. The alimentary tract of 
Vespula maculifrons (Hymen.: Vespid.). [43] 41: 29-38, 
ill. Pereira, C. Sobre a diafanizacao dos artropodos. [105] 
11: 642-644. Pickel, D. B. Dermatite purulenta produzida 
por duas especies de Paederus (Col.: Staphylinid.). [105] 
11: 775-793. Pickles, W. Fluctuations in the populations, 
weights and biomasses of ants at Thornhill, Yorkshire, from 
1935-1939. [36] 90: 467-485. Salt, G. Experimental studies 
in insect parasitism. VII: The effects of different hosts on 
the parasite Trichogramma evanescens (Hymen. Chalcid.) 
[107] A, 15: 81-95, ill. Stahel & Geijskes. Observations 
about temperature and moisture in Atta nests (Hymen : 
Formicidae). [105] 11: 766-775, ill. Stanley, J. A mathe- 
matical theory of the growth of populations of the flour 
beetle Tribolium confusum. IV: A modified theory descrip- 
tive of the relations between the limiting- value of eg-g- 
populations in the absence of hatching, and the volume (or 
weight) of flour used in the culture. [84] 22: 23-37, ill. 
Wright, G. Observations on the fertility of the black 
widow spider. [Trans. 111. State Acad. Scl] 33: 225. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Buecherl, W.- 

Dois novos quilopodos do subgenero Parotostigmus, da 
colecao do Institute Butantan. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939) : 
444_447 ; in. Chamberlin & Ivie. Spiders collected by L. 
W. Savior and others, mostly in California. [Bull. Univ. 
Utah] 31: 49 pp., ill. Heriot/A. D. A new chararlcr dis- 
tinguishing Tetranychus pacificus from T. telarius. 
rina). [4] 73: 1, ill. Jones, S. E. An annotated lisl of 
the spiders of an east central Illinois fon^t (Wm. Trelease 



112 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Woods, University of Illinois). [Trans. 111. State Acad. 
Sci.] 33: 216-220. Knight, K. J. Illinois distribution rec- 
ords of the black widow spider. [Trans. 111. State Acad. 
Sci.] 33: 214-215, ill. de Mello-Leitao, C. Dois generos e 
sete especies de Gonileptidas sulamericanos. [Bol. Biol., 
Brasil] 4 (1939): 345-351. ill. Opilioes coligidos pelo Dr. 
Henry Leonardos no xingu. [Bol. Biol.. Brasil] 4 (1939) : 
352-357, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Arle, R.- 

Novas especies de Pseudachorutini do Rio de Janeiro e 
Arredores. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 67-72, ill. Berner, 
L. Baetine mayflies from Florida. [39] 23: 33-45; 49-62, 
ill. (*). Fryer & Edelsten. Psectra diptera (Neuroptera: 
Hemerobiiclae) at Woodwalton Fen, Hunts. [8] 76:271. 
Ross, H. H. N. spp. of Trichoptera from Canada and 
northern United States. [4] 73: 15-19, ill. Tillyard, R. J. 
A reclassification of the order Odonata, based on some 
new interpretations of the venation of the drag'onfly wing. 
Part III. Suborder Anisozygoptera. [Australian Zool.] 9: 
359-396, ill. (*k). Werneck, F. L. Notas sobre anopluros. 
[105] 11: 722-729, ill. (S*). 

ORTHOPTERA. Burks, B. D. (see Hymenoptera). 
Rehn, J. W. H. A new genus of mellierid mantid from 
Venezuela (Manteidae). [Notulae Naturae] No. 70: 4 pp., 
ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Balduf, W. F. Ambush bug studies. 
A summary. [Trans 111. State Acad. Sci.] 33^ 206-208. 
Beamer, R. H. Two n. sp. of Erythroneura (Cicadell.). 
[103] 14: 18-19. Compere, H. Parasites of the black scale, 
Saissetia oleae, in Africa. [Hilgardia] 13: 387-425, ill. da 
Costa Lima, A. Especies de Pseudococcus observadas no 
Brasil. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 1-10. ill. Curtiss, C.- 
The alfafa plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus, found in 
Kansas. [103] 14: 25-26. Lent & Pifano. Sobre a identi- 
dade dos generos Panstrongylus Berg. 1879 e Mestor Kirk- 
aldy, 1904. Redescricao de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus 
encontrado, na Venezuela, naturalmente infestado pelo 
Schizotrypanum cruzi. [105] 11: 629-639, ill. (S). Lent & 
Viana Martins. Estudos sobre os Triatomideos do Estado 
de Minas Geraes, com descricao de uma especie nova. [105] 
11: 877-886, ill. Mendes, L. O. T. Dysdercus da coleqao 
da escola nacional de Agronomia. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 113 

(1939) : 98. Monte, O. Sphaerocysta brasiliensis (Ting- 
itid.). fBol. Biol.. Brasil] 4 (1939): 516-518, ill. Sailer, 
R. I. Additional notes on Galgupha loboprostethia (Thy- 
reocorinae). [103] 14: 19. Usinger, R. L. A n. sp. of 
Aradus from Brazil. [105] 11: 639-642, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bourquin, F. Contribution al es- 
tudio de la metamorfosis de los lepidopteros argentinos. 
[105] 11: 809-820, ill. Davenport, D. The butterflies of 
the Satyrid genus Coenonympha. [Bull. M. C. Z.] 87: 215- 
349, ill. (b*). Ferreira d' Almeida, R. Contribuicao ao 
estudo dos Mechanitidae. [105] 11: 758-766, ill. (S*). 
Revisao do genero Appias (subgen. Glutophrissa). [Bol. 
Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939) : 50-66, ill. Revisao do genero Aph- 
rissa. (Pierid.). [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 423-443. ill. 
de Figueiredo, E. R., Jr. Notas sobre a Thridia themisto 
Huebn.. 1823, praga do manaca [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 
(1939) : 512-515. ill. Hayward, K. J. N. sp. of Neotropical 
Hesperiidae from Ecuador. |105] 11: 861-877, ill. Jordan, 
K. Results of the Oxford University Biological Expedi- 
tion to the Cayman Islands. 1938: Sphingidae. [8] 76: 275- 
277. Kaye, W. J. Additions and corrections to the re- 
corded species of Trinidad butterflies. [36] 90: 551-573. 
Santos, N. Contribuiqa ao conhecimento dos Euchromi- 
idae. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 87-97, ill. Stallings, D. 
B. New records of Lepidoptera for Sumner Co., Kansas. 
[103] 14: 16. New records of butterflies for Kansas, [103] 
14: 21. A freak butterfly. [103] 14: 26. Stephan, J.- 
Clothilda (Rhopal.). [18] "54: 181-184, (S). Travassos, L. 
Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos Adelocephalidae. [105] 
11: 682-690. ill. (*). Contribuicao para o conhecimento dos 
Euchromiidae. V. Genero Isanthrene. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 
4 (1939): 454-472. ill. 

DIPTERA. Aitken, T. H. G. The gen. Psorophora in 
California (Culicidae). [105] 11: 672-682, ill. Alexander, 
C. P. Further observations on the Psvchodid subfam. 
Bruchomyinae. [105] 11: 793-799, ill. (kS*). Records and 
descriptions of Tipulidae from tropical America. Pt. 3. 
[105] 11: 894-908. ill. Antimes & Coutinho. N.t;^ sr.brc 
Elebotomos Sul-Americanos. Descricao de Flebotomus 
\\hitmani n. sp. e da armadura bucal de algumas especies. 
[Bol. Biol., Brasil 1 4 (1939): 448-453, ill. Antunes & 
Ramos. Culex ( Carmllirt 1 ) iridrscens. boiinei e soju-ri 
(Culicid.). [Bol. Biol., Mrnsil| -I (1939): 3713X5. ill. 



114 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

Bouvier, G. See under Anatomy. Callan, E. McC. The. 
gall midges (Cecidomyidae) of the West Indies. [105] 11: 
730-758. Coutinho, J. O. Nota sobre Flebotomos sul- 
americanos. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 181-183, ill. 
Fairchild, G. B. Notes on Tabanidae from Panama. 1 : 
The genera Chlorotabanus and Cryptotylus. [105] 11: 713- 
722. ill. (k). da Fonseca, F. Nova especie de Oricuterebra 
do Brasil (Oestridae). [105] 11: 662-671, ill. (k). da Fon- 
seca & Ramos. Shannonesia nov. nom. (Culicidae). [105] 
11: 966. James, M. T. The robber flies (Asilidae) of 
Colorado. [103] 14: 27-36, (k*). Lane, J. Non-hemato- 
phagous Culicidae [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 386-393, 
ill. Notes on non-hematophagous Culicidae. [Bol. Biol., 
Brasil] 4 (1939): 99-113, ill. Lane & Porto. Simulideos 
da regiao neotropica o genero Eusimulium. [Bol. Biol., 
Brasil] 4 (1939) : 168-176, ill. de Leon, J. R. La forma- 
cion de razas en los Anopheles guatemaltecos. [121] 1: 
349-352, ill. Lopez, H. de Souza. Contribuicao ao con- 
hecimento do genero Udamopyga e de outros Sarcophagi- 
deos que vivem em molluscos no Brasil. [105] 11: 924-954, 
ill. (k*). Macfie, J. W. S. Ceratopogonidae from British 
Guiana and Trinidad. [107] A, 9: 179-194, ill. (*) 1. For- 
cipomyia furcifera sp. n. (Ceratopogonidae). [105] 11: 920- 
922, ill. Morrison, F. O. A study of the male genitalia in 
calyptrate Diptera, based on the genus Gonia (Tachinidae). 
[Canadian Jour. Res.] 19: (Sec. D) : 1-21, ill. Needham, 
J. G. See under general. Ouellet, J. Un nouveau Diptere 
du genre Enicita (Sepsidae). [98] 67: 225-228, ill. Pechu- 
man, L. L. A new Chrysops from Brazil (Tabanidae). 
[105] 11: 886-888, ill. Philip C. B. Comments on the 
supra-specific categories of Nearctic Tabanidae. [4] 73 : 2- 
14, (k*). Pinto, C. Disseminacao da malaria pela avia- 
cao; biologia do Anopheles gambiae no Brasil. [Bol. Biol.. 
Brasil] 4 (1939): 196-207, ill. Porto, C. E. Simulideos da 
regiao neotropica (gen. Simulium). [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 
4 (1939): 369-373, ill. Shaw, F. Some new Mycetophili- 
dae from Costa Rica, Pt. 1. [105] 11: 803-808. ill. Town- 
send, C. H. T. New Oestrid flies from Brazil. [105] 11: 
889-894. 

COLEOPTERA. Balfour-Browne & Balfour-Browne.- 

An outline of the habits of the water-beetle, Noterus 
capricornis. [107] A, 15: 105-112, ill. Beaulne, J.-L.- 
Contribution a 1'etude des Coleopteres du Canada^ Fam. 



Ill, '41 I KXTO.MOLOGICAL NEWS 115 

Haliplidae & Monotomidae. [98] 67: 303-306, (k). Bon- 
dar, G. Notas entomologicas da Bahia, VI. [105J 11: 842- 
861, (*). Boyer, L. B. A review of Hoplia surata Bates, 
a Central American Melolonthid (Scarab.). [105] 11: 
922-924. Denier, P. C. L. Description de Lytta neivai n. 
sp. du Bresil et notes sur quelques Lytta de l'Amerique 
du Sud (Meloidae). [105] 11: 799-802. Fournier, O.- 
Tricrania sanguinipennis (Meloidae) esp. nouv. pour la 
faune du Quebec. [98] 67: 311. Green, J. W. Taxo. 
nomic studies in Cantharis (Cantharid.). [70] 20: 159-214. 
ill. (k*). An apterous female Photinus (Lampyrid.). [103] 
14: 17-18, ill. Hustache, A. Curculionides nouveaux du 
Bresil. [105] 11: 690-713. Lane, F. Describes de Longi- 
cornios neotropicos. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939): 73 
Notas sobre Lamiideos neotropicos. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 
(1939): 473-479, ill. Marshall, G. A. K. New Brazilian 
Curculionidae. [105] 11: 645-662. Pereira, F. S. Duas 
especies novas de Passalidios. [Bol. Biol., Brasil] 4 (1939) : 
79-81. Pickel, D. B. See under Anatomy. Powell, E. F. 
-Relationships within the family Chrysomelidae as indi- 
cated by the male genitalia of certain species. [119] 25: 
148-195, ill. Wittmer, W. Erster Beitrag ztir Kenntnis 
der neotropischen Malacodermata. [105] 11: 820-821, (*) 

HYMENOPTERA. Araujo, R. L. Contribuicao para 
o conhecimento do genero Editha (Bembicid.). [Bol. Biol., 
Brasil] 4 (1939) : 505-511. Bequaert, J. Synopsis of Mon- 
obia, an American genus of solitary wasps. [105] 11: 822- 
842, ill. (k*). Burks, B. D. The host of another Illinois 
species of Brachymeria. [Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci.] 33: 
208. Fernald, H. T. A probable color dimorphism in 
Chlorion habcnum (Sphecidae). [39] 23: 45-46. Gahan, 
A. B. Note on a Puerto Rican sp. of Eulophidae( Chal- 
cid.). [10] 43: 1-2. Morley, B. D. W. An artificially pro- 
duced multiple mixed colony of ants. 1 107] A. 15: 103-104. 
Needham, J. G. See under General. Salt, G. See under 
.Anatomy. Snodgrass, R. E. The male genitalia of Hy- 
menoptera. [Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 99: 86 pp., ill. Stahel & 
Geijskes. See under Anatomy. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Adaptive Coloration in Animals. 
By Cott, H. B., xxxii + 508 pp., ill. Methuen & Co., 
London. Insetos do Brasil. By da Costa Lima, A., vol. 
Hemipteros. 351 pp. Rio de Janeiro. New Systematics. By 
Huxley et al. 583 pp. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

ENTOMOPHAGOUS INSECTS By CURTIS P. CLAUSEN. First 
Edition McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York and London 1940 
pp. x+688. 257 figures. Price $7.50. In the study of insect 
biology, the unusual and amazing seems almost to be the usual 
state of affairs ; and perhaps nowhere is there a greater assemb- 
lage of remarkable adaptations, a greater variety of intricate 
modification of structures, developmental peculiarities and be- 
havior than among the entomophagous insects described in 
this book. Most of the forms dealt with are the parasitic in- 
sects, those sometimes referred to as predaceous parasites, for 
the planidium larva, which pounces upon a caterpillar and pro- 
ceeds to devour it or some other parasite already present, is, in 
a sense, also a predator. But Dr. Clausen prefers the estab- 
lished terminology and avoids even the term "parasitoid." In- 
deed, he shows little concern regarding definitions and theories 
for he is anxious to get on with his job, a very sizable one, that 
of telling us what is actually known of the biology of all the 
insect-eating insects. Proceeding at once with the Hymenoptera, 
he first makes what generalizations are possible on the habits 
of this group as to egg placement, feeding, sex, reproduction, 
phoresy and then he describes the types of immature stages, 
cites the effect upon the host and discusses sex ratios. There 
is a great deal of detailed information on numerous species 
the anatomy of the larvae, their development and host relation- 
ships all presented not as a mere compilation but in a thor- 
oughly digested and integrated form. The many curious forms 
of larvae are illustrated by figures as are also representative 
adult types. Then follow the aculeate Hymenoptera containing 
both predaceous and parasitic forms as well as many that are 
difficult to classify. The Diptera are discussed according to 
the same plan as the Hymenoptera. The Lepidoptera, Cole- 
optera, Hemiptera and 10 smaller orders are taken up in turn ; 
and in each case most attention is given to the forms that are 
most highly specialized in their host relationships. Altogether 
this volume will be of great value to entomologists and para- 
sitologists, for it represents the compilation and synthesis of a 
great mass of information from numerous sources, including 
many foreign entomological and agricultural publications and 
reports, that is not otherwise available to the working investi- 
gator. The book will be of use also to those interested in 
general biological problems such as sex determination, sex 
ratios, reflexes, behavior, diapause, polyembryony, etc. On each 
of these topics there is much information included under the 
families concerned and so indexed, usually, rather than as first- 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 117 

place index entries. The list of references, all cited in the text, 
takes up 47 pages. The index lists all forms mentioned, includ- 
ing host species. R. G. SCHMIEDER. 



PLANT GALLS AND GALL MAKERS by EPHRAIM PORTER 
FELT, Director and Chief Entomologist, Bartlett Tree Research 
Laboratories, etc., Ithaca, New York. Comstock Publishing 
Co., Inc., 1940. Pp. viii, 364, 344 text figs., 41 plates. $4.00.- 
Dr. Felt says in his preface : "This work is an extended re- 
vision, a rewritten version with much additional matter, of the 
author's 'Key to American Insect Galls' which appeared as Xew 
York State Museum Bulletin No. 200 in 1917 [1918]. The 
demand for the bulletin was so great that the edition was 
speedily exhausted." The bulletin of 1918 comprised 310 pages, 
including 16 plates and 250 text-figures, so that the net increase 
in the present volume is 62 pages. The plates in 1918 were 
massed near the end of the book, just before the index; here 
they are interspersed throughout the text. Plant Galls and Gall 
J\Iakcrs is divided into two parts: I. Introduction pp. 4-35, II. 
Key to the galls of the various plant families pp. 37-338. Fol- 
lowing is a bibliography pp. 339-340 and the index pp. 341- 
364. The introduction is much more extensive than the 14 
pages similarly labeled in the 1918 bulletin, except that the 
tabulation of plants and American insect galls (p. 31) is a very 
much compressed summary of tables occupying 14 pages (215- 
228) in 1918. The introduction discusses galls and gall types, 
gall producers, injurious and valuable galls, honeydew produc- 
ing galls, how galls are produced, life history of gall producers, 
alternation of generations*, insects and fungous galls, distribu- 
tion and abundance of gall insects, gall insects in different parts 
of the world ( especially those of Asia, the Dutch East Indies, 
southern Europe, middle Europe, Moravia, North, South and 
Central America), gall insect preferences for host plants in 
America, natural checks, collecting galls and studying gall in- 
sects an interesting summary. The main body of the book, 
the key to the galls, follows in general the treatment of 19 IS. 
but with frequent differences in detail, or in minor sequence. 

* In this section, Dr. Felt remarks: "Investigations in Europe show 
that a relatively large number of oak gall wasps have alternating gen- 
erations. There are probably more than 600 oak galls occurring upon 
American oaks and as yet the direct connection between the two genera- 
tions has been established for relatively few." This is illustrated l,y his 
list of "The known agamic and bisexual forms of American gall wasps" 
(pp. 22-25) which contains 17 species and varieties. 



118 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

The references to the descriptions of each gall or its maker 
are, however, omitted. At the head of each plant family a 
general discussion of its galls and gall makers has been added. 
Most (all?) of the illustrations of 1918 are reproduced but are 
often redistributed ; many others, principally from the works of 
Kinsey and of Weld, have been added. Under "Bibliography," 
Dr. Felt says "The author has given an extended bibliography 
in his ... Bulletin No. 200, 1918. The following is limited to 
the more important works which have appeared subsequently." 
It is composed of 18 titles from 1920 to 1938, arranged chrono- 
logically. The earlier list of 282 titles runs from 1841 to 1918. 
How far the present work is a betterment of its predecessor 
must be left to the specialists to decide, but it appears to be a 
very useful volume, and the bulletin of 1918 may be still be 
kept alongside it, for bibliographical assistance. P. P. CALVERT. 



OBITUARY 

HERMANN SCHWARZ died suddenly at Webster Groves, 
Missouri, on March 21, 1940. He was born in Osnabruck, 
Germany, March 27. 1876 and came to America when 9 years 
old. He was the youngest of four brothers, all naturalists. 
Entirely self-educated, he eventually attained to the leadership 
of the naturalists of St. Louis and surrounding territory. In- 
terested in all phases of natural history, he belonged to many 
nature study and scientific societies, being one of the organizers 
of the St. Louis Naturalists Club and the St. Louis Entomo- 
logical Club. In recent years he was very active in Boy Scout 
work, being a member of the Court of Honor and chairman of 
the Science Section. It was while making the awards to four 
Eagle Scouts that he collapsed and almost immediately after- 
wards died. Mr. Schwarz was in the printing business, but for 
a number of years conducted the Mid-West Nature Supply 
House as a hobby. He contributed the following articles to 
ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS : "A Setting-block for Lepidoptera" 
(1898), "The Art of Collecting Catocala" (1899), "A Con- 
vention of Entomologists at the home of Dr. Wm. Barnes" 
(1910), "The St. Louis Entomological Club" (1911), "Miss 
Mary Murtfeldt" (1913), and jointly with Henry McElhose 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 119 

"List of 110 Species and Varieties of Butterflies taken by 
Members of the St. Louis Entomological Club in the Vicinity 
of St. Louis, Mo." (1907). He had a collection of butterflies 
taken in Missouri. EDWIN P. MKINERS. 

Dr. GEORGE \Y. BOCK died in St. Louis, Missouri, July 22, 
1940. He was at one time a very enthusiastic beetle collector 
and carried on a rather extensive correspondence with many of 
the older collectors. He built up a collection said. to number 
about 45,000 specimens. Born in Hamelin, Germany, June 23, 
1856, he came to the United States when he was 24 years of 
age. Eventually he settled to the practice of medicine in St. 
Louis, in which he continued until a few years ago, being com- 
pelled to retire due to the infirmities of age. Dr. Bock collected 
principally in the vicinity of St. Louis, but in his early years 
made two rather extensive collecting trips, one to Guatemala 
and another to Mexico. He was one of the organizers of the 
St. Louis Naturalists Club and at one time a member of the 
St. Louis Entomological Club. He contributed an article to the 
December, 1907, number of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS on "An 
absolutely sure method of preservation of Natural Scientific 
collections against insect enemies". EDWIN P. MEINERS. 

AUGUST KNETZGER died at his home in Alton. Illinois, on 
July 2, 1940, at the age of 73 years. Mr. Knetzger, who was 
a musician by profession, was at one time an ardent student of 
the Lepidoptera and contributed the following articles to ENTO- 
MOLOGICAL NEWS between the years 1907 and 1912: "St. 
Louis Butterflies", "Migration of Anosia plexippus", "Notes 
on Missouri Lepidoptera", and "Observations on the Lepidop- 
tera of St. Louis, Mo. and vicinity during 1911". He was at 
one time a member of the Heink Entomological Club and the 
St. Louis Entomological Club. He recently gave his collection 
of 8,000 butterflies to the I 'ere Marquem- State Park at Graf- 
ton, Illinois. EDWIN P. MEINKKS. 

CHARLES L. HEINK died at his home in St. Louis, Missouri, 
on June 8, 1940. Although not a scientist in the strict sense 
of the word, Mr. Heink did much to interest others in the 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [April, '41 

study of insects. He was particularly concerned with the Lepi- 
doptera, of which he formed a considerable collection. He was 
much interested in the early stages and reared many of his 
specimens from the egg and larvae. All of his collecting was 
done in the region around St. Louis, his collection being built 
up through the exchange of his duplicates. 

EDWIN P. MEINERS. 

A memorandum on the back of Mr. Heink's photographic 
portrait, in the collection of the American Entomological So- 
ciety, states that he was born February 9, 1869, at Stonyhill, 
Gasconade County, Missouri, and organized the Heink Ento- 
mological Club, December 15, 1907. E. T. CRESSON, Jr. 

Mrs. VITAE KITE died at Hollister, Taney County, Missouri, 
February 14, 1940. "A Calendar of Ozark Butterflies" appeared 
from her pen in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for February, 1934. 
Starting late in life to form a collection of butterflies, she built 
up a collection of about 10,000 specimens, mostly locals and 
exotics. This collection has been given to The School of the 
Ozarks at Point Lookout, Missouri. EDWIN P. MEINERS. 



DR. CLARENCE PRESTON GILLETTE, director emeritus of the 
Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and emeritus profes- 
sor of entomology and zoology at Colorado State College of 
Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, died at his home in Fort 
Collins, Colorado, on January 4, 1941. Born in Ionia County, 
Michigan, April 7, 1859, he attended the Michigan public 
schools, then Michigan State College, where he received the 
B.S. in 1884, the M.S. in 1887 and the honorary Sc.D. in 1918. 
He was assistant in zoology, Michigan State College, until 
1888, when he became entomologist of the Iowa State College 
Experiment Station at Ames, Iowa, and in 1891, head of a 
new department of zoology, entomology and physiology at 
Colorado State College. In 1907, he became Colorado's first 
state entomologist, and in 1910, also director of the Colorado 
Experiment Station, until his retirement in 1932. His papers 
include lists of the Orthoptera and Hemiptera of Colorado, 
many articles dealing with Cynipidae, Cicadellidae and Aphidae, 
and his last important work, the Aphidae of Colorado, pub- 
lished jointly with Miss Miriam A. Palmer. (From obituary by 
DR. GEO. M. LIST in Science for February 28, 1941.) 



EXCHANGES 

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Wanted. To hear from specialists who would care to determine 
some family of insects for a share of the duplicates. We have many 
specimens, especially in some families of Diptera and Hymenoptera. 
H. E. Jaques, Iowa Insect Survey, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. 

Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Casilla 852, La Paz, Bolivia, 
S. America. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
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S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Michigan. 

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Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes. T. halesus 
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Eustis, 2230 McDowell St., Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder Colorado. 



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ENTOMOLOGICA 




DIV. INS. 

MAY, 1941 u.s. HAUL, 



Vol. LII 



No. 5 



CONTENTS 

Pate On a New Subgenus of Pemphilidine Wasps from Cuba 

(Hymenoptera; Sphecidae) 121 

The Malaria-carrying Anopheles gambiae 125 

La Rivers Additions to the List of Nevada Dragonflies (Odonata) . 126 

Blaisdell A New Species of Coniontis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . 131 

Moorefield Addenda to the Odonata of Maryland 133 

Robinson A New Species of Trox from Texas (Coleoptera: Scaraba- 

eidae) 134 

Knowlton Western Aphid Notes (Homoptera: Aphididae) 136 

Honor to an Entomologist 138 

Current Entomological Literature 139 

Review of Johannsen & Butt: The Embryology of Insects and Myri- 

opods . . 148 

Obituary Dr. Hugo Kahl 150 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII MAY, 1941 No 5. 

On A New Submenus of Pemphilidine Wasps From 
Cuba (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) 

By V. S. L. PATE, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

The Pemphilidine wasps are divisible into a dozen or more 
discrete generic entities, despite the asseverations of various 
competent authorities to the contrary. Some of these, such as 
Dasyproctus, are confined entirely to the Old World, while 
others like Anacrabro and Entomocrabro are restricted wholly 
to the western hemisphere. The great majority of the species, 
however, are referable to four large cosmopolitan genera: 
Ectcmnius, Crossoccrus, Lcstica (olim Solenius sen Ccrato- 
colus], and Pcmphilis (olim Crabro F. nee Geof.), each of 
which comprises a number of distinct phyletic strains sufficiently 
discrete from one another by congeries of morphological, etho- 
logical, and biogeographical characteristics that they may be 
accorded subgeneric rank. The genus Ectcmnius (olim Crabro 
Auctt., nee. F., nee Geof.) is separable at present into a number 
of such subgenera. To these may now be added the following 
striking and remarkable Antillean entity described herewith. 

MEROSPIS 1 new submenus. 

The broadly expanded, thin and laminate, shield-like fore 
femora, the flattened fore tarsi, and the absence of an apical 
calcar on the middle tibiae of the males, distinguish Ncrospis 
from all the other subgenera of Ectcmnius. The nearest affini- 
ties of the present distinctive entity appear to lie with the- < >M 
World subgenus Mctacrubro, with which it agrce> very cloudy 
in the venation of the fore wing and the slender elongate hind 
wing with the anal lobe vestigial. But in addition to the char- 
acters given above, ]\Icrospis differs from that complex in the 
finely punctate mesonotum, the strong inner basal mandibular 

1 Meros thigh + aspis, shield ; in allusion to the expanded fore femora 
of the males. 

121 



MAY 1 3 194) 



122 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

tooth, and the sulcate ultimate abdominal tergite and emargi- 
nate antennal flagellum of the male. 

Diagnostic Features. Small forms. Head subquadrate in 
anterior aspect, transversely subrectangular to subquadrate in 
dorsal aspect. Eyes naked, much more coarsely facetted an- 
teriorly than posteriorly ; inner orbits very strongly convergent 
toward clypeus and antennal sockets. Malar space obsolete. 
Vertex flat ; supraorbital f oveae absent ; ocelli normal, arranged 
in a low triangle. Temples wide above, tapering ventrad ; post- 
orbital and temporal carinae wanting. Front vertical, narrow, 
strongly concave between the inner orbits but the basin not 
margined dorsally by a transverse carinule. Antennae situated 
low on face on dorsal margin of clypeus, twelve-segmented in 
both sexes, the antennal sockets contiguous to each other and 
also to the nearest lower inner orbit ; flagellum not dilated but 
emarginate in males. Maxillary palpi six-segmented, labial 
palpi four-segmented. Mandibles bifid apically, lower margin 
entire, inner margin armed at base with a very large, elongate, 
inwardly directed, acuminate tooth. 

Thorax with pronotum narrow, transverse, crested anteriorly, 
humeral angles dentate. Mesonotum finely punctate ; suture 
between mesonotum and scutellum simple. Prepectus anteriorly 
with a sharp epicnemium which is continued onto anterior face 
of mesopleura, mesopleura with a sharp vertical carina before 
middle coxae, impunctate but with coarse subparallel, subhori- 
zontal costulae which are continuous onto the metapleura and 
the lateral and posterior faces of propodeum ; dorsal face of 
propodeum with coarse, subparallel, longitudinal costulae. 

Fore legs with opposing faces of coxae flat, closely appressed 
to one another and furnished anteriorly with a sharp longitudi- 
nal carina, the distal posterior margin projecting backward and 
downward in a thin, translucent, semicircular laminate plate. 
Fore trochanters flattened and somewhat expanded. Fore 
femora thin, flat, and dilated into an irregular trigonal shield, 
but without spines or teeth beneath. Fore tibiae strongly com- 
pressed and flattened, elongate trigonal in shape. Fore tarsi 
strongly flattened, the metatarsi as long as the four distal seg- 
ments combined. Middle and hind legs normal ; the metatarsi 
slender, elongate, longer than the four distal articles combined ; 
middle tibiae of males without an apical calcar, hind tibiae 
with two. Fore wing with marginal cell broadly and somewhat 
obliquely truncate apically ; transverse cubital vein straight, 
oblique, inclivous, received on radius at or a little before middle 
of marginal cell ; recurrent vein joining the submarginal cell 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



123 



very close to apex of latter, the second abscissa of cubitus much 
shorter than the length of transverse cubital vein. Hind wings 
slender, elongate, costa absent; anal lobe very small, vestigial, 
not clearly delimited. 

Abdomen sessile; finely, inconspicuously punctate; ultimate 
tergite of male without a pygidium, but with a median longi- 
tudinal furrow on apical two-thirds. 

Genotype: Ectemnius (Mcrospis) cyancniges new species. 
This interesting group is known at present from only the 
genotypic species. 

Ectemnius (Merospis) cyanauges 2 new species. 

,The brilliant, metallic blue color, ivory maculations, and the 
distinctive shape of the fore legs will immediately distinguish 
the present species from all of its New World congeners. 

Type. $ ; San Vincente, Pinar del Rio Province, CUBA. 
July 26-August 5, 1939. (C. T. Parsons.) [Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology.] 




Fig. 1. Ectemnius (J\Icrospis} cyanamjcx new species. Male ( / v 
San Vincente, Pinar de Rio, Cuba) : A, fore leg; B, pedicel and an- 
tennal flagellum ; C, anterior aspect of head. 

$ . 7 mm. long. P> right cyancous ; the following churneous : 
scape anteriorly, mandibles on outer basal two-thirds, pronotum 
and tubercles above, postscutellum, all tibiae on outer faces, fore 
femora with a small spot at knee, middle femora beneath, fore 
metatarsi, abdomen with narrow elongate transverse >pot- l.r 

- Kuanauges, of a bright blue color. 



124 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

ally on, first six tergites, those of second and fourth segments 
much longer and wider than the others. Black: scape behind, 
pedicel, flagellum, mandibles apically and on inner and lower 
margins. Tegulae, axillary sclerites, and middle and hind tarsi, 
dark brunneous. Fore trochanters, and fore femoral shield with 
fore and hind margins and a narrow discal streak, castaneous. 
Wings hyaline, infumated anteriorly particularly in marginal 
and submarginal cells ; veins dark brunneous. 

Head f ulgid ; clypeus with lower inner and posterior orbits 
densely clothed with shining, appressed silvery pubescence; 
vertex, occiput and temples with rather long, suberect, incon- 
spicuous, dark grey pubescence. Front with scapal basin 
strongly concave, nitidous, glabrous, not margined dorsally by 
a transverse carinule. Vertex, occiput, and temples with fine, 
separated, setigerous acupuncturation ; vertex bisected anteriorly 
by a strong furrow running forward from median ocellus into 
scapal basin of front; no trace of supraorbital foveae; ocelli 
situated in a very low triangle, the postocellar line six-tenths 
the length of ocellocular distance ; temples without orbital or 
temporal carinae ; occipital carina distinct, forming a complete 
circle which is tangent below to the hypostomal carinule. An- 
tennae short, reaching about to occiput; scape cylindrical, four- 
sevenths the vertical length of eye; pedicel subcylindrical, short, 
one-half the length of first flagellar article; flagellum with first 
four articles elongate, the first one-and-one-half the length of 
second which is subequal in length to third, the fourth one-and- 
one-sixth the length of first, remaining segments, except last, 
but one-half the length of first, ultimate article simple, terete, 
subequal in length to two preceding segments combined, the 
third segment slightly, the fourth strongly emarginate beneath. 
Clypeus narrow, linear, flat laterally to weakly tectate discally, 
median length two-sevenths vertical length of eye, produced 
medio-apically into a short broad truncate lobe the apical width 
of which is subequal to median length. 

Thorax f ulgid ; generally clothed with rather long, suberect, 
light pubescence. Pronotum narrow 7 , transverse, situated on a 
level with mesonotum, anterior dorsal margin sharply trans- 
versely carinate for entire width save for a deep median notch, 
the lateral angles acutely dentate, posterior margin narrowly 
but deeply impressed. Mesonotum with well separated, dis- 
tinct, setigerous acupuncturation throughout, anteriorly with a 
few transverse, curved, weak and indistinct striae, anterior half 
with three parallel well separated carinules ; suture between 
mesonotum and scutellum simple, not foveolate; scutellum per- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 125 

fulgid, very sparsely acupunctate, flatly tumid, posterior margin 
abruptly and deeply impressed and f oveolate ; axillae not mar- 
gined laterally; postscutellum transverse, linear, short, one-half 
length of scutellum, perfulgid, subnitidous, almost impunctate. 
Mesopleura impunctate but with fine and coarse subhorizontal 
and subparallel costulae more or less continuous onto meta- 
pleura and lateral and posterior faces of propodeum, episternal 
suture inconspicuously foveolate, descending from below tegula 
and curving forward onto anterior face of mesothora, meso- 
pleural pit almost obliterated by striation, episternauli, hyper- 
sternauli, and sternauli not evident, posterior margin incon- 
spicuously foveolate ; prepectus anteriorly with a sharp epic- 
nemium, the carina forking dorsally into carinules which parallel 
the lower and posterior margins of pronotal tubercles. Pro- 
podeum perfulgid ; clothed with pubescence like thorax ; entire 
dorsal face with an undemarcated transverse subrectangular 
area traversed by subparallel longitudinal costulae ; posterior 
face bisected by a deep, narrow, nitidous sulcus, and crossed 
by horizontal parallel rugulae which are continuous from lateral 
faces ; lateral carinae wanting. 

Legs with tibiae unarmed with spines on outer faces ; other- 
wise as in subgeneric diagnosis. 

Abdomen sessile, perfulgid ; tergites with sparse, well sepa- 
rated, very fine acupuncturation, the ultimate tergite somewhat 
more distinctly and closely punctate than preceding tergite and 
with a median longitudinal furrow ; penult tergite with an in- 
conspicuous, transverse median constriction, last tergite with a 
stronger more perceptible one. Venter with first three sternites 
flatly convex, perfulgid, subnitidous, glabrous, with microscopi- 
cally fine cancellate sculpture; fourth, fifth and sixth sternites 
flatly concave, subopaque, with close fine acupuncturation ; 
seventh and eighth sternites flat, densely pilose, seventh with a 
deep, roundly V-shaped emargination posteriorly, eighth with 
caudal margin shallowly, broadly, circularly emarginate. 

9 . Unknown. 

This species is known only from the unique male described 
above. 



The Malaria-carrying Anopheles gambiae. 
Discussing the Malaria situation created by this mosquito in 
Brazil, President Fosdick in his Rockefeller Foundation Review 
for 1940 says: "No evidence of gambiae in Brazil was found 
during the last 47 days of 1940." 



126 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

Additions to the List of Nevada Dragonflies 

(Odonata). 

By IRA LA RIVERS, Reno, Nevada. 

Since the publication of my "Preliminary Synopsis of the 
Dragonflies of Nevada" (1940), several less common and more 
localized species have been found along two portions of the 
State's boundary. As the author had previously suspected, 
there are a number of West Coast dragonflies, hitherto accred- 
ited only to the region west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
to be found crossing the Nevada-California line at those points 
where spurs or isolated peaks of the Sierra Nevada system lie 
in Nevada. The two regions so-far most productive of new 
dragonfly records along this border are Lake Tahoe and 
Boundary Peak. 

The lake, whose surface waters lie at an approximate eleva- 
tion of 6,225 feet, is surrounded by a ring of high Sierra 
peaks which vary from 7,000 to nearly 9,000 feet in height, the 
taller summits lying on the California side and forming the 
crest of the range. However, the ecologic environments do not 
differ considerably, on the average, from one side of the lake 
to the other, and the characteristic odonate species of this mon- 
tane lake occur indifferently on either side. The summit of the 
Sierras strikes tangent from the north-northwest towards the 
lake, and approaches the Nevada line most closely near the south 
end of the lake. The entire eastern shoreline, and nearly half of 
the northern, lies in Nevada, so that it was to be expected when 
the author's first list was prepared that a number of California 
species not yet accredited to Nevada, but occurring in the ad- 
jacent Sierra Nevadas, might well be found at Lake Tahoe. A 
favorable spring and summer's collecting season here has veri- 
fied these conclusions. 

Boundary Peak, the tallest point in Nevada, rises to a height 
of 13,145 feet, and lies exactly 117 miles southeast along the 
Nevada-California boundary from the southern tip of Lake 
Tahoe. It is the most northern summit of the lofty White 
Mountain Range which parallels the upper portion of the 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 127 

southern Sierras, and may properly be considered a part of 
that extensive system, although separated from the Sierras 
themselves by the long and prominent Owens Valley. Here in 
the vicinity of Boundary Peak, which lies just inside the 
Nevada line, the author has taken several species of dragonflies 
which Ahrens recorded in 1938 from nearby Yosemite, which 
lies but a scant 45 miles (in a straight line) from the peak. 

New species have also turned up along the ever bountiful 
Rio Colorado, which forms Nevada's extreme southeastern 
border. This stream has been the gateway used by several 
subtropical species in thejr expansion northward into the Great 
Basin, and it is not unlikely that other southern forms will be 
found here in the future. 

In the following list, most of those species already recorded 
for the State in the author's "Synopsis"; have been given a 
more extended range within it as a result of the last season's 
collecting. An asterisk (*) denotes species accredited to the 
area by other writers, but overlooked in the "Synopsis", a double 
asterisk (**) those species which have been taken, to the auth- 
or's knowledge, in the State for the first time. 

Subfamily GOMPHINAE. 

OPHIOGOMPHUS MORRISONI Selys Ormsby and Washoe 
Counties (Marlette Lake). 

**O. BISON Selys Esmeralda County (Fish Lake Valley). 
/ HERPETOGOMPHUS COMPOSITUS Hagen Churchill County 
^Fallen, Humboldt Sink) ; Pershing County (Rye Patch Reser- 
voir) ; Washoe County (Wadsworth). 

GOMPHUS IXTKICATUS Hagen Churchill and Pershing Coun- 
ties (Humboldt Sink). 

G. OLIVACEUS Selys -- Churchill and Pershing Counties 
(Humboldt Sink). 

**OCTOGOMPHUS SPECULARIS (Hagen) Esim-ralda County 
(Boundary Peak). 

Subfamily AESHNINAE. 

ANAX JUNIUS (Drury) Churchill County (Carson Lake, 
Carson Sink, Fallen, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Douglas County 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

(Gardnerville, Topaz Lake) ; Lyon County (Lahontan Reser- 
voir, Sweetwater) ; Nye County (Beatty, Springdale). 

**A. WALSINGHAMI MacLaclilan Clark County (Boulder 
Lake). 

AESHNA CALIFORNICA (Calvert) Lyon County (Sweet- 
water). 

AE. MULTICOLOR Hageii Churchill County (Carson Lake, 
Carson Sink, Fallon, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Esmeralda County 
(Fish Lake Valley) ; Nye County (Beatty, Springdale). 

AE. UMBROSA Walker Humholdt County (generally 
throughout the Santa Rosa Mountains). 

**AE. WALKERI Kennedy Esmeralda County (Boundary 
Peak). 

AE. PALM ATA Hagen Washoe County (Truckee Meadows, 
Washoe Lake). 

AE. CONSTRICTA Say Churchill County (Humboldt Sink) ; 
Lyon County (Fernley) ; Pershing County (Lovelock); Was- 
hoe County (Washoe Lake). 

AE. INTERRUPTA Walker Humboldt County (National, 
Paradise). 

**AE. VERTICALIS Hagen Esmeralda County (Boundary 
Peak). 

Subfamily CORDULEGASTERINAE. 

CORDULEGASTER DORSALis Hagen Washoe County (Cody 
Basin. A single straggler from the High Sierras, first recorded 
in the author's "Synopsis." The other "Synopsis" records of 
this species belong to C. crroncns}. Previous records: none. 

*C. ERRONEUS Hagen Lyon County (Sweetwater) ; Was- 
hoe County (Franktown, Peavine, Verdi). Previous records: 
Hagen-Selys, 1878; Fraser, 1929; La Rivers, 1940. 

Subfamily MACROMIINAE. 

MACROMIA PACIFICA Hagen Lyon County (Sweetwater) ; 
Washoe County (Franktown). 

M. MAGNIFICA MacLachlan Nye County (Beatty). 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 129 

Subfamily CORDULIINAE. 

**SOMATOCHLORA SEMICIRCULAR^ (Selys) Esmeralda 
County (Boundary Peak). 

**CORDULIA SHURTLEFFI Scudder - Esmeralda County 
(Boundary Peak). 

Subfamily LIBELLULIN^. 

LIBELLULA SATURATA Uhler Churchill County (Carson 
Lake, Carson Sink, Fallen, Humboldt Sink, Lahontan Reser- 
voir) ; Esmeralda County (Fish Lake Valley); Lyon County 
(Lahontan Reservoir); Nye County (Beatty, Springdale). 

**L. COMANCHE Calvert Esmeralda County (Fish Lake 
Valley); Nye County (Beatty). 

*L. PULCHELLA Drury Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; 
Lyon County (Sweet water) ; Washoe County (Truckee Mead- 
ows ) . 

L. FORENSIS Hagen Churchill County (Fallon, Lahonlan 
Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville, Genoa, Topaz 
Lake) ; Esmeralda County (Fish Lake Valley) ; Lyon County 
(Lahontan Reservoir, Smith Valley, Sweetwater, Yerington) ; 
Mineral County (Schurz) ; Nye County (Beatty, Springdale). 

L. QUADRIMACULATA Linnc Douglas County (Gardnerville, 
Lake Tahoe) ; Ormsby County (Lake Tahoe, Marlette Lake) ; 
Washoe County (Lake Tahoe, Marlette Lake, Truckee Mead- 
ows ) . 

L. NODISTICTA Hagen - Washoe County ( Truckee Mead- 
ows ) . 

L. COMPOSITA Hagen Churchill County (Carson Sink, 
Fallon, Humboldt Sink). 

**PLATHEMJS LYDIA (Drury) Esmeralda County (Fish 
Lake Valley) ; Lincoln County (Pahranagat Valley) ; Lyon 
County (Sweetwater) ; Nye County (Beatty) ; Washoe County 
(Truckee Meadows, Wadsworth). Previous records: I. a 
Rivers, 1938. 

P. SUBORNATA Hagen Churchill County (Fallon, Lahontan 
Reservoir) ; Washoe County (Truckee Meadows). 

SYMPETRUM CORRUPTUM (Hagen) Churchill County (Car- 
son Lake, Fallon, Humboldt Sink, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Doug- 



130 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

las County (Genoa, Glenbrook, Minden) ; Humboldt County 
(generally throughout the Santa Rosa Mountains) ; Lyon 
County (Lahontan Reservoir, Sweetwater) ; Mineral County 
(Hawthorne) ; Ormsby County (Lake Tahoe, Marlette Lake) ; 
Washoe County (Franktown, Lake Tahoe, Marlette Lake). 

S. ILLOTUM (Hagen) Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; 
Lyon County (Sweetwater); Ormsby County (Carson City); 
Washoe County (Washoe Lake). 

S. MADIDUM (Hagen) Humboldt County (National). 
S. PALLIPES (Hagen) Churchill County (Fallen, Humboldt 
Sink) ; Humboldt County (Paradise Valley). 

*S. OBTRUSUM (Hagen) Elko and White Pine Counties 
(Ruby Valley). Previous records: Ahrens, 1938 (as S. deci- 
sum Hagen). 

S. RUBICUNDULUM ( Say ) Churchill County (Carson Sink, 

Fallen, Lahontan Reservoir); Washoe County (Wadsworth). 

S. SEMICINCTUM (Say) Churchill County (Carson Lake, 

Fallen, Humboldt Sink, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Humboldt 

County (Paradise Valley). 

S. COSTIFERUM (Hagen) Churchill County (Fallen). 
S. DANAE (Sulzer) Churchill County (Fallen). 
S. ATRIPES (Hagen) Douglas County (Gardnerville). 
**LEUCORRHINIA HUDSONICA (Selys) Esmeralda County 
(Boundary Peak). 

L. GLACIALIS Hagen Esmeralda County (Boundary Peak). 
PACHYDIPLAX LONGIPENNIS (Burmeister) Churchill 

County (Fallen, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gard- 
nerville, Topaz Lake); Washoe County (Verdi). 

ERYTHEMIS SIMPLICICOLLIS (Say) Churchill County (Fal- 
len, Lahontan Reservoir); Douglas County (Gardnerville, 
Genoa) ; Lyon County (Lahontan Reservoir, Smith Valley, 
Sweetwater, Wabuska, Yerington) ; Washoe County (Verdi). 
PANTALA HYMENEA (Say) Esmeralda County (Fish Lake 
Valley); Nye County (Beatty, Springdale). 

P. FLAVESCENS (Fabricius) Douglas County (Gardner- 
ville); Washoe County (Truckee Meadows. Washoe Valley). 
TRAPEZOSTIGMA LACERATA Hagen Nye County (Beatty). 
T. ONUSTA Hagen Washoe County (Lawton Valley). 

(To be continued.) 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 131 

A New Species of Coniontis from Nevada 
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). 

By FRANK E. BLAISDELL, Sr., Stanford Medical School and 

Associate in Research, California Academy of 

Sciences, San Francisco, California. 

Coniontis lariversi new specie's. 

Form oblong-oval to somewhat cuneate, nearly twice as wide, 
a little more than twice as long as the pronotum. Color deep 
black; luster dull and alutaceous. Pubescence absent from the 
superior surface ; short, pale hairs are present beneath. Ventral 
surface more or less polished. 

Head relatively small, widest across the posterior canthi and 
eyes, twice as wide as long before the post-ocular line ; sides 
less prominent than eyes, margin arcuate over the antennal in- 
sertions, thence straighter and convergent to the rounded epis- 
tomal angles, not sinuate at position of the obliterated oblique 
sutures. Epistomal apex rather broadly, not deeply, arcuately 
emarginate. Frons not convex and without impressions, sides 
slightly convex and briefly declivous against the eyes ; surface 
densely punctate, punctures moderately small and irregular, 
intervals densely and very minutely punctulate. Labrum trans- 
verse, about twice as wide as long; sides arcuate and continu- 
ously so with the apex, angles absent ; apex rather deeply and 
arcuately emarginate at middle. Antennae slender, moderate in 
length, about attaining the posterior third of the pronotum ; 
last four segments moderately compressed ; segments two to 
seven inclusive obconical and more or less elongate; the second 
about one-half as long as the third; the latter two-and-one-half 
times as long as wide at apex; segments four, six, seven and 
eight subequal in length, and less than twice as long as wide 
at apex; eight obconico-subtriangular, ninth and tenth triangu- 
lar and as long as wide; eleventh, slightly smaller and widest 
at middle, apex subacute. 

Pronotum about one-third wider than long, widest in basal 
half; apex broadly emarginate between the bluntly rounded 
angles in moderate circular arc, marginal bead very narrow and 
inconspicuous; sides arcuately convergent anteriorly, less so be- 
hind the middle and parallel; base subtransverse, verv broadly 
and feebly arcuate in middle two-fourths, thence broadly slightly 
sinuate to the moderately, posteriorly prominent angles 
evenly convex from side to side and rather antero-laterally decli- 
vous, sparsely and irregularly punctate, punctures smaller than 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

on the head, the intervals indistinctly punctulate ; lateral margins 
distinctly and moderately strongly beaded ; submarginal grooves 
very narrow and rather deep ; base not beaded. 

Elytra oblong, a little more than twice as long as wide and 
two-and-two-sixths times as long as the pronotum at middle ; 
base truncate, scutellum triangular and imptmctate ; humeri 
narrowly rounded and not prominent beneath the pronotal basal 
angles ; sides straight, parallel or somewhat convergent to apical 
third, thence arcuately convergent toi the subacute apex. Disk 
rather evenly arcuate from side to side, moderately and arcu- 
ately declivous apically ; punctures small and inconspicuous, 
irregular, intervals with a number of fine, irregular feebly im- 
pressed lines ; apical declivity slightly rugose. Marginal bead 
narrow and scarcely visible from above, except at humeri and 
apically. 

Prosternum rather densely punctate, punctures moderately 
small becoming somewhat coarser on the intercoxal process, 
which is feebly and rather indistinctly margined laterally be- 
tween the coxae, apex not margined. Propleurae smooth, coxal 
convexities finely and longitudinally rugose. Sterna very finely 
and sparsely punctate. 

Abdomen polished and shining, sparsely punctulate and more 
or less irregularly but not strongly rugose. 

Middle and posterior legs rather long, femora rather narrow 
and parallel ; the metafemora two-fifths of their length longer 
than the mesof emora ; tarsi long and slender. 

Measurements. (Types) Length 17-17.5 mm.; width 7-8 
mm. 

Holotype, female, No. 5077, and allotype, male, No. 5078, 
Museum of the California Academy of Sciences. Collected in 
the vicinity of Reno, NEVADA, by Ira La Rivers, to whom the 
species is dedicated. Paratypes in the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of Philadelphia. The author in 1902, collected a few 
specimens along the railroad toward Truckee from Verdi, 
Nevada. 

$ $ . Form narrower, often more or less cuneate. Pro- 
sternal intercoxal process slightly wider and feebly more con- 
vex, with the punctures a little coarser than in the opposite sex. 
9 9 . Form oblong-oval and broader. Prosternal process 
more finely punctate and the surface quite flat. 

Larivcrsi does not belong to the Opaca Group of Casey, which 
contain some of the smallest species of the genus, and the size 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 133 

does not as far as known exceed 10 mm. One of the species, 
ncvadcnsis Casey occurs at Reno, Nevada and was named from 
a single specimen. In the abdominalis, strcnua, robusta Group 
of Casey,the body is large in size and much broader ; the pro- 
sternal process is more apt to IDC margined throughout. Twenty- 
two specimens studied. 



Addenda to the Odonata of Maryland. 

By HERBERT H. MOOREFIELD, 

The Natural History Society of Maryland, Baltimore. 
Since the appearance of the recent "List of Maryland Odo- 
nata", by Elizabeth G. Fisher,* the writer has compiled a few 
further notes of interest on the Anisoptera of this State. The 
specimens listed below are deposited in the collection of the 
Department of Entomology, Natural History Society of Mary- 
land, and were collected by the writer unless otherwise noted. 
The majority of the important collecting stations were de- 
scribed in Fisher's report, and the only one of additional inter- 
est is Twin Lakes. These are two small, natural lakes near 
Lansdowne, Baltimore County. 

FAMILY AESHNIDAE. 
Aeshninae. 

1. GOMPHAESCHNA ANTiLOPE (Hagcn). Druid Hill Park, 
Baltimore City, June 5, 2 ? , (D. N. Bachrach). A male of 
this species was taken on the eleventh floor of a downtown 
office building of Baltimore City on the same date. 

Cordulegasterinae. 

2. CORDULEGASTER OBLiQUUS (Say), Bengies, Harford Co., 
June 12, 1 9 , (D. N. Bachrach). Cross Country Blvd., Balti- 
more City, July 5, 1 $ . This species was depositing eggs in a 
fresh water stream on June 12, at Bengies, Md. 

FAMILY LIBELLULIDAE. 
Cordulinae. 

3. SOMATOCHLORA FiLOSA (Hagen). Tolchester, Kent Co., 
August 16, 1 $ . 

* Ent News, 1940, Vol. LI, No. 2, pp. 37-42; Vol. LI, No. 3, pp. 
67-72. 



134 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

4. CORDULIA SHURTLEFFI Scudder. Mountain Lake Park, 
Garrett Co., June 26, 1 $ , (H. C. Seibert). 

Libellulinae. 

5. CELITHEMIS MONOMELAENA Williamson. Twin Lakes, 
Baltimore Co., June 13, 1 $ , 1 9 ; July 8, 1 9 . 

6. LADONA EXUSTA (Say). Lake Shore, Anne Arundel Co., 
May 28, 1 $ . 

7. L. JULIA (Uhler). Lake Shore, Anne Arundel Co., May 
28, 2 $ ; June 2, 2 S . Twin Lakes, Baltimore Co., June 26, 
1$. 

8. LIBELLULA AXILLENA Westwood. Twin Lakes, Balti- 
more Co., June 13, 1 $ . Laurel, Prince George Co., July, 1 $ . 

9. LEUCORRHINIA INTACTA (Hagen). Hillendale, Balti- 
more Co., July 6, 1 9 , (H. C. Seibert). 

10. TRAPEZOSTIGMA CAROLINA (Linnaeus). Lake Shore, 
Anne Arundel Co., May 28, 1 $ ; June 2, 2 $ ; August 6, 2 S . 
Twin Lakes, Baltimore Co., June 13, 1 $ , Tolchester, Kent 
Co., August 16, 1 $ . This species was observed mating at 
Lake Shore, on June 2. 



A New Species of Trox from Texas 
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). 

By MARK ROBINSON, Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Trox (Omorgus) fuliginosus new species. 

This interesting species is closely related to the well known 
T. monachus Herbst, but can readily be distinguished by the 
color differences and dissimilarity of the male genitalia. The 
elytra tubercules are usually a little higher and the wings a 
trifle longer in monachus. 

Oblong ; iron-gray opaque coating over entire body except 
head, thoracic and elytral tubercules, elytral umbones, tibiae 
and tarsi which have an ochraceous-yellow opaque coating. 
The opaque coating under a high magnification might be called 
granule-pollinose. 

Clypeus triangular; vertex of head with two tubercules side 
by side, in front of each of which near the clypeal margin is 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 135 

a deep pit. Entire anterior and side margin of head strongly 
reflexed and fimbriate with ochraceous-orange hairs. 

Thoracic ridges and tubercules as usual in this subgenus ; 
side margins evenly rounded except near the hind angles where 
they are deeply incised, hind margin indicated with a raised 
line especially laterally. Dorsal surface of ridges and tubercles 
moderately not densely punctured, each puncture bearing a 
short ochraceous-orange scale like hair. 

Elytral tubercules low, oval ; arranged in four primary rows 
in addition to the sutural row ; between each of these rows is 
a vague line of minute tubercles and between the rows of 
smaller and larger tubercles is a line of shallow punctures. 
Humeral and apical umbone prominent. 

Scape of antenna black; bristling with rather long ochra- 
ceous-orange hairs ; funicle reddish, glabrous ; club ochraceous- 
yellow. Apical process of anterior tibiae unifid, side margin 
of tibiae without trace of denticles, plane. Abdominal plates 
with a few scattered punctures. 

The male genitalia of the present species are generally wider 
and blunter than uionacJuts; the inner margins of the claspers 
are expanded posteriorly until they form nearly parallel lines 
for one-fifth the length of the genitalia; in monachus this sec- 
tion of the genitalia forms an ovate figure. Viewed laterally, 
the tips of the claspers are longer and bent downward a trifle 
more than they are in monachus. 

Wings: Length, 16.9 mm.; Breadth, 6.0 mm. 

Length, 14.2 to 15.1 mm.; Breadth, 7.8 to 8.5 mm. 

Type. $ , New Braunfels, Comal County, TEXAS, April 10, 
1902 (H. Mittendorf). [In the collection of the United States 
National Museum]. 

Allotype. 9 , With same data as type. [In collection of the 
United States National Museum]. 

Paratypes. 1 $ , With same data as type. 1 9 , Harris County, 
TEXAS, May 1909 (C. R. Oerto). [Both specimens are in the 
collection of the author]. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

Western Aphid Notes 1 (Homoptera: Aphididae). 

By GEORGE F. KNOWLTON^. 

The following report adds to the known distribution of a 
number of aphids and includes the description of one apparently 
undescribed species of the genus Aphis. 

BREVICORYNE SYMPHORICARPI (Thos.). Gallatin Valley, 
Montana, July 16, 1936 (Knowlton). 

CAVARIELLA CAPREAE (Fab.). On Sallx, Weber Canyon, 
Utah; on Umbelliferae at Puyallup, Washington, July 28, 1937 
(H. C. Bennion). 

C. ESSIGI (Gill.). On Hcracleum lanatwn at Spring Hollow, 
Logan Canyon, Utah, June 19, 1938 (Knowlton-W. P. Nye). 

APHIS HERACLELLA Davis. On C-icuta occidentalis at Lewis- 
ton, Utah, July 13, 1923 (Knowlton). 
Aphis tetradymia n. sp. 

Apterous vlvlpara. Color bluish green; size, 1.3 mm. long 
and 0.75 mm. wide ; antennae 0.81 mm. long, dusky to black ; 
antennal III, 0.18 to 0.2 mm. long, with to 4 sensoria on 
distal half; IV, 0.09 to 0.1 with to 1 sensorium; V, 0.09 to 
0.1; VI, 0.09+0.16 to 0.2 mm. long; rostrum reaching ab- 
domen; rostral IV+V rather thick, 0.13 mm. long; hind tibiae 
0.6 to 0.71 mm.; hind tarsi 0.1 ; cornicles blackish, imbricated, 
0.11 to 0.13 mm. long, slightly wider toward base; cauda 
blackish with 4 to 5 hairs on each side and 3 on dorsal to dorso- 
lateral surfaces. 

Aphis tetradymia resembles A. crypt us P.-K., but differs in 
having shorter, thicker rostral IV-f-V, more slender body, and 
in possessing fewer conspicuous abdominal tubercles. It 
differs from A. maidi-radicis Forbes in being smaller in size, 
having longer antennae, fewer hairs on cauda, usually posses- 
sing sensoria on antennal III and IV of aptera, and having a 
darker bluish-green body color. 

Described from wingless specimens collected upon Tetra- 
dymia cancsccns at Fisher's Pass, Tooele County, UTAH, Aug- 
ust 16, 1932 (G. F. Knowlton). Type in the collection of the 
writer. 

1 Contribution from the Entomology Department, Utah Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Logan. 

2 Research associate professor. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 137 

EPAMEIBAPHIS ATRICORNIS G.-P. On Artemisia, usually 
tridenlata, in Utah at Beaver Dam, Circleville, Hansel's Moun- 
tains and Maple Canyon ; in Idaho at Preston and Rexburg, 
1935 (C. F. Smith) ; in Colorado at De Beque, 1935. Cross 
Mountains and Elk Springs, June 25, 1937 (Knowlton). 

E. UTAHENSIS K.-S. On Artemisia vulgaris in Utah at 
Blacksmith Fork Canyon, June 10, 1930; on A. tridentata at 
Providence, August 26, 1925, Raft River Mountains, and 
Woodruff Mountains (Knowlton) ; Levan, Salt Lake City, and 
Vernon (Knowlton-C. F. Smith). 

FLABELLOMICROSIPHUM KNOWLTONI Smith. On Artemisia 
tridentata, Bountiful and Roy, Utah, June 4, 1937 (Knowlton- 
Smith). 

F. TRIDENTATAE (Wilson). On Artemisia tridentata at 
Beaver Dam, Hansel's Mountains, Junction Valley, Manti and 
Portage, in Utah; Palisade, August 24, 1925 and Sunbeam, 
June 25, 1937, in Colorado (Knowlton). 

PSEUDOEPAMEIBAPHIS Essici K.-S. On Artemisia tridentata 
at Kelton and Morgan, Utah (Knowlton). 

P. GLAUCA G.-P. On Artemisia tridentata in Utah at Bounti- 
ful. Butlerville, Peterson, Roy and Strawberry Valley (Knowl- 
ton-Smith). 

P. TRIDENTATAE (Wilson). On Artemisia tridentata at Pali- 
sade, Colorado, August 24, 1935 (Knowlton) ; at Burly, Idaho, 
July 9, 1931 (D. E. Fox). 

P. XENOTRICHUS K.-S. On Artemisia tridentata in Brigham 
Canyon, Utah, August 29, 1936 (Knowlton). 

RHOPALOSIPHUM GRABHAMI Ckll. On Lonicera involucrata, 
Eden and Logan, Utah, June 1937 (Knowlton-Smith-F. C. 
Harmston) ; Mt. Vernon, Washington, June 8, 1935 (A. J. 
Hanson). 

R. MELLIFERUM (Hottes). In Idaho at Blue Gulch, Castle- 
ford, Hollister and Wendell ( D. E. Fox). 

R. RI-IOIS Mon. On Rhns at Granite, Utah, August 1935 
(Knowlton). 

R. RUFOMACULATA (\Vilson). On Chrysanthemum at Logan, 
Utah, in greenhouse, January 10, 1934 (C. F. Smith). 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

R. SCIRPIFOLII G.-P. Blue Gulch, Idaho (D. E. Fox). 

MINUTICORNIS GRAVJDUS Knit. On Juniperns at Pocatello, 
Idaho, June 18, 1936 (Knowlton). 

TOXOPTERA VIRIDI-RUBRA G.-P. Wendell, Idaho, 1930 (Fox). 

AMPHOROPHORA CRATAEGI (Mon.). Hollister, Idaho, 1930 
(Fox). 

A. GERANII (G.-P.). Buhl, Idaho, October 17, 1930 (Fox). 

A. GRINDELIAE (Will.). On Griudclia squarrosa, Logan, 
Utah, July 4, 1935; and Franklin, Idaho (Knowlton). 

A. RUBI (Kalt. ). On raspberry, Hamilton, Montana (W. 
Shockley). 

BIPERSONA TORTICAUDA (Gill.). On Cirsium at Salt Lake 
City, Utah, June 15, 1937 (Knowlton) ; and Florence, Mon- 
tana (H. F. Dietz). 

CAPITOPHORUS BITRICHUS K.-S. On Artemisia tridentata, 
Hyrum. Utah, August 23, 1938 (Knowlton). 

C. GILLETTEI Theob. On Polygomtin, Enumclaw, Washing- 
ton, August 18, 1937 (H. C. Reunion). 

C. POTENTILLAE (Walk.). On Rosa nntkana, near Forks, 
Washington, August 27, 1936 (W. W. Baker). 

C. OESTLUNDI Knit. On Chrysothamnus nauseosus at Elko, 
Nevada, June 16, 1934 (Knowlton). 

C. PYCNORHISUS K.-S. On Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus at 
Riverdale, Idaho, July 24, 1936 (C. F. Smith). 

C. QUADRITRICHUS K.-S. On Artemisia tridentata at Sun- 
beam, Colorado, June 25, 1937 (Knowlton). 

C. ZOOMONTANUS K.-S. On Artemisia vulgaris at Afton, 
Wyoming, July 19, 1936 (Knowlton). 

MACROSIPHUM CREELI Davis. On alfalfa, Mathews, Ephrata, 
Washington (A. C. Bun-ill). 

M. EUPHORBIAE (Th.). Castleford and Hollister, Idaho, 

August 1930 (D. E. Fox). 



Honor to an Entomologist. 

Science for April 25, 1941, states that Hugh Scott, assistant 
keeper of entomology, British Museum (Natural History), 
has been elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 139 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Ar:ielmid;i :md 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not lie noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Adamson, A. M. The geographical dis- 
tribution of insect pests. [Trop. Agric.] 18: 43-47. Anon. 
How to make an insect collection. [Ward's Nat. Sci. Est., 
Inc.] 1940: 30 pp., ill. Berezina, V. M. A fragment to the 
method of investigating the part played by the light in the 
life of insects. [Bull. Plant Prot. Lenin Ac. Ag. Sci.] No. 
3 : 37-38. Blatchley, W. S. Obituary with portrait, by W. 
T. Davis. [19] 36: 18-19. Blatchley," W. S. Obituary. By 
V. M. Tanner. [120] 2: 33-35. Calvert, P. P. Catalogues 
of current scientific literature. [Science] 93: 209-210. Gil- 
lette, Clarence Preston. Obituary, with portrait, by G. M . 
List. [12] 34: 129-130. Herrick & Griswold. Common in- 
sects of the household. [Cornell Ext. Bull.] No. 202: 66 
pp., ill. Jones, T. H. Obituary notice. By Hyslop & Graf. 
[10] 43: 60-62, ill. Knowlton" & Harmston. Insect food 
of the Chipping Sparrow. [12] 34: 123-124. Martorell, L. 
F. Some notes on forest entomology IV. [The Caribbean 
Forester] 2: 80-82. Silvestri, F. Importancia de la En- 
tomologia en la Economia Mundial. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. 
Biol. Mex.j 1: 301-315. Smith, H. S. Racial segregation 
in insect populations and its significance in applied ento- 
mology. [12 1 34: 1-13. Spencer, G. J. Lead or tin tubes 
in a biological laboratory. [4] 73: 54. Swingle, Gahan & 
Phillips. Laboratory rearing of certain leaf-eating insects. 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

[12] 34: 90-95, ill. Warren, B. C. S. A few comments on 
some inconsistent criticism. [9] 74: 51-53. Woodworth, 
Chas. Wm. Obituary with portrait, by E. O. Essig. [12] 
34: 128-129. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Abbott, C. E.- 

Concerning the musculature of the male genitalia in Pan- 
orpa nuptialis (Mecoptera). [6] 49: 43-46, ill. Bryson & 
Dillon. Observations on the morphology of the corn seed 
beetle, Agonoderus pallipes (Carabid.). [7] 34: 43-50, ill. 
Cumpston, D. M. On the external morphology and biology 
of Heteronychus sanctae-helenae and Metanastes vulgiva- 
gus (Scarab.). [Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W.] 65: 289-300, ill. 
Ermolaev, M. F. The biology of Thrips linarius and con- 
trol measures against it. [Bull. Plant Prot. Lenin Ac. Ag. 
Sci.] No. 3: 23-34, ill. Geigy & Zinkernagel. Beobach- 
tungen beim Aufbau einer technischen Grosszucht der 
Kleidermotte (Tineola biselliella). [41] 18: 213-232, ill. 
Giral, F. Pigmentos fluorescentes de insectos y bacterias. 
[Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. Nat.] 1: 243-254, ill. Hagmann, 
L. E. A method for injecting insect tracheae permanently. 
[Stain Technology] 15: 115-118, ill. Hanstrom, B. Die 
chromatophoraktivierende substanz des insektenkopfes. 
[Lunds Univ. Arsskrift] 36: 20 pp., ill. Hawley & Dob- 
bins. Mortality among hibernating larvae of the Japanese 
beetle with special reference to conditions in the winter of 
1935-36. [6] 49: 47-56, ill. Hitchcock & Haub. The inter- 
conversion of foodstuffs in the blowfly ( Phormia regina) 
during metamorphosis. I. Respiratory metabolism and 
nitrogen excretion. [7] 34: 17-25; 32-37, ill. III. Chem- 
ical composition of larvae, pupae and adults. Holdsworth, 
R. P. The histology of the wing pads of the early instars 
of Pteronarcys proteus (Plecoptera). [5] 47: 112-120, ill. 
Kozhanchikov, I. V. The importance of the physical con- 
ditions of environment upon the development of the eggs 
of the gipsy moth (Lymantria dispar). [Bull. Plant Prot. 
Lenin Ac. Ag. Sci.] No. 3 (1940) 3-16, ill. Effect of eco- 
logical factors upon the variability of certain Lepidoptera 
during the period of their growth and development. [Trav. 
Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS] 6: 64-114. ill. Kozhantschi- 
kov, J. W. Influence of ecological factors on development 
and variability of lepidoptera. [Bull. Acad. Sci. URRS] 
1940, 761-782, 'ill. Lotmar, R. Das Mitteldarmepithel der 
Raupe von Tineola biselliella (Kleidermotte), insbesondere 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 141 

sein Verhalten wahrend cler Hautungen. |41] 18: 233-248, 
ill. Ludwig & Fox. Further studies of conditions influenc- 
ing" the survival of Japanese beetles through metamorpho- 
sis. [6] 49: 65-75. Mickey, Carpenter, Cumley & Burdette. 
Experiments on culture media in regard to oviposition 
and mass production of Drosophila melanogaster. [6] 49: 
77-84. Nesbitt, H. H. J. A comparative morphological 
study of the nervous system of the Orthoptera and related 
orders. |7J 34: 5! -81, 'ill. Patton, Hitchcock & Haub.- 
The intercon version of food-stuffs in the blowfly (Phormia 
regina) during metamorphosis. II. Changes in composi- 
tion as determined by the oxycalorimeter. [7] 34: 26-31, ill. 
Putman, W. L. The feeding habit of certain leafhoppers 
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) '[4] 73: 39-53, ill. Roth & 
Rowland. Studies on the gaseous secretion of Tribolium 
confusum. I. Abnormalities produced in Tribolium con- 
fusum by exposure to a secretion given off by the adults. 
[7] 34: 151-176, ill. Shaw, F. R. Bee poisoning: a review 
of the more important literature. [12] 34: 16-21. Strelni- 
kov, I. D. The effect of solar radiation and hunger on the 
pulsation of the heart of the caterpillars of Phytometra 
gamma. [Trav. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS] 6: 266-288. 
ill. Sweetman, H. L. Tests for toxicity of arsenicals and 
sodium fluoride to the American roach, Periplaneta amer- 
icana. [4] 73: 31-34. Tshernova, O. A. Report on biology 
and morphology of Pleonomus tereticollis ( Elateridae). 
[Trav. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sci. URSS] 6: 138-149, ill. Weiss, 
Soraci & McCoy. Notes on the reactions of certain insects 
to different wave-lengths of light. [6] 49: 1-20, ill. Wes- 
son, L. G. See under Hymenoptera. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Chamberlain & 

Mulaik. On a collection of Millipeds from Texas and New 
Mexico. 1 6] 49: 57-64 (*). Chamberlin, R. V. New Poly- 
desmoid Diplopods intercepted at quarantine [10] 43:32- 
35, ill. (S). Lundblad, O. Weitere neue Wassermilben 
aus Brasilien uncl Paraguay. |28] 62: 122-126. McGregor, 
E. A. A new spinning mite attacking strawberry on the 
mid-atlantic coast. [10] 43: 26-28, ill. Michelbacher, A. E. 
-Two genera of Symphyla new to the United States, with 
descriptions of three n. 'spp. [7] 34: 139-150. ill. Parker, 
M. V. Preliminary list of spiders collected in the vicinity 
of Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. [Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci.j 16: 
88-91. Seyler, P. J. The generic and specific static of 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

four Ohio spiders of the gen. Agelenopsis. [43] 41 : 51-69, 
ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Bick, G. 

H. Life-history of the dragonfly, Erythemis simplicicollis 
(Odonata: Libellul.). [7] 34: 215-230', ill. Bolivar y Piel- 
tain, C. Estudio de tin nuevo Zoraptero de Mexico. [An. 
Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1: 515-522, ill. Claassen, P. 
W. A catalogue of the Plecoptera of the World. [Cornell 
Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta.] Mem. 232: 235 pp. Coleman, T. C.- 
The Poduridae of southern California. [13] 33: 1-12, ill. 
da Costa Lima, A. Nota sobre as especies de "Tunga 
(Tungidae). [Acta Medica] 5: 4 pp. Crampton, G. C. 
The mating habits of the Avinter Mecopteron, Borcus bru- 
malis. [5] 47: 125-128, ill. Davis, C. Taxonomic notes 
on the order Embioptera. [Pro. Linn. Soc. N. S. W.] 65: 
323-352; 362-387, ill. Denning, D. G. Descriptions and 
notes on new and little known spp. of Trichoptera. [7] 34: 
195-203, ill. Fox, I, New or little known North American 
Japygidae (Thysanura). [4] 73: 28-31, ill. Hood, J. D. La 
causa y el significado del macropterismo y braquipterismo 
en ciertos Tisanopteros, y descripcion de una nueva especie 
Mexicana. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1: 497-505, ill. 
Un nuevo Teuchothrips (Thysanoptera) procedente de 
Mexico. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1: 507-511. 
Kimmins, D. E. A revision of the osmylid sub-families 
Stenosmylinae and Kalosmylinae. [71] 42: 165-201, ill. 
Spieth, H. T.- The North American Ephemeropteran types 
of the Rev. A. E. Eaton. |7[ 34: 87-98, ill. Stabler, N.- 
The life history of Phloeothrips (Hoplandrothrips) syca- 
moremsis (Thysanoptera). [55] 17: 31-33. Tjeder, B. 
Some remarks on "The generic names of the British Neur- 
optera." [28] 62: 24-31, ill. Revisions of the Scandinavian 
Neuroptera (s. str.) and Mecoptera recorded by J. W. Zet- 
terstedt, H. J. D. Wallengren and others. [Opuscula Ent.] 
5: 67-114. Walker, E. M. New record of Odonata from 
Manitoba. [4] 73: 35-36. 

ORTHOPTERA. da Costa Lima, A. Urn novo grilo 
cavernicola de Minas Gerais. (Phalangopsitid.). [Pap. 
Avul. Dept. Zool., Sao Paulo] I: 43-49, ill. Dampf, A.- 
Un caso de fitomimetismo en un Ortoptero Mexicano. 
[An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1 : 525-532, ill. Ebner, 
R. Orthopterologische studien in Sud-Portugal. [Bro- 
teria] 10: 5-28, ill. Flock, R. A. The field roach, Blatella 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 143 

vaga. [12] 34: 121. La Rivers, I. Response of Anabrus 
simplex to temperature. [12] 34: 121-122. Rehn, J. A. G. 
-Two new Ommexychid locusts of the genus Parossa, 
with a key to the species (Acrididae). [Notulae Nat.] No. 
79: 11 pp., ill. Rehn, J. W. H. A new genus of mellierid 
mantid from Venezuela (Manteid.). [Notulae Nat.] No. 70: 
4 pp., ill. Rehn & Rehn. The Orthoptera of the Philippine 
Islands, Part II. Acrididae; Cyrtacanthacrid ; group Cyr- 
tacanthacrides. [Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.] 92: 245-287, 
ill. Roberts, H. R. A new species of Philocleon from 
Mexico (Acridid.). [Notulae Nat.] No. 76: 4 pp., ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Balduf, W. V. Life history of Phymata 
pennsylvanica americana (Phymat.) [7] 34: 204-214. 
Cooper, K. W. -Davispia bearcreekensis, a new cicada 
from the paleocene, with a brief review of the fossil Cica- 
didae. [Amer. Jour. Sci.] 239: 286-304, ill. da Costa Lima, A. 
Novo Hemiptero Reduviideo da sub-familia Vesciinae. 
[Arq. Zool. Est. Sao Paulo] 1 : 485-490, ill. Urn novo 
Ceroplastes gigante (Coccid.). [Pap. Avul. Dept. Zool., 
S. Paulo] 1: 9-11, ill. Craig, F. W. Observations on the 
periodical cicada. [12] 34: 122-123. Davis, W. T. New 
Cicadas from North America with notes. [6] 49: 85-99, ill. 
DeLong, D. M. The red-banded Osbornellus spp. of the 
auronitens group occurring in the United States (Cicadelli- 
dae). [7] 34: 179-180, ill. (*). The gen. Prescottia (Cica- 
dellidae) in North America. [7] 34: 181-182, ill. (*). A n. 
gen. (Knullana) and two n. spp. of leafhoppers (Cicadel- 
lidae) from Mexico. [43] 41 : 86-88, ill. Los Phlepsidos 
(Phlepsius y Texananus) de Mexico (Cicadellid.). [An. 
Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1 : 379-404, ill. DeLong & 
Knull. Two n. spp. of Osbornellus from the southwestern 
United States. (Cicadellidae). [7] 34: 177-178, ill. Ferris, 
G. F. Contributions to the knowledge of the Coccoidea. 
IX. A forgotten genus of the family Margarodidae. X. 
Illustrations of eleven genotypes of the Diaspididae. XT. 
A new genus in the Pseudococcidae. [117] 6: 6-28, ill. 
A new species of Stomacoccus. | 1 17| 6: 29-32, ill. Hunger- 
ford, H. B. A remarkable new Naucorid water bug. |7| 
34: 1-4, ill. McKenzie, H. L. -A new species of the genns 
Matsucoccus attacking Pinon Pine in California [1171 6: 
2-5, ill. Ossiannilsson, F. Some new Fulgorina <Ib>mMp 
tera) from Java and South America. [Opuscula Knt.] 5: 
41-46, ill. Pelaez, D. Los estadios ninfales de Umbonia 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

crassicornis. [An. Inst. Biol. Mex.] 11: 611-632, ill. Ruckes, 
H. Note on the feeding habits of Brochymena carolinensis 
in Florida (Pentatomiclae). [19] 36: 27-28. Usinger, R. L. 
-Key to the subfamilies of Naucaoridae with a generic 
synopsis of the new subfamily Ambrysinae. [7] 73: 5-16, 
ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bell, E. L. A new genus and some 
new species of Hesperidae from Peru, in the Bassler Col- 
lection. [40] No. 1094: 7 pp., ill. Benander, P. Revision 
von Zetterstedts lapplandischen Microlepidoptera. [Opu- 
scula Ent.] 5: 49-65, ill. Brown, F. M. Some notes on 
four primary reference works for Lepidoptera. [7] 34: 127- 
138. Clark, A. H. Synonymical notes on Rhopalocera.] 
[10] 43: 36. Clench, H. K. Notes on two Bahaman Lyca- 
enidae, with the description of a new subspecies. [Torreia] 
No. 7: 7 pp. Davenport, D. The butterflies of the satyrid 
genus Coenonympha. (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 87: 215-349, 
ill. Dethier, V. G. The antennae of lepidopterous larvae. 
[Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 87: 455-507, ill. Forbes, W. T. 
M. Las Danides del norte de Venezuela. [Bol. Soc. Vene- 
zol. Cien. Nat.] 6: 308-317. The position of Utetheisa gala- 
pagensis (Arctiidae). [6] 49: 101-110, ill. Hartig, F.- 
Neue Microlepidopteren. [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges.] 31 : 
154-163. Hoffmann, C. C. Lepidopteros nuevos de Mexico. 
[An. Inst. Biol. Mex.] 11: 633-638, ill. Catalogo sistema- 
tico y zoogeografico de los Lepidopteros Mexicanos. [An. 
Inst. Biol. Mex.] 11: 639-739, ill. Kozhantshikov, I. V.- 
(See under Anatomy). Kozhantschikov, J. W. (See 
under Anatomy). McElvare, R. R. Validity of the species 
Heliothis subflexa. [19] 36: 29-30. Mooser, O. Enumera- 
tion de los esfingidos Mexicanos. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. 
Biol. Mex.] 1: 407-494, ill. Schaus, W. New species of 
heterocerous moths in the LInited States National Museum. 
[50] 89: 497-511. (S). Tindale, N. B. Ghost moths of the 
family Hepialidae. [So. Australian Nat.] 19: 1-6, ill. Tul- 
loch, J. B. G. Mass movement of Pieris brassicae and P. 
rapae. |9] 74: 32-35. Urquhart, F. A. A proposed method 
for marking migrant butterflies. [4] 73: 21-22. Wheeler, 
G. Specific names in the Erebias, and others, with a pro- 
test. [9] 74: 25-27. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. New or insufficiently 
known crane-flies from the Nearctic region (Tipulidae), 
Pt. VII. [19] 36: 12-17. N. spp. of crane-flies (Tipulidae) 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 145 

from South America, Pt. IX. [7] 34: 231-254. Anon Fly 
reverses role; catches spicier in web. | Sci. News Letter) 
1941 : 3-4, ill. Nota Acerca de los mosquitos del Lago de 
Patzcuaro. [An. Inst. de Biol. Mex.] 11: 465-467, ill. Bou- 
vier, G. Quelques observations biologiques sur les Taba- 
nides. [41] 18: 280-285, ill. Breland, O. P. See under 
Hymenoptera. Cresson, E. T., Jr. The species of the 
neotropical genus Nostima (Ephydridae). [Notulae Nat.] 
No. 78: 8 pp., ill. Edwards, F. W. Neotropical Neoem- 
pheria (Mycetophilid.). [71] 42: 107-129, ill. Gerberg & 
Goble. A new record for Lipoptena cervi (Hippoboscidae) 
in New York State. [19] 36: 26. Kumm & Homp. Aedes 
(Howardina) allotecnon, a n. sp. of Aedes from Costa Rica, 
and a description of the larva, adult, and male terminalia 
of A. quadrivittatus (Culic.). [10] 43: 17-25, ill. Quinby, 
G. E. Additions to the mosquitoes (Culicidae) of the 
Reelfoot Lake Region. [Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci.] 16: 17-21. 
Reeves, W. C. The mosquito genus Mansonia in Cali- 
fornia. [55] 17: 28. Sabrosky, C. W. The Hippelates 
flies or eye gnats: preliminary notes. [4] 73: 23-27, (k*). 
Shaw, F. R. Notes on the Mycetophilidae of the Great 
Smokies Mountains. [19] 36: 23-24. Shillito, J. F. Studies 
on Diopsidae. [71] 42: 147-163, ill. Simmons, S. W.- 
Removal of Gasterophilus eggs from horse hair. [12] 34: 
116-117. Snyder, F. M. A review of the genus Myospila 
rondani with descriptions of new species (Muscidae). [40] 
No. 1087: 10 pp., ill. Vargas, L. Anopheles barberi en 
Mexico. [Rev. Inst. Salubridad y Enfermed. Trop. Mex.] 
1 : 319-322, ill. Wilcox & Martin. The genus Dioctria in 
North America (Asilid.). [70] 21: 38 pp., ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Balthasar, V. Eine reihe von neuen 
coprophagen Scarabaeiden. [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges.j 31 : 
164-184, ill. Barber, H. S. Some flea beetles injurious to 
beans in tropical America (gen. Diphaulaca : Chrysomel.). 
[10] 43: 65-68, (k*). Notoxus bicolor Say a homonym 
(Anthicidae). [19] 36: 25-26. Benick, L. Zwei neue mexi- 
kanische Stenusarten (Staph.). [Mitt. Munchner Ent. 
Ges.] 31: 222-227, ill. Noch ein Philippinen-Stenus ( Sta- 
phyl.)- [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges.] 31: 250-252. Blais- 
dell, F. E. A n. sp. of Eleodes from northeastern Arizona 
(Tenebrion.). [55] 17: 37-39. Buchanan, L. L. A n. sp. 
of Smicronyx from Saskatchewan and synonymical notes 
(Curculio.). [10] 43: 29-32, ill. Cartwright, O. L. Con- 



146 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

cerning the distribution of Ataenius miamii (Scarab.) [19] 
36: 33. Cazier, M. A. N. spp. of North American Diplo- 
taxis (Scarabaeid.) [5] 47: 136-145. New synonymy in 
the Schizopini (Buprestidae). [19] 36: 31-33. N. spp. and 
new synonymy in Calif ornian Acmaeodera (Buprestid.). 
[The Wassmann Collector] 4: 57-59. Chapin, E. A. Two 
new species of coccinellid beetles from Costa Rica and 
Columbia. [91] 31: 107-109, ill. Christian, M. B. Biology 
of the powder-post beetles, Lyctus planicollis and Lyctus 
parallelopipedus. [La. Conserv. Rev.] 1940-41: 56-59, ill. 
da Costa Lima, A. Sobre um curioso besouro da Amazo- 
nia. (RutelluL). [O Campo] 1940: 61-62, ill. Cumpston, 
D. M. See under Anatomy. Gebien, H. Katalog der 
Tenebrioniden. [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges.] 31 : 331-362. 
Gourlay, E. S. Fuller's rose weevil, Asynonychus (Pan- 
tomerus) godmani, in New Zealand. [N. Z. Jour. Sci. & 
Tech.] 22: 84-85, ill. Hatch, M. H. A second supplement 
to the indices to the keys and local lists of Nearctic Cole- 
optera. [6] 49: 21-42. Heikertinger & Csiki. Coleopter- 
prum Catalogus Pars 169. Chrysomelidae : Halticinae II. 
337-635. Hering, E. M. Pterocallidae brasilienses. [Mitt. 
Munchner Ent. Ges.] 31: 197-201, ill. Hoffmann, C. H.- 
Biological observations on Xylosandrus germanus (Scolyt.) 
[12] 34: 38-42, ill. Hopping, R. A n. sp. of Xylotrechus 
(Cerambyc.). [55] 17: 29-30. Horsfall, W. R. Biology of 
the black blister beetle (Meloidae). [7] 34: 114-126, ill. 
Leech, H. B. Note on the species of Agabinus (Dytisc.) 
[4] 73: 53 (K). Lizer y Trelles, C. A. La lucha moderna 
contra la Langosta en el Pais. [Acad. Nac. Agron. y Vet., 
Buenos Aires] No. 5: 31 pp., ill. Malkin, B. Cicindela 
patruela in Long Island. [19] 36: 28. Miller, R. B. Some 
observations on Chaoborus punctipennis (Culic.). [4] 73: 
37-39, ill. Moennich, H. Supplemental list of Coleoptera 
found living in and on various fungi. [19] 36: 20-22. Saylor, 
L. W. Descriptions of new beetles of the gen. Phyllo- 
phaga from Neotropical regions (Scarab.). [95] 54: 25-30, 
Schedl, K. E. Scolytidae, Coptonotidae y Platypodidae 
Mexicanos. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol. Mex.] 1:" 317-377, 
ill. Szekessy, V. Zur gattung Haemonia gestellte arten 
aus Amerika. [Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges.] 31: 148-154, ill. 
Tanner, V. M. Studies in the weevils of the western 
United States. A new species of Cimbocera. [120] 2: 29- 
32, ill. Tottenham, C. E. Note on Philonthus mequig- 
noni (Staphylinidae). [8] 77: 58-59. Wenzel & Dybas.- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 147 

New and little known neotropical Histeridae. [Field Mn-. 
Nat. Hist.] 22: 433-472, ill. West, A. S. Biological notes 
on two spp. of Melanophila (Buprest.) [12] 34: 43-45, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Balch, R. E. The spruce sawfly 
outbreak in 1940. [Reprint Pulp & Pap. Mag. Canada] 
1941 : 4 pp., ill. Breland, O. P. Podagrion mantis and 
other parasites of praying niantid egg cases (Chalcid.). 
[7] 34: 99-113. Cartwright, O. L. Concerning the distri- 
bution of Ataenius miamii. [19] 36: 33. Cockerell, T. D. 
A. A new parasitic bee from Colorado. [4] 73: 36. da 
Costa Lima, A. Uma nova especie de Hadronotus (See- 
lion.). [Chacaras e Quintals] 1940: 3 pp., ill. Dennis, C. 
A. Some notes on the nest of the ant Prenolepis imparis. 
[7] 34: 82-86, ill. Furness & Dowden. Western hemlock 
sawfly, Neodiprion tsugae, and its parasites in Oregon. 
[12] '34: 46-52. Huffaker, C. B. Egg parasites of the 
Harlequin bug in North Carolina. [12] 34: 117-118. Mai- 
kin, B. Polistes attacking Cicada. [19] 36: 24. Middle- 
ton, W. Sawflies injurious to rose foliage. [U. S. Dept. 
Agric.] Farmers' Bull. no. 1252: 3-14, ill. "Nikitina, T. F.- 
Utilisation of Trichogramma against Barathra brassicae. 
[Bull. Plant Prot. Lenin Ac. Agr. Sci.] No. 3: 83-84. 
Phillips, E. F. The behavior of young bees in confine- 
ment. [12] 34: 33-36. Rau, P. A note on oviposition by 
the queen bumblebee Bombus americanorum. [4] 73 : 55. 
The very early stages of nest founding by Polistes pallipes. 
[4] 73: 56. Smith, F. A list of the ants of Washington 
State. [55] 17: 23-28. Timberlake, P. H. A n. sp. of An- 
thophora from California (Apoid.). [55] 17: 34-36. Syn- 
optic table of North American spp. of Diadasia (Apoidea). 
[19] 36: 2-11. Three new Dufoureine bees from Cali- 
fornia. [7] 34: 38-42. Vansell, G. H. Alfalfa nectar and 
the honeybee. [12] 34: 21-23. Weber, N. A. Four n. 
genn. of Ethiopian and Neotropical Formicidae. (7) 34: 
183-194, ill. Wesson, L. G. An experimental study on 
caste determination in ants. [5] 47: 105-111, ill. Wilson, 
C. L. The parasol ant America's first farmer. [Nature 
Mag.] 34: 129-132, ill. Wing, M. W. The attendance of 
extrafloral nectaries of Sambucus racemosa by the ant, 
Lasius niger var. neoniger. [4] 73: 51. Wolcott, G. N. 
The establishment in Puerto Rico of Larra americana 
(Sphecid.). [12] 34: 53-56. 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Francis Walker types of Trich- 
optera in the British Museum. By Betten & Mosely. 1940. 
248 pp., ill. Studies in the genetics of Drosophila. By J. 
T. Patterson. Univ. Texas Publication. August, 1940. 256 
pp., ill. 



THE EMBRYOLOGY OF INSECTS AND MYRIAPODS. The de- 
velopmental history of insects, centipedes, and millipedes from 
egg desposition [sic] to hatching. By OSKAR A. JOHANNSEN, 
Professor of Entomology, Emeritus, Cornell University, and 
FERDINAND H. BUTT, Instructor in Insect Morphology, Em- 
bryology, and Histology, Cornell University. First edition. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co.', Inc., New York and London, 1941. 
Pp. xi, 462, 370 figs. $5.00 This book is, we believe, the first 
in English, if not in any western European language, dealing 
exclusively with the comparative embryology of insects and 
myriapods. As such it is of first rate importance. It is based 
on instruction given for more than twenty years at Cornell 
University. It summarizes a wide range of literature ; the 
bibliography occupies 37 pages (417-453) and contains per- 
haps 850 titles ; few, if any, of importance are lacking. It is 
divided into two parts, which may be called general (pp. 1-164) 
and special (pp. 165-415) embryology. Chapter II, A type of 
embryonic development in insects (pp. 9-23), follows through 
"a brief outline of the development of a typical insect from the 
time of maturation of the egg nucleus to the emergence of the 
larva from the egg. . . . This account does not apply to any 
specific insect but rather to a generalized type that possesses 
characteristics common to many insects in most particulars." 
With this as a starting point, the reader is prepared for more 
detailed accounts of the egg, its differentiation, fertilization, 
maturation and cleavage (Chap. Ill), blastoderm, germ band, 
segmentation and the appearance of appendages (IV), embry- 
onic membranes, dorsal organs and blastokinesis (V), gastru- 
lation and germ layers (VI), development of the alimentary 
canal (VII), the ectodermal (VIII) and mesodermal (IX) 
derivatives. Chap. X is concerned with polyembryony and 
parthenogenesis, XI with micro-organisms in the egg and XII 
with experimental embryology (pp. 144-164). Part I is illus- 
trated by 62 figures, of which 34 are described in the preface 
as copies of diagrams used in the authors' classes ; the remain- 
ing 28 are taken from the writings of well-known embryolo- 
gists from Hertwig, 1881, to Seidel, 1935. Part II consists of 
summaries of the embryonic development of representatives of 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 149 

taxonomic groups as described in the literature, and in original 
work of the junior author. "By the selection of illustrative 
species in the second part which are not especially stressed in 
the first part, undue repetition is avoided." Part II, there- 
fore, will he very useful to those who have not easy access to 
the scattered memoirs upon which it is based. The taxonomic 
headings of its chapters, the examples described, the authors 
chiefly followed, their dates, and the number of figures drawn 
from their works are as follows. Chap. XIII. Oligoentomata and 
Aptilota: The spring-tail, Isotoina cinerea, Philiptschenko, 1912 
37 figs.; Campodca staphyliniis, Uzel, 1898, 9 figs.; the silver 
fish, Lcpisma saccharina, Heymons, 1897, 4 figs. XIV. Ephemer- 
ida, Odonata, Plecoptera, Embiaria, Dermaptera, Hemimer- 
ina: the may fly. Ephemera vulgata, Heymons, 1896; 
dragonflies and damselflies, Libcllula pulchella, Erytlicniis 
siniplicicollis, I'lathcniis lydia. Butt, new, 12 (really 19) fi^-v, 
Caloptcrv.r, Brandt, 1869, 2 figs, (really 6, old stand-bys in 
embryological literature!), the stone fly, Pteronarcys protcns, 
Miller, 1939; Embia nhrichi, Kershaw, 1914, 1 fig. (so num- 
bered, really 16) ; the earwig, Forficula auricularia, Heymons, 
1895; Hciniincnis talpoidcs, Heymons, 1912. XV. Orthop- 
teroidea (Panorthoptera) : Paratenodera sinensis, Hagan, 1917; 
the Croton bug, Blaticlla i/cniutnica. Wheeler, 1889, 1 fig., and 
L. C. Pettit, new. 4 figs.; the termite. Eittcnnes rippcrtn'i, 
Knower, 1900, 4 figs. ; the walking stick, Caraiisiits inorosits. 
Leuzinger, Wiesmann and Lehmann, 1926, 1 (really 5) fig.; 
the African migratory locust, Locusta Jiiif/nttoriu initjnitori- 
oidcs, Roonwal, 1936, 30 figs.; the differential locust, Mclan- 
oplus different iulis, Xelsen, 1934. XVI. Oligonephridia 
Copeognatha, Anoplura, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera) : a vivi- 
parous psocid, Archipsocus fcniandi, Fernando. 1934, 8 fig--. : 
the head louse, Pediculns IntiiKtinis colitis, Scholzel, 1937, 6 
figs.; the pigeon louse, Lipcnrus baculus, Ries, 1931, 1 fig.; 
the guinea pig louse. Gyro pic: oralis. Strindberg, 191 6; thrips, 
Thrips pJivstipus, Uljanin. 1874; aphids, Tnth, 1933, 6 figs., 
Will, 1883, 2 figs, (really 6), Webster and Phillips, 1912. 7 
figs.; Siphanta ucuta, Muir and Kershaw, 1912, 5 figs.; the 
fire bug, Pyrrhoeoris uptenis, Seidel. 1924, 6 figs.; the milk- 
weed bug, Oncopcltus fasciufus, and AtntM fristis. lUitt, 
new, 5 (really 10) figs.; a jiolyctenid, Ilesperoeteiies finnur- 
ius, Hagan. 1931, 2 figs. XVII. Xeuroptera and Coleoptera : 
the alder fly. Sialis bit aria. Strindberg. 1 ( 15. 2 figs.; the pfarl- 
eye, Chrysopa pcrla, Tichomirowa, 1890, 1892, Bock, 193' ; 
Stylops, Noskiewicz and Poluszynski, 1927. 17 figs.: the 
alfalfa snout beetle, Brachyrhinus lii/ustici. Butt, 1936 and 



150 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [May, '41 

new, 25 figs. XVIII. Hymenoptera: the barberry sawfly, Hy- 
lotorna bcrbcridis, Graber, 1890; a Hessian-fly parasite, Platy- 
gastcr hicinalis, Leiby and Hill, 1923, 6 (really 10) figs.; the 
cabbage-looper parasite, Litomastix (Paracopidosomopsis) 
floridana, Patterson, 1921, 11 figs.; the honeybee, Apis uiclli- 
fica, Butt, new, 7 figs., Snodgrass. 1 (3) figs., Nelson, 1915, 
2 (4) figs. XIX. Trichoptera and Lepidoptera : the caddis fly, 
Ncopliyla.r coiicinints, Patten, 1884, 9 figs. ; the yellow bear, 
Diacrisia viryinica, Johannsen, 1929, 18 figs. XX. Siphonaptera 
and Diptera: the fleas of cat, rat and wood-rat, Ctenocephal- 
idcs fclis, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Hystrichopsylla dippiei, 
Kessel, 1939; the mourning gnat, Sciara coprophila, Butt, 1934, 
14 figs.; blowflies, Calliphora erythrocephala and vomitoria, 
Lucilia cacsar, Noack, 1901, 4 (11) figs., and Escherich, 1900, 
7 (11) figs. XXI. Myriapoda: the centipedes, Scolopendra 
cingulata and dalmatica, Heymons, 1901, 25 (28) figs.; the 
millipedes, Platyrhacus ainauros, Pflugf elder, 1932, 7 figs., 
Julus terrcstris, Heathcote, 1886, 1 fig., Polydcsmus abchasius, 
Lignau, 1911, 1 fig.; Symphyla, Hanseniclla sp., Tiegs, 1939. 
"Figures taken from the works of others have all been re- 
drawn and in many cases conventionalized." All are clear and 
well printed throughout the book and the reference letters in 
each figure are explained beneath it. Their numbering is not 
uniformly logical, as is indicated in our list of those of Part 
II above. At the conclusion of each chapter is a list of refer- 
ences (authors and dates) pertaining to the subject thereof, 
for which the full data are given in the bibliography at the end 
of the text. In Part II these references are arranged, with 
the generic names of the insects in alphabetical order. The 
index, which occupies the final eight pages, is incomplete as 
regards Part I. None of the insects and myriapods mentioned 
therein appear in the index. This omission unfortunately 
vitiates much of the advantage of avoiding repetition by select- 
ing for treatment in Part II those species not especially 
stressed in Part I. alluded to above. This serious defect can 
be readily supplied in a second edition, which will surely be 
called for in a short time. P. P. CALVERT. 



OBITUARY 

Dr. Hrc;o KAI-IL, curator of entomology at the Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh, until last January when he became curator 
emeritus, died on February 19, in his eighty-second year. 
Science, April 18, 1941. 



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Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
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able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
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Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Vol. LII 



JUNE, 1941 DIV. 

U.S. 



No. 6 



CONTENTS 

Forbes Line-Elements in Butterfly Patterns (Lepidoptera: Nympha- 

lidae) 151 

Review of Wards' How to Make an Insect Collection 154 

La Rivers Additions to the List of Nevada Dragonflies (Odonata). . 155 
Hull Some New Syrphid Flies from North and South America 

(Diptera). 157 

Bell Two New Species of Hesperiidae from North America (Lepi- 
doptera) 163 

Dahl The Leng Types of Cicindelidae (Coleoptera). ....... 169 

Current Entomological Literature 173 

Review of Cornelius Betten and Martin E. Mosely's The Francis 

Walker Types of Trichoptera in the British Museum . . . . 177 
Obituary Dr. Levi W. Mengel 178 



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EXT. NEWS, VOL. LI1. 



Plate II. 





LINE-ELEMENTS IN BUTTERFLY PATTERNS.-FoRBES. 

Pierella astyoche, natural size. 

Upper figure: Variety without line elements. Lower figure: 
Normal pattern. (Hodenstein photo.) 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII JUNE 1941 No 6. 

Line-Elements in Butterfly Patterns 
(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). 

By WM. T. M. FORBES, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

(With Plate II.) 

The pattern of the higher butterflies, and in particular of 
the Nymphalidae, (sensu lato) has been analysed into its 
chief components by Schwanwitsch, in a series of recent papers, 
of which I may mention especially one on the Pierella group 
of Satyrids, in the Zeits. Morph. Okol. Tiere, x, pp. 433, ff., 
1928. Since this system is less well known in this country 
than the pattern scheme of the Noctuid moths, I may present 
his system and tabulate the relations of the two. We may 
divide the pattern elements into four groups, lines, spots, reac- 
tions and longitudinal elements. The first are essentially trans- 
verse, and form a system each member of which is in some ways 
a mirror image of the one on each side of it. They comprise 
Schwanwitsch's E, M and B elements. The markings I call 
spots differ in being associated with single veins or interspaces, 
either limited between them, or only transgressing a little. They 
are his OC and D. The markings that I propose to call reac- 
tions are of a less definite character. While having a place in 
the patterns they are apt to lack sharp boundaries, and may be 
strongly influenced by neighboring patterns of a more definite 
character. Notable among these are elements U and G, but 
even more plastic elements of the same type are the numerous 
variations of ground color limited by the more positive pattern 
elements, and the shades of contrasting color which define the 
latter. 

Some pattern elements do not lie quite sharply in one or 
other of these classes. Thus the terminal line (E 1 of Schwan- 
witsch) is controlled by the vestigial ambient vein, and accord- 
ingly shows the simplicity of a longitudinal element (V or I 
of Schwanwitsch), not entering into the mirror symmetry of 
the typical line elements. E 2 also tends to fade out. and might 

151 



tftti 



152 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

better be treated as a "reaction," but E 3 is a typical member of 
the line system. The ocelli (OC) are also surrounded by outer 
circles in many cases, the circuli (C) of Schwanwitsch, and 
we shall see that in one important way these circuli behave 
like lines, rather than the spots that they appear to be. 

These pattern elements correspond rather closely to the fami- 
liar Noctuid pattern as the following table will show. 

NymphaKdae Noctuidae 

E 1 Externa Terminal 

E a Externa (Adterminal, or so-called subtermi- 

nal of Notodontidae, etc.) 

E' Externa Subterminal (inner st. of some fam- 
ilies) 

OC Ocelli Wanting 

C Circuli Wanting 

U Umbra Wanting or fused with st. 

M 1 Media Transverse posterior (Postmedial) 

G 1 , G 3 Granulosae Media 

M 5 Media Transverse anterior (Antemedial) 

D 1 Discal Reniform 

D 1 Discal Orbicular 

D'l (part of discal lying below Cu) Perhaps the Claviform 

B Basal Basal (Half-line) 

Certain differences are clear, to be sure. Firstly the second 
discal of the Nymphalidae lies basal to the inner media; in 
all moths, so far as I know, the orbicular lies distal to the 
antemedian, but this is to be expected, since the position of the 
orbicular is controlled by the forking of the median vein in the 
cell and this takes place much nearer the base in the butter- 
flies. Then the granulosa, when present, is commonly divided 
into two bands, one accompanying each media, and if undivided 
forms a general filling of the median area, while the "media" 
of the Noctuidae is a narrow, though diffuse line. The hom- 
ology of the claviform with the lower part of the inner discal 
can only be called doubtful, and the subterminal element in 
those higher Noctuidae that we think of as typical is single, 
and does not enter the symmetry system of the other lines, 
but this last can be explained as the result of fusion of E 3 
(clearly present in many more primitive Lepicloptera) with 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 153 

E 2 , U or both. Most striking is the total ahsence of the OC 
system, but this last has not been identified yet, even in other 
butterflies. 

The normal specimen of Picrclla astyochc shown here (Plate 
II, lower figure) shows the following pattern-elements, using 
Schwanwitsch's formula : 



E 2 E 3 OCm6 M 1 D 1 M 2 D 2 

E 2 E 3 OCm2, 3, 4 OC5, 6, 7, M 1 D 1 M 2 D 2 Bl 

But the following points should be noted in which I differ 
from Schwanwitsch: I take the outer of the two lines across 
the wing at Y^ to be the innermost externa, rather than umbra. 
It shows every feature of a true line-element (as will be noted 
below), there is no other element to represent E 3 , and as 
Schwanwitsch has noted himself in the case of Prcpona (Acta 
Zoologica xi, 263 ff, 1930) it is perfectly possible for a line 
to cross the series of ocelli, leaving both intact ; in fact OC7 
still lies on the basal side of the line. Further I take the 
minute dot near the base of fore wing below and the corres- 
ponding three dots on the hind wing to be dislocated parts of 
D 2 , and only the little bar from the fold to the inner margin 
to be truly B. Note also what Schwanwitsch calls the picrcl- 
lization of M 2 in the fore wing, i. e., that the part of it below 
the cell is completely cut off from the upper part and has 
dropped back into perfect line with D 2 . 

The upper specimen figured on Plate II illustrates and 
dramatizes this interpretation. If this is correct every line- 
element in the pattern has dropped out, doubtless as the result 
of a single factor-change, while every spot-element is intact. It is 
for this reason I interpret all the black dots 1 at the base of tin- 
wings as parts of D L >, since they remain, while the little basal 
line has vanished. It is also possible that the reaction-elements 
survive, somewhat blurred, since the position of E 2 is taken 
by a distinct though diffuse band, and where the umbra should 
be there is a very perceptible dark cloud. 

A further point of interest is the circnli, the black rings 
surrounding ocelli 5, 6 and 7 on the hind wing. These have 
completely disappeared in the upper specimen, leaving the 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

black ocellus proper undefined. This implies that these circuli 
may yet turn out to be morphologically line-elements, formed 
much as Schwanwitsch explains the similar but empty circles 
on the fore wings of many Preponas (1. c. pp. 323-330, figs. 
33 etc., E 3 c). If this is true it may help us in connecting the 
Nymphalid pattern to that of lower butterflies, and especially 
the Papilionidae, where ocelli as such'do not appear. We may 
suggest, for instance, that the white or blue pupils of the 
ocelli represent vestiges of the blue submarginal spots of the 
Parnassiinae, and that their red or orange bands appear vesti- 
gially in the yellow rings that so often (also here) appear 
between the ocellus proper and its circulus. Another point of 
likeness is that, as in some other species of Pierella, Papilio 
and at least many of the other Papilionidae have the post- 
medial (M 1 ) of the fore wing "pierellized," as rather plainly 
shown in Thais rumina and Papilio machaonides. This latter 
point may do much to clear up Schwanwitsch's difficulty with 
the fore wings of the Papilionidae. 



How TO MAKE AN INSECT COLLECTION. Containing sug- 
gestions and hints designed to aid the beginning and less ad- 
vanced collector. This booklet is based on the experience and 
methods developed during years of collecting insects by mem- 
bers of WARD'S ENTOMOLOGICAL STAFF. Published in the 
service of Entomology by Ward's Natural Science Establish- 
ment, Inc. 302 Goodman St., North, Rochester, New York, 
1940. 32 unnumbered pages, 43 figures. It is stated that this 
booklet is designed to replace Directions for Collecting and 
Preserving Insects, by Dr. A. B. Klots, which is now out of 
print. The extensively illustrated text gives directions and 
suggestions for collecting, killing, pinning, mounting, labeling, 
displaying, rearing, identifying and caring for insects. It 
should be very helpful to all interested in this subject. P. P. 
CALVERT. 

1 A similar disruption of the orbicular (D 2 ) appear in several Ama- 
thusiinae, and strikingly in the fore wing of Enisfe cycnus. In Pierella 
ocreata these markings have fused into an apparent complete basal line, 
but the portion belonging to D" is more intensely black than the frag- 
ment of true B. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 155 

Additions to the List of Nevada Dragonflies 

(Odonata). 

By IRA LA RIVERS, Reno, Nevada. 
(Continued from page 130.) 

Subfamily AGRIINAE. 

AGRION AEQUABILE (Say) - - Humboldt County (near 
National). 

**A. MACULATUM Beauvais Elko County (Rowland). 
HETAERINA AMERICANA (Fabricius) Nye County (Beatty). 

Subfamily LESTINAE. 

LESTES CONGENER Hagen Churchill County (Carson Lake, 
Fallon, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; 
Lyon County (Lahontan Reservoir) ; Washoe County (Verdi, 
Washoe Valley). 

L. UNGUICULATUS Hagen Churchill County (Carson Sink, 
Fallon, Humboldt Sink) ; Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 

**L. FORCIPATUS Rambur Esmeralda County (Boundary 
Peak). 

L. DRYAS Kirby Churchill County (Carson Lake, Carson 
Sink, Fallon) ; Lyon County (Yerington) ; Pershing County 
(Rye Patch Reservoir 1 ); Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 
Previous records as L. uncatns. 

Subfamily COENAGRIONINAE. 

ARGIA ALBERTA Kennedy Eureka County (near Beowawe). 

A. EMMA Kennedy Churchill County (Fallon, Humboldt 
Sink) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; Lyon County (Wabu- 
ska) ; Humboldt County (Paradise Valley) ; Pershing County 
(Humboldt Sink) ; Washoe County (Dry Lake). 

A. VIVIDA Hagen Esmeralda County (Fish Lake Valley) ; 
Lyon County (Wabuska) ; Nye County (Bc-atty); Washoe 
County (Truckee Meadows). 

1 The Rye Patch Reservoir locality for this species was erroneously 
listed as being in Churchill County in the first list. 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

AMPHIAGRION SAUCIUM (Burmeister) - Churchill County 
(Carson Lake, Carson Sink, Fallen, Lahontan Reservoir) ; 
Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; Humboldt County (Paradise 
Valley) ; Lyon County (Lahontan Reservoir, Mason Valley) ; 
Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 

ENALLAGMA BOREALE Selys Douglas County (Genoa, Glen- 
brook) ; Lyon County (Sweetwater) ; Ormsby County (Lake 
Tahoe, Marlette Lake) ; Washoe County (Lake Tahoe, Verdi). 

E. CLAUSUM Morse Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 

**E. CYATHIGERUM (Charpcntier ) Douglas County (Lake 
Tahoe) ; Esmeralda County (Boundary Peak) ; Ormsby County 
(Lake Tahoe, Marlette Lake) ; Washoe County (Lake Tahoe, 
Marlette Lake). 

E. CARUNCULATUM Morse Churchill County (Fallon, 
Lahontan Reservoir) ; Lyon County (Fernley, Lahontan Reser- 
voir, Yerington) ; Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 

E. CIVILE (Hagen) Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; Lyon 
County (Smith Valley, Sweetwater); Washoe County 
(Truckee Meadows, Washoe Valley). 

E. PRAEVARUM (Hagen) Esmeralda County (Fish Lake 
Valley) ; Nye County (Beatty). 

E. ANNA Williamson Churchill County (Fallen, Humboldt 
Sink, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; 
Lyon County (Sweetwater, Wabuska) ; Washoe County (Was- 
hoe Lake). 

ISCHNURA DENTICOLLIS (Burmeister) Churchill County 
(Carson Sink, Fallon, Lahontan Reservoir) ; Lyon County 
(Fernley, Yerington) ; Pershing County (Rye Patch Reser- 
voir; Washoe County (Washoe Valley). 

I. PERPARVA Selys-- Churchill County (Fallon, Lahontan 
Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; Lyon County 
(Smith Valley, Yerington) ; Humboldt County (Paradise 
Valley) ; Pershing County (Lovelock, Mill City) ; Washoe 
County ( Franktown ) . 

I. CERVULA Selys Churchill County (Fallon, Lahontan 
Reservoir) ; Douglas County (Gardnerville) ; Lyon County 
(Fernley, Smith Valley, Sweetwater, Yerington) ; Mineral 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 157 

County (Schurz) ; Washoe County (Washqe Valley). 

The total number of species now known to the author for 
Nevada is 78. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

AHRENS, C, 1938. A List of Dragonflies Taken During the 
Summer of 1936 in Western United States. (Odonata). Ent. 
News, No. 1/49: 9-16. 

ESSIG, E. O., 1926. Insects of Western North America. The 
Macmillan Company, pp. 141-150. 

ERASER, F. C., 1929. A Revision of the Fissilabioidea (Cor- 
clulegasteridae. Petaliidae, and Petaluridae) (Order Odonata). 
Part I. Cordulegasteridae. Mem. Ind. Mus., No. 3/9: 69-167. 

ID. 1933. [Same]. Part II. Petaliidae and Petaluridae and 
Appendix to Part I. Mem. Ind. Mus., No. 6/9: 205-260. 

KENNEDY, C. H., 1915. Notes on the Life History and 
Ecology of the Dragonflies (Odonata) of Washington and 
Oregon. Proc. U. S. N. M., 49: 259-345. 

ID. 1922. The Phylogeny and the Geographical Distribution 
of the Genus Libellula (Odonata). Ent. News, No. 3/33: 65- 
71; and No. 4/33: 105-111. 

LA RIVERS, I.. 1938. An Annotated List of the Libelluloidea 
(Odonata) of Southern Nevada. Jour. Ent. & Zool., No. 4/30: 
73-85. 

ID. 1940. A Preliminary Synopsis of the Dragonflies of 
Nevada. Pan-Pac. Ent., No. 3/16: 111-123. 

MORSE, A. P., 1895. New North American Odonata. 
Psyche, No. 227/7: 207-211. 



Some New Syrphid Flies from North and South 
America (Diptera). 

By FRANK M. HTLL, University of Mississippi. 
In this paper I present the descriptions of several new world 
species of Syrphidae. Two of these I collected on low grow- 
ing herbage about the clearings of Barro Colorado Island. 
Others have been received from various sources. Types, un- 
less otherwise stated, are in the author's collection. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Julie, '41 

Planes chrysopressa n. sp. 

Related to vagans Wied. Distinguished by the pile of the 
third and fourth abdominal segment ; face black, a brownish- 
yellow stripe from eye to epistoma ; mesonotum blackish and 
opalescent with a pair of stripes of yellow pile. 

5 . Length 7 mm. Head : the vertex is shining brownish- 
black, the upper portion of the occiput dark brassy brown ; 
viewed from the side it is covered with yellow pubescence. 
The upper part of the front is shining brassy black, bare of 
pubescence; there is a broad pale yellowish-brown transverse 
band of pubescence from eye to eye across the middle of the 
front, down the middle of which runs a very narrow almost 
bare line ; the extreme lower front above the antennae is shin- 
ing and bare of pubescence except for a narrow extension 
from the transverse band above it. Face metallic brassy black 
in ground color, except that along the anterior margin and 
front of the cheeks is a light brownish-yellow diagonal band 
from eye to epistoma. The face is broadly covered with pale 
yellow pubescence from lower edge of front down to the oral 
margin. Antennae elongate, the third joint half again longer 
than the first two joints, dark brown in color the arista pale 
yellowish brown. Pile of vertex and front light brassy yellow. 

Thorax; mesonotum shining brownish black with a trans- 
lucent coppery luster, a prominent almost whitish patch of 
pubescence on the inside of the humeri and viewed from be- 
hind a pair of widely separated, conspicuous, light silky yellow, 
short pilose vittae, that do not appear unless viewed in the 
proper light, and which run from the anterior margin back to 
where they are confluent with a wide, transverse area of similar 
pile lying in front of the scutellum. Between the pair of 
longitudinal vittae there is a much narrower, shorter median 
vitta of pile. Also on the posterior margin of the transverse 
suture there is a similar band of brassy pile confluent with 
the longitudinal stripes. Between all of these areas of pale 
pile there is considerable dense short black pile. Pile of the 
pleurae wholly pale yellowish beneath which is almost whitish 
pubescence. Scutellum brassy, almost coppery-black, with short 
pale pile and a pair of very delicate, slender pale yellow bristles 
on the posterior margin and more anteriorly along the margin 
two or more pairs of still shorter bristles. 

Abdomen : first segment shining greyish black, perhaps 
slightly bluish. Second segment a little longer than wide, 
almost opaque black but with a faint shining steel-bluish luster 
present broadly over the middle. There is a small triangular, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 159 

sublateral, obscure brownish-yellow spot on either side of the 
segment, very widely separated ; the extreme lateral margin of 
the segment is bright brassy. Whole of third and fourth seg- 
ments brilliant brassy or golden, with pile somewhat the same 
color; the golden pile of the fourth segment is somewhat ap- 
pressed and directed obliquely towards the midline. 

Legs: femora black, the apices narrowly yellowish, the hind 
pair enormously thickened, its pile chiefly pale yellow with, 
along the ventral edge, numerous short black spines, and just 
outside of this on the apical portion on the outside several 
longer black spines and upon the inside five or six still longer 
ones. Hind tibiae very dark brown, the base almost whitish, 
the apex with a long sharp spur, the middle and anterior 
tibiae brown with the basal fourth whitish yellow. Hind tarsi 
dark brown, lore and middle tarsi with the first two joints 
quite pale yellow, the remaining joints blackish. 

It 'ings: pale grey, the stigma dark brown. Holotype: 
One female. Barro, Colorado, Canal Zone, PANAMA. F. M. 
Hull collector. 
Planes cuprescens n. sp. 

Fourth abdominal segment sparse, golden, appressed pilose, 
the third segment brown pilose; mesonotum and scutellum 
with a strong reddish-brassy lustre. Related to vagans Wied., 
but not closely. 

9 . Length 7 mm. Hard : front and vertex shining black, 
quite narrow above, barely half as wide as in chrysopressa, the 
middle of the front yellowish-white pubescent, the lower por- 
tion shining bare with in the midline a very tiny tubercular 
bumj). In some lights the broad transverse pubescent area is 
separated by a narrow median line. The pile of the lower half 
of the front is sparse and pale yellow; of the upper half of 
front and vertex black. Face extensively pale yellowish white 
pubescence, the carina not sharply marked, the entire lower 
half of face in front and along the sides as far back as the 
edge of the cheeks light brownish yellow. Antennae elongate, 
the third joint about one and one-half times as long as the first 
two joints, the apical and dorsal half of the third joint dark 
brown, the basal and ventral portion light orange, the first two 
joints light brown, the arista pale yellow, a little darker towards 
the apex. 

Thora.r: mesonotum with three pairs of longitudinal bands 
of pile, the ground color of which is light brassy, almost green- 
ish, the middle one" of which is very narrow and all three stripes 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

are evanescent just past the middle of the mesonotum. There 
is a patch of golden pile on the posterior margin of the nota- 
pleurae which is confluent with a similar patch upon the lateral 
margin of the mesonotum just posterior to the suture. The 
pile is also brassy in front of each postcallus and in front of 
the scutellum. The mesonotum is bright brassy for some dis- 
tance in front of the scutellum and the yellow pile in front of 
the scutellum gives way to black anteriorly. Between the 
yellow pilose stripes above described, the mesonotum is coppery 
in color. Scutellum light brown in ground color with a bright 
golden luster and sparse pale pile and a single pair of delicate 
long yellow bristles, and anteriorly one or more pairs of short 
yellow bristles. Pile and pubescence of meso- and sterno- 
pleurae pale yellow, almost white. There is a prominent almost 
whitish patch of pubescence on the inside of each humeri. 

Abdomen : first segment light brown, yellowish in the middle 
with a brassy luster; second segment with a pair of large sub- 
rectangular light brownish yellow spots which reach the full 
width over the lateral margin and, along the margin, extend 
almost to the extreme end of the segment. These light colored 
spots are divided by the parallel-sided median anterior prolong- 
ation of a dark brown posterior border upon the segment which, 
however, reaches the lateral margins only very narrowly. The 
anterior prolongation does not quite reach the anterior margin. 
Third segment somewhat similar to the second segment, al- 
though here the segment is barely wider than long, whereas the 
second segment is barely longer than wide. The large basal 
lateral spots are almost as pale as those of the third segment; 
the median brown prolongation is somewhat evanescent and the 
posterior marginal spot or band of rich brown nowhere 
reaches the lateral margin. Fourth segment rich shining brown 
with slight golden reflections ; the pile of the dark brown area 
of second and third segments sepia in color, that of the paler 
areas and of the fourth segment sparse, brassy yellow; the 
pile is flat appressed upon the fourth segment. 

Legs: hind femora shining black with brassy cast, grossly 
thickened in the middle, its extreme base brownish, the narrow 
apex yellowish brown. Fore and middle femora brown, the 
apex yellowish. Hind tibiae pale yellow basally, brownish on 
the remainder and the apex has a long sharp spine ; the hind 
tarsi are light brownish yellow, the last two joints dark brown, 
the whole of the fore and middle tibiae and tarsi pale yellow, 
their last two tarsal joints barely darker. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 161 

Wings : almost hyaline, the stigma pale yellow. Holotype : 
one female, Barro, Colorado, PANAMA. F. M. Hull Collector. 
Baccha sepia n. sp. 

Entirely dark, sepia, spatulate flies, except for pairs of small, 
diagonal, yellowish-brown fascia upon the abdomen. Sides of 
face and front diffusely brownish yellow ; wings dark brown. 
Suggestive of yastroctacits Wied. in the non-petiolate abdomen. 
$ . Length 1 1 mm. Head : vertex and all of front except 
the narrow brownish-yellow sides, dark sepia-brown with pile 
of the same color. The face is broadly dark brown in the 
middle and over the tubercle, the color extending down nar- 
rowly about the epistoma to cover the cheeks. The sides of the 
face are broadly brownish-yellow pollinose and this color ex- 
tends narrowly up along the sides of the front but at the top 
of the front does not join the extension from the other side. 
The facial pile is dark brown. The first and second joints of 
the antennae are brown, the lower basal margin of the short 
rounded third joint narrowly reddish-brown, the remainder of 
the third joint and the arista dark brown. The occiput is grey 
pubescent with a single row of black hairs on the upper third 
and three or four rows of yellowish white pile below. 

Thorax: mesonotum bright shining brassy-brown, covered 
with dark brown pollen and sparse brown pile. There are quite 
obscure suggestions of narrow vittae upon the thorax ; poster- 
iorly there appear to be three narrow shining chocolate pollinose 
vittae and viewed from in front there appears to be a single 
narrow black median streak which probably, however, divides 
the median pollinose vittae into two parts. Scutellum light 
brown, the immediate base very narrowly yellowish-brown, 
the discal pile sparse, long, delicate and black. The ventral 
fringe pile consisting of seven very long, blackish hairs. 

Abdomen: spatulate; but little less wide upon the base than 
upon the apex. The second segment is barely longer than the 
third; the third segment one-sixth or one-eighth longer than 
the fourth segment; fifth segment not quite as long as wide; 
the first segment is quite short. The color of the abdomen is 
dark sepia-brown and shining, barely lighter upon the second 
and third segments. The pile upon the first and second seg- 
ments is brownish black and the pile upon the posterior part 
of the abdomen is black. In the middle of the second segment, 
upon either side, is a diagonal, long, quite slender brownish- 
yellow fascia that fails to reach the margin and does not join 
the midline. Just before the middle of the third segment there 
is a fascia similar in every respect, except that it is wider upon 



162 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

its inner or median half and in fact is gradually drawn out 
from its medial wider base to a narrow point as it approaches 
the line of the margin which it does not reach. Upon the 
fourth segment just before the middle is a similarly colored, 
though slightly darker, small, irregularly triangular-shaped 
spot. Upon the fifth segment, separated by a distance equal 
to those of preceding spots is a pair of brown, basal, elongate, 
small spots which are drawn out posteriorly. 

Legs: the femora are quite slender, dark brown and black- 
ish-brown pilose, the apices of the middle femora lighter brown 
and the fore pair of femora are noticeably lighter in color than 
the hind pair. Fore and middle tibiae light brown with a sug- 
gestion of a obscure narrow darker annulus near the middle. 
The hind tibiae are wholly blackish brown with similarly colored 
pile. All of the tarsi except the basal two-thirds of the hind 
basal tarsi are light brownish yellow with similarly colored pile. 

Wings : broad, but the alula narrow and strap-like ; the 
entire wing including the whole of the stigmal cell is deeply 
suffused with brown. 

Holotype: one male. Sao Paulo, BRAZIL, April 6-8, 1934. 
J. Lane collector. Paratype : one male in Lane's collection ; 
same data. 
Mixogaster johnsoni n. sp. 

This species is related to breviventris Kahl, but the antennae 
are lighter; the yellow, lateral, thoracic stripe is interrupted 
and the pattern of the abdominal spots differs. 

9 . 10 mm. exclusive of antennae. Head: face pale yellow, 
the cheeks and a median stripe dark brown. Front and vertex 
dark blackish brown. A pale yellow spot on the eye margins 
opposite the ocelli and the transverse black band in front of 
antennae pitted. Antennae black, the base of the third joint 
narrowly orange and the first two joints dark brown. 

Thorax: Mesonotum dully shining black, the humeri, a 
small spot just before and behind the suture, the postcalli, all 
of the scutellum except the posterior corners, a prominent 
vertical stripe on mesopleurae, sternopleurae and almost the 
whole of the metapleurae pale yellow. A large red spot on the 
middle of the pteropleurae confluent with the metapleural yel- 
low spot. Metanotum black. 

Abdomen : black with slender post marginal yellow borders 
that expand a little in the posterior corners. First segment 
almost wholly black, the anterior corners of the second seg- 
ment obscurely and diffusely yellowish, merging into red and 
then into black. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 163 

Legs, chiefly light reddish brown, the basal two-thirds or 
less of the hind tibiae or more of the middle tibiae, the apex 
of the middle femora, front femora and basal half of the front 
tibiae pale yellow. Tarsi brownish but light in color. 

Wings : hyaline, appearing grey from dense grey vittae. 
The veins very narrowly and inconspicuously margined with 
brown without definite anterior brown borders. 

Holotypc: One female, Dennisport, MASSACHUSETTS, Sept. 
3, 1935 (J. Bequaert) ; this specimen is in the collection of 
the author, presented to the author through the kindness of 
Dr. Bequaert. Paratypes: One female from Lucaston, NEW 
JERSEY, Aug. 27, C. W. Johnson collector ; this is in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology; a specimen in the Boston 
Society of Natural History from Wallingford, CONNECTICUT, 
July 1, 1922; the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard 
contains a specimen from Nantucket, MASSACHUSETTS, Sept. 
8. All four specimens are females. 

On the suggestion of Mr. Nathan Banks, I take pleasure 
in naming this species in honor of the well known dipterist, 
Dr. C. W. Johnson, to whom I owe much for early encourage- 
ment in the study of Diptera. 



Two New Species of Hesperiidae from North 
America. (Lepidoptera). 

By E. L. BELL, Flushing, New York. 
Undescribed species of Hesperiidae still turn up occasion- 
ally in the North American fauna despite the fact that the 
butterflies of this region have been extensively collected and 
studied for a great many years. This is partially due to the 
close superficial resemblance of the overlooked species to 
other closely related species which have already been described 
and because they occur in areas not usually visited by collect- 
ors or by those collectors not interested in collecting Hesperii- 
dae. 

Many species of Hesperiidae are quite locally restricted to 
a certain type of environment and this may occupy a very 
limited area and be easily passed by. Our southern and south- 
western States seem still to offer interesting possibilities for 



164 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

the collector, as they apparently contain large areas over which 

little if any collecting has been done. 

ANTIGONUS PULVERULENTA Felder (Fig. 1). 

1869. Lcucochitonea pulvcrulcnta Felder, Verhandlungen der 
Kaiserlich Koniglichen Zoologisches-Botanischen Gesell- 
schaft in Wien, xix, p. 478. Orizaba, Mexico. 

1876. Hcsperia zainpa Edwards, Transactions American En- 
tomological Society, v, p. 207. South Apache, Arizona. 

1884. Tagiades taeniatus Plotz, Jahrbiicher des Nassauischen 
Vereins fiir Naturkunde, xxxvii, p. 41. Oaxaca, Mexico. 

1895. Systasea pulverulcnta Godman and Salvin, Biologia 
Centrali-Americana, Rhopalocera, ii, p. 413; pi. 87, figs. 24, 
25. Arizona ; Mexico ; Guatemala. 

1923. Systasea pulvcrulcnta Draudt, in Seitz Macrolepidop- 
tera of the World, v, p. 904; pi. 176e. 

1923. Systasea pulvcrulcnta Skinner and Williams, Trans- 
actions American Entomological Society, xlviii, p. 299; p. 
300, fig. 23 male genitalia. 

1930. Systasea pulvcrulenta Holland, Butterfly Book, Re- 
vised Edition, p. 344 ; pi. 46, fig. 1 type of Hcsperia zampa 
Edwards. 

Brigadier W. H. Evans of the British Museum has called 
the attention of the writer to the fact that two species have 
been confused under the name pulvcrulcnta and that these 
two species while quite similar in appearance have a constant 
difference in the maculation of the primaries and a different 
form in the male genitalia. 

Examination of a considerable number of specimens in the 
collections of the American Museum of Natural History, the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the Na- 
tional Museum in Washington shows Brigadier Evans to be 
correct, and that pulvcrulenta appears to be the predominant 
species in Mexico, extending into the United States in Texas 
and Arizona. Only one specimen of the other species was 
found bearing a Mexican label and that Sonora, in the north- 
ern part of the Country. 

The specimens of pulverulcnta which were examined came 
from the following localities: TEXAS: Corpus Christi, San 
Antonio, Kerrville, Sabinal, Brownsville, Del Rio, New Braun- 






Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



165 






Genitalia of: 1. Antiyomis pulvcrulcnta Felder, 2. Antiyonus evansi n. 
sp., 3. A try tone bcrryi n. sp. 

fels : ARIZONA: Tucson MEXICO: Jalapa, Chichen Itza, 
Rinconada, Oaxaca, Alazatlan, Misantla. 

The genitalia of a male specimen from San Antonio, Texas, 
are figured. The apex of the claspers is very broad, the lower 
corner produced into a short triangle, the upper into a broad 
triangular tooth, above which a broad dorsal arm projects 
obliquely outward, extending a little beyond the apex and 
carrying some small dorsal teeth in the apical part. The 
aedoeagus is very large and carries a huge cluster of internal 
spines near the base and has two horn-like projections near 
the apex. 
Antigonus evansi new species (Fig. 2). 

It is this insect which so closely resembles puhcrnlcnta 
Felder and has been confused with it. In general most speci- 



166 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

metis of evansi are of a somewhat lighter shade of color and 
average slightly larger in size than pulvcrulenta but both species 
are variable in these characters and reliance cannot be placed 
upon them for accurate identification. 

In evansi the cell spot of the discal band of the primaries 
and the spot immediately below it, in interspace 2, are not in 
a straight line on their inner edges but that edge of the spot 
in interspace 2 is always further inward toward the base of 
the wing and the continuity of the band is thus broken at this 
point. In pulvcrulenta the inner edge of these two spots forms 
an even lipe and the band is not broken at the point of junc- 
tion. This difference seems to be the only outstanding super- 
ficial character by which the two species may be separated. 

The figure of the male genitalia is from a specimen from 
Texas. The claspers terminate in a bluntly triangular apex, 
back of which rises a very long dorsal arm, curving outward 
and then downward with its rounded tip extending over the 
apex of the clasper. The aedoeagus is a little longer and less 
thick than in pulvcrulenta and instead of the very large cluster 
of internal spines of that species, carries one very long heavy 
spine (or perhaps a narrow, closely appressed cluster) and 
one small spine. The two horn-like projections near the apex 
are also much less developed in evansi. 

Brigadier W. H. Evans of the British Museum has called 
the attention of the writer to the fact of the confusion of this 
species with pulverulent a and it is with great pleasure that the 
new species is named for him. 

Expanse : male, 25 mm. to 36 mm., female, 36 mm. to 38 
mm. 

Type material. Holotype male, Baboquivari Mountains, 
ARIZONA; allotype female, El Paso, TEXAS, in collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History. Paratypes: 84 males 
and 10 females distributed as follows, 24 males, 2 females, 
American Museum of Natural History; 19 males, 2 females, 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; 9 males, 6 
females, United States National Museum ; 32 males in collec- 
tion of Cyril F. dos Passes. The paratypes are from the 
following localities: ARIZONA: (roughly north to south) 
Coyote Mountains ; Verde River, Jerome ; Congress Jc. ; San 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 167 

Carlos Lake; wheatfields near Globe; Redington; Tucson; 
Baboquivari Mountains ; Cochise County ; Huachaca Moun- 
tains, south Arizona. Fresnal Canyon; Tuscon; Paradise; 
Santa Rita Mountains; TEXAS: Alpine; Big Bend; Davis 
Mountains. NEW MEXICO : Alamogordo. CALIFORNIA : Palm 
Springs; San Diego County; Colo, desert of California. 
Mexico: Sonora; Baja California. 
Atrytone berryi new species (Fig-. 3). 

$ . Upper side. Primaries bright fulvous with a broad 
blackish brown border, a blackish brown spot beyond the end 
of the cell, base dark brownish and covered with fulvous 
hairs, inner margin below vein 1 blackish brown with fulvous 
hairs in the basal half ; a broad, black, oblique stigma of two 
parts across interspaces 1 and 2 ; two fulvous subapical spots. 
Fringes pale fulvous or pale brownish fulvous, sometimes 
becoming whitish at the tip. 

Secondaries with broad blackish brown costal and outer 
borders, abdominal fold blackish brown covered with fulvous 
hairs ; the discal area fulvous, cut into three elongate spots by 
the black veins ; long fulvous hairs extend from the base over 
and below the cell. Fringes fulvous becoming whitish at the 
tip. 

Under side. Primaries brownish fulvous in the apical half, 
the base black from the cell downward, a black stripe indicat- 
ing the stigma of the upper side, inner margin black below 
vein 1, outer margin black in interspace 1, a black spot in inter- 
space 2 not reaching the margin. Three discal spots and the 
apical half of the cell brighter fulvous. The lower of the two 
subapical spots dimly visible. 

Secondaries darker fulvous, immaculate; all the veins dis- 
tinctly paler yellowish fulvous. 

Upper side of the body with fulvous brown hairs. Top of 
head and palpi fulvous or fulvous brown. Beneath the palpi 
and pectus are fulvous, sometimes a few black hairs in the 
palpi ; thorax fulvous or fulvous brown ; abdomen pale fulvous 
and with or without a narrow, broken, dark central line. An- 
tennae black above, fulvous beneath, the apical part of the 
club black, the apiculus red. 

9 . Upper side. Primaries blackish brown, a discal band 
of four bright fulvous spots, two in interspace 1, the lower 
one the larger, the upper one very small and extending further 
toward the outer margin than the lower one ; an oblong spot 
in interspace 2 beyond the base of the interspace, convex on 



168 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

the inner side and concave on the outer side ; a somewhat 
wedge-shaped spot in interspace 3 ; two small, elongate sub- 
apical spots of the same color. Fringes sordid brownish. 

Secondaries. Blackish brown with or without a small ful- 
vous discal area cut by the veins into three rather hazy, elong- 
ate spots. Fringes sordid brownish or dirty whitish. 

Beneath. Primaries blackish brown in the basal half below 
the cell and along inner border except at the extreme outer 
margin. The discal band and lower subapical spot repeated, 
paler, the two spots in interspace 1 fused into one large spot 
and extended to nearly the outer margin and sordid whitish. 
Secondaries as in the male but a little darker in tone. 

Body above with brownish or fulvous brown hairs. Top of 
head and palpi with brownish and fulvous hairs. Beneath as 
in the male. 

Expanse : male, 36 mm. to 38 mm. ; female, 38 mm. to 42 
mm. 

Type material. Holotypc male ; Monticello, FLORIDA, March 
31 (Engelhardt) ; allot ype female; Merritts Island, Brevard 
County, Florida, September 30, (Berry), in collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History. Paratypes; two 
males, Orlando, Florida, October 8, one female, same locality. 
October 17 (Berry), in collection of Mr. Cyril F. dos Passos ; 
one female, Miami, Florida, (Hebard) in collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

It is a pleasure to name this species for Mr. Dean F. Berry 
of Orlando, Florida, who collected most of the specimens. 

On the upper side the appearance of the male is similar to 
that of Atrytone conspicua Edwards but the outer margin of 
the wings is not quite so rounded and the stigma is slightly 
thinner than in that species. On the under side the appearance 
is more similar to that of Atrytone bimacula Grote and Robin- 
son, especially in the pale veins of the secondaries but these 
are pale fulvous in bcrryi and more nearly whitish in bima- 
cula and besides bcrryi entirely lacks the white inner margin 
of these wings, which* is so conspicuous in bimacula. 

The females resemble that sex of Atrytone arpa Boisduval 
and LeConte on the upper side but they are readily distin- 
guished by the entirely different appearance of the under side, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 169 

and besides they are of a smaller size than the usual female 

arpa. 

The male genitalia differ materially from any of the other 

closely related species in the genus. 



The Leng Types of Cicindelidae 
(Coleoptera). 

By RICHARD G. DAHL, Oakland, California. 

The following is presented in order to designate lectotypes 
of the species of Cicindelidae described by C. W. Leng in 
cotype series and to give in detail data concerning these, as 
well as the other species described by him. The discussion is 
intended to clarify their present status, and to add further in- 
formation concerning them. 

Lectotypes herewith designated are now located in the col- 
lection of M. A. Cazier, unless otherwise stated. Several 
other Leng types are located in other collections as are noted 
herein. Thanks are due M. A. Cazier for the generous use of 
his collection and for his helpful suggestions and assistance. 
I wish to express my appreciation also to L. L. Buchanan, E. 
A. Chapin, P. J. Darlington, C. W. Leng, and A. S. Nicolay 
for their assistance. 

1. OMUS INTERMEDIUS Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, Cic. of 
Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 104. 

Discussion: In the description of this species, C. W. Leng 
does not mention a type, and I have been unable to locate any 
specimens with the data as given in his discussion. However, 
there is a specimen in the E. D. Harris collection, at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, which now stands under 
proccnis Casey and is labeled "0/248"; "cotype inlcnncdius 
Leng"; "Colony Mill Rd. n. Kaweah, California, May 1, R. 
Hopping" and "from C. W. Leng Nov. 1906, this laK-1 is his 
identification of the specimen" and "Nov. 1910 determined by 
C. W. L. as v. proccnis Cas." I do not believe this specimen 
should be known as the type of inter nicdhis. It would be wise 
to have a lectotype designated, should anyone encounter the 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

material as mentioned by Leng (1902). 

2. TETRACHA CAROLINA var. FLORIDANA Leng and Mutchler. 
Leng, C. W., and Mutchler, A. J., 1916, Desc. Cat. W. 
Ind. Cic. ; Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXXV, p. 688. 

Type Locality: Everglade, Florida. Date: June, 1912. Col- 
lectors: sons of Mr. Geo. W. Storter. Type Now Located: 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Discussion: Evidence shown by C. W. Leng in his descrip- 
tion tends to indicate the confinement of this form to one 
locality, therefore it should be known as Tetracha Carolina 
subspecies floridana. In collections examined none were found 
to occur outside the type locality. In this subspecies, the 
cupreous is completely lost from the head, pronotum, and 
elytra. Otherwise this form agrees with Carolina. 

3. ClCINDELA FORMOSA Var. MANITOBA Leng. Leng, C. W., 

1902, Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, 
p. 137. 

Lectotype Locality: Aweme, Hudson Bay, Manitoba. Col- 
lector: Norman Criddle. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a cotype series 
of six, all from Aweme, Hudson Bay, Manitoba (C. W. Leng 
collection). This has always been considered a variety, but 
because of its restricted occurance in the north, it should be 
known as Cicindela formosa subspecies manitoba. In this sub- 
species the widened pattern on the elytra, as well as its re- 
stricted distribution, may easily distinguish it from its most 
closely related form Cicindela formosa gcncrosa Dej. 

4. C. PURPUREA var. NIGERRIMA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1918, 
New Race of Cicindela, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXVI, 
p. 139. 

Lectotype Locality: Oslar; Chimney Gulch, Golden, Colo- 
rado. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a specimen of 
the series in the C. W. Leng collection. In the assignment of 
the name to this varital form of purpurea, Mr. Leng did 
not designate a type. The specimen above designated is 
from the series that was before him at that time. Cicindela 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 171 

purpurea var. nigcrrima is the black form of Cicindela pur- 
pure a Oliv. and occurs regularly throughout its range. 

5. C. PURPUREA var. TRANSVERSA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 

Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 
131. 

Lectotype Locality: North Illinois. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a cotype series 
of eight specimens. Additional cotype specimens from Eureka, 
Missouri, April 30, 1905 (Smyth) ; South Orange, New Jersey, 
September 1, 1888; Colorado; Louisiana, Missouri, September, 
1919, (G. M. Dodge) ; North Illinois, all in the C. W. Leng 
collection. In the designated lectotype there is a slight indica- 
tion of the oblique middle lunule present, however in the cotype 
series, the middle transverse band is shortened and in one 
specimen almost lacking. At the present this is considered 
as a variety of Cicindela purpurea Oliv. 

6. C. PURPUREA var. LUDOVICIANA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer.; Trans. Amer- Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 

132. 

Lectotype Locality: Vowell's Mill, Louisiana. Collector: 
George Coverdale. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a cotype series 
of five all from Vowell's Mill, Louisiana (C. W. Leng collec- 
tion). In this variety of purpurea the blue head and pro- 
notum are contrasted to the purplish margined green elytra. 
This variety is very distinct, and can hardly be confused with 
any of its closely related subspecies and varieties. 

7. C. TRANQUEBARICA var. MINOR Leng. Leng, C. W., 1910, 

Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. XVIII, p. 80. 

Discussion: In this variety C. W. Leng did not designate 
a type or cotypes, but merely described it as "smaller than the 
northern forms and never metallic or brilliant colored", he also 
states : "The few specimens found in Georgia were of this 
small dark form, which has been called minor by Mr. Eclw. D. 
Harris." 

There is no specimen in the C. W. Leng collection that 
agrees well enough to be designated as a lectotype of this 



172 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

form. It is considered at present to be a faint variety of 
Cicindela tranquebarica Hbst. 

8. C. TRANQUEBARICA var. HORicoNENSis Leng. Leng, C. W., 
1902, Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 
XXVIII, p. 145. 

Lectotype Locality: Lake George, New York. Date: 
August. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a cotype series 
of seventeen specimens. Additional cotype specimens are from 
the following localities; De Bruce, New York, June 11, 1911, 
(Harris) ; Bartlett, New Hampshire, June 4, 1915 (Harris) ; 
North Illinois ; Keene Valley, Essex County, New York, Aug- 
ust 17, 24, and 27, 1919 (H. Nortman) ; Marquette, Michigan; 
Mount Desert, Maine, August : and Boisdale, C. B., all in the 
C. W. Leng collection. In the cotype series before me the 
markings vary considerably. In the designated lectotype the 
markings are reduced, and in the middle transverse band there 
is a break just before the point of intersection at the margin. 
The elytra and pronotum are cupreous, and the impressions of 
the head are green. The cupreous and the green-bronze color 
are the only characters to separate this variety from Cicindela 
tranquebarica Hbst. The pubescence of the thorax and ab- 
domen varies as in that of Cicindela tranquebarica Hbst. 

9. C. TRANQUEBARICA var. SIERRA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer.; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 146. 
Lectotype Locality: Sierra County, California. Collector: 

From the collection of Charles Fuchs. 

Discussion: Lectotype female designated from a series of 
three specimens. Additional cotype specimens are from Big 
Trees, Calaveras County, California, and Placer County, Cali- 
fornia, all in the C. W. Leng collection. In the designated 
lectotype the color is brilliant green above, with purplish-green 
reflections beneath ; the markings are reduced, with the humeral 
lunule almost lacking. In the other two cotypes, one is an 
opaque dark green and the other a sericeous green ; the mark- 
ings on each are represented by a middle transverse band only. 
This form thus far has been collected only in the Sierra 
Nevada Range in California, which indicates it deserves the 
status of Cicindela tranquebarica subspecies sierra Leng. 

(To be continued.) 



List of Titles of Publications Referred to by Numbers 
in Entomological Literature in Entomological News. 

1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annales Sci. Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitsclirift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Archives do Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo. _ 

15. Annales Academia Brasileira de Sciencias. Rio de Janeiro. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt-M. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bolletino del Lab. cli Zool. gen. e agraria della Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. Geneva. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. Archives do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal. R. d. Janeiro. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

36. Trans. Royal Entomological Society, London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville. Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitates. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhaiisen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chilefia de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

46. Zeitschrift fur Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington. D. C. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Mmeum. Washington, D. C 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. Helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte. hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 

53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 
^ Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique. ed. P. Lechevalirr. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 



61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Physis. Revista Soc. Argentina Cien. Nat. Buenos Aires. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Mem. Institute Butantan. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

87. Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaf ten, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

97. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie. Nederland. Ent. Ver., Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 
105. Revista de Entomologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

106. Anales Sociedad Cientifica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 

107. Proc., Royal Entomological Society, London. 

108. Revista, Col. Nac. Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil. 

109. Arbeiten uber morpholog. und taxonom. ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem. 

110. Arbeiten ueber physiolog. u. angewandte ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem. 

111. Memorias do Institute Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de Janeiro. 

112. Anales del Institute de Biologia Mexico. 

114. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 

115. Memorias de la Soc. Cubana de Hist. Nat. Havana, Cuba. 
1lrt. Parasitology. Ed. Keilin and Hindle. London. 

117. Alicroentomology, Stanford University. 

118. Ward's Ent. & Nat. Sci. Bull., Rochester, N. Y. 

119. American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, Ind. 

120. The Great Basin Naturalist, Provo, Utah. 

121. Ciencia, Mexico City. 

122. Revista Museo de la Plata, Buenos Aires. 

123. Indian Journal of Entomology, New Delhi. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 173 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
In titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
In the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Davis, W. T. Charles W. Leng and the 
New York Entomological Society. [6] 49: 189-192, ill. 
Kreibohm de la Vega G. A. Contribucion al conocimien- 
to de algunos enemigos naturales de la oruga de la hoja 
del algoclonero (Alabama arg-illacea) Lucha biologica. 
[Rev. Ind. Y Agric. Tucuman] 30: 163-171, ill. Leng, C. 
W. Obituary by J. D. Sherman, Jr. [6] 49: 185-187. 
McCoy & Carver. A method for obtaining spores of the 
fungus Beauveria bassiana in quantity. [6] 49: 205-210, ill. 
de Seabra, A. F. A Entomologia do Trigo. [Arq. da Secc. 
Biolog. e Parasit.] 3: 699 pp. 1939. Szekessy, W. Dispu- 
tatio physica de insectis von Andreas Horvath. Die erste, 
von einem ungarn verfasste entomologische abhamllung. 
[Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung.] 33: 1-13. Weiss, Soraci & Mc- 
Coy. Additional notes on the behavior of certain insects 
to different wave-lengths of light. [6] 49: 149-159, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bucherl, W.- 

Sobre a musculatura da Scolopendra viridicornis. [Mem. 
Inst. Butantan] 14: 65-92. Cambournac, F. J. C. Como 
os mosquitos transmiteni as sezoes em condic,<Vs naturais. 
[Naturalia, Lisboa] II: 151-159, ill. Hanstrom, B. In- 
kretorische organe, sinnesorgane und nervensystem des 
kopfes einiger niederer insektenordnungen. [Kungl. Sv. 
Vet. Akad. HandlingarJ 18: 265 pp., ill. Die chromato- 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

phoraktivierende substanz des insektenkopfes. [ Lunds 
Univ. Arssk.] 36: No. 12: 20 pp., ill. Kuhn & von Engel- 
hardt. Ein das fliigelmuster beeinflussender letalfaktor bei 
Ptychopoda seriata. [97] 60: 561-566, ill. Perez, Z. Les 
cellules secretrices du cerveau de quelques Lepiclopteres. 
[An. Fac. Cien Porto] 25: 92-94. Toth, L. The protein 
metabolism of the aphicls. [Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung.] 33: 167- 
170. Wagner, E. Ueber eine die gonaden beeinflussende 
mutation von Ptychopoda seriata. [97] 60: 567-589, ill. 
Woke, P. A. Structure and development of the alimentary 
canal of the southern armyworm larva. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] 
Tech. Bull. 762: 29 pp., ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Chamberlin, R. 

V. New American millipeds. [Bull. Univ. Utah] 31: 3-39, 
ill. da Fonseca, F. Notas de Acareologia. Familias 
genero e especie novos de acarianos parasitas do pulmao 
de serpentes (Pneumophionyssid. n. fain, e Entonyssid. n. 
fam.). [Mem. Inst. Butantan] 14: 53-58, ill. Bolivilaelaps 
tricholabiatus, gen. n., sp. n. ( Laelaptid.). [Mem. Inst. 
Butantan] 14: 59-64, ill. de Mello-Leitao, C. Spiders of 
the Guiana forest collected by O. W. Richards. [Arq. Zool. 
Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 175-197, ill. (*). Aranhas do 
Espirito Santo Coligidas por Mario Rosa, em 1936 e 1937. 
[Arq. Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 199-214. (*). 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Geotsch, 

W. Staatengrundung und kastenbildung bei Termiten. 
[88] 29: 1-13, ill. Guimaraes, L. R. Notas sobre Siphon- 
aptera e redescriqao de Polygenis occidentalis. [Arq. Zool. 
Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 215-250, ill. Kohls, G. M. Siphon- 
aptera. A study of the species infesting wild hares and 
rabbits of North America north of Mexico. [Nat. Inst. 
Health] Bull. 175: 34 pp., ill. Sanderson, M. W. A bat 
flea new to Arkansas. [103] 14: 60. The order Embioptera 
new to Arkansas. [103] 14: 60. Setty, L. R. Description 
of the larva of Bittacus apicalis and a key to bittacid 
larvae. [103] 14: 64-65. Truxal & Jenkins. An Ascala- 
phid larva note. [103] 14: 71. Viets, D. A biological note 
on the Mantispidae [103] 14: 70-71. 

ORTHOPTERA. Hebard, M. A new species of Ptero- 
phylla from eastern Mexico (Tettigoniid.). [Notulae Nat.] 
No. 81 : 4 pp., ill. Matthey, R. Etude biologique et cyto- 
logique de Saga pedo (Tettigoniid.). [Rev. Suisse Zool. 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 175 

48: 91-142, ill. Smith, C. W. Successful hibernation of 
the earwig (parasite Bigonicheta setipennis in Ontario. 
[75th Ann. Rep. Ent. Soc. Ontario] 1940: 29-32. Tink- 
ham, E. R. Biological and faunistic notes on the Cicadidue 
of the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos, Texas. [6] 49: 
165-182, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Beard, R. L. The biology of Anasa 
tristis, with particular reference to the tachinid parasite, 
Trichopoda pennipes. [Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta.j Bull. 440: 
597-679, ill. Drake, C. J. New American Tingitidae. [91] 
31 : 141-145. Gomez-Menor Ortega, J. Coccidos de la 
Republica Dominicana (Cocc.) [EOS] 16: 125-143, ill. 
Hungerford, H. B. New distributional note on Notonecta 
borealis. [103] 14: 53. Kuitert, L. An interesting- ab- 
normality in Ranatra quadrilentata. [103] 14: 71. Monte, 
O. Catalogo dos Tingitideos do Brasil [Arq. Zool. Est. 
de Sao Paulo] II: 65-174. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bell, E. L. Two new subspecies of 
Phlebodes tiberius. [6] 49: 193-197. Bovey, P. Contribu- 
tion a 1'etude genetique et biogeographique de Zygaena 
ephialtes. [Rev. Suisse Zool.] 48: 1-90, ill. Carpenter, G. 
D. H. An interesting sidelight on the causes of colora- 
tion in butterflies. [31] 147: 356. Clark, A. H. Butter- 
flies of Virginia. [ Explor. & Field-Work Smiths. Inst. 
1940] Publ. 3631: 57-60, ill. Dethier, V. G. The imma- 
ture stages of Rivula propiqualis. (119] 25: 450-453, ill. 
Ferreira d' Almeida, R. Algumas observances sobre a 
fauna de Lepidopteros da America. [Arq. Zool. Est. de 
Sao Paulo] II: 299-318, ill. Uma nova subespecie de Iphi- 
clides telesilaus. |Arq. Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 319- 
320, ill. Contribuigao para o conhecimento da biologia do 
Phyciodes hernias. (Nymphalidid.). [Arq. Zool. Est. de 
Sab Paulo] II: 321-324, ill. Field, W. D. Additional 
notes on Calycopis cecrops and Calycopis beon (Lycaeni- 
dae). | 103 | 14: 66-69. Filho, J. O. Sobre a nomenclature 
dos Lepidnpteros da familia Adelocephalidac. [Ar(|. Zm>1. 
Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 325-339. Euchromiidae de Salobra. 
[Arq. Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 261-280. ill. Contri- 
buic/io a zoogeografia dos Euchromiidae Brasileiros. [Arq. 
Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 281-297, ill. Hayward, K. J. 
La "lagarta rosada" del algodonero (Pectinophora gossy- 
piella). | Est. Exp. Agric. Tucuman] Circ. No. 93: 9 pp., 
ill. Kuhn & von Engelhardt. See under Anatomy, de 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS |June, '41 

Martin, M. La coleccion de Lepidopteros del Museo. 
[Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. "Javier Prado] 5: 46-61, cont. Mc- 
Dunnough, J. On the characters of two genera closely 
allied to Eupithecia (Geometrid.). [4] 73: 62-63. (k). New 
species of moths, mostly California!!. [4] 73: 66-76. Schaus, 
W. New species of heterocerous moths in the United 
States National Museum. [50] 89: 497-511. (S). Schweizer 
& Webster Kay. Lepidopteros del Uruguay. [An. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Montevideo] 5: 3-14, ill. (*). Stallings, D. B. 

A note on Strymon alcestis. (Lycaenidae). [103] 14: 63. 
Aberrations found in Kansas. [103] 14: 72. Watson, H. F. 

-Wings to unfurl. [Jr. Nat. Hist. Mag.] 1941: 11-14, ill. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. Records and descrip- 
tions of neotropical crane-flies (Tipulidae). [6] 49: 139- 
148. (*). Ayroza Galvao, A. L. Contribuiqao ao conheci- 
mento das especies de Myzorhynchella (Culicid) [Arq. 
Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 505-576, ill. (*). Bruch, C.- 
Observaciones biolo^icas sobre "Dilophus similis" Rondani 
(Bibionidae). [Notas Mus. de La Plata] 5: 307-315, ill. 
Huckett, H. C. A revision of the North American species 
belonging to the genus Pegomyia (Muscidae). [Mem. 
Amer. Ent. Soc.] No. 10: 131 pp.,' ill. Hull, F. M Some 
new species of Syrphidae. [103] 14: 61-63. de Oliveira, S. 
J. Sobre Ophyra aenescens (Anthomyid.). [Arq. Zool. 
Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 341-355, ill. Reinhard, H. J. A 
new nearctic species of Exopalpus (Tachinidae). [103] 14: 
58-60. de Souza Lopes, H. Sobre alguns sarcofagideos 
neotropicos da colec,ao do Museu Britanico. [Arq. Zool. 
Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 357-387, ill. (*). Strickland, E. H. 
A new genus of the family Tachinidae from Alberta. [4] 
73: 64-66, ill. Townsend", C. H. T. An undescribed 
American Cephenemyia. [6] 49: 161-163. 

COLEOPTERA. Blackman, M. W. Bark beetles of 
the genus Hylastes in North America. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] 
Misc. Publ. 417: 27 pp. (*k). Bruch, C. Descripcion de 
un nuevo histerido mirmecofilo. [Notas Mus. de La Plata] 
5: 315-318, ill. Fletcher, F. C. Collecting and preserva- 
tion of Coleoptera. [118] 14: 7-11, ill. Glen, R. Contri- 
butions to the morphology of the larval Elateridae No. 2. 
Agriotes limosus. [4] 73: 57-62, ill. Hinton, E. E.- 
Nuevos Driopidas peruanos. [Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. "Javier 
Prado"] 5: 38-45, ill. Pessoa & Lane. Coleopteros necro- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 177 

fagos de interesse medico-legal. Ensaio monografico sobre a 
familia Scarabaeidae de S. Paulo e regioes vizinhas. [Arq. 
Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 389-504, ill. (k). Soraci, F. 
A. Hibernation of (Myllocerus) Corigetus? castaneus. 
[6] 49: 138. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bugbee, R. E. Host relations and 
geographic distribution of new species of the genus Eury- 
toma from Mexico. [103J 14: 54-57. Chisolm, J. J. A 
tiny army fights the Japanese beetle. [Nat. Hist.] 47: 268- 
27 f, ill. Cockerell, T. D. A. Some tertiary insects from 
Colorado. [Amer. Jour. Sci.] 239: 354-356." ill. Dowden, 
P. B. Parasites of the birch leaf-mining sawfly (Phyllo- 
toma nemorata). [U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech Bull. 757: 56 
pp., ill. Raskins, C. P. Note on the method of colony 
foundation of the ponerine ant Bothroponera soror. [6] 
49: 211-216. Henderson, C. F. Apparatus and technique 
for the study of the egg parasites of the beet leafhopper. 
[U. S. Dept. Agric.] Circ. 593: 18 pp., ill. Lafleur, L. J. 
Communal disaffection in ants. [6] 49: 199-204. Mari, 
J. G. Monografia de los Cerceris de Espana. (Spheg.). 
[EOS] 15 (1939): 7-93, ill. Moure, P. J. Apoidea neo- 
tropica. [Arq. Zool. Est. de Sao Paulo] II: 39-64. ill. (*). 
Popov, V. B. Family Oxaeidae and processes of morpho- 
logical reduction in bees. [Comptes Rendus, Acacl. Sci., 
U. S. S. R.] 30: 82-85. ill. Sjogren, S. J. Das anpassung- 
svermogen des bienenstaates. [Lunds Univ. Arssk.] 36: 
No. 7: 15 pp., ill. Timberlake, P. H. Ten new species of 
Stelis from California. [6] 49: 123-137. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Look at Life! A collection of 
the nature photographs of L. M. Chace. New York. 1940. 
Manual of Myiology. Part X. By C. H. T. Townsend. 334 
pp. 1940. 



THE FRANCIS WALKER TYPES OF TRICIIOPTERA IN THE 
BRITISH MUSEUM, by CORNELIUS BETTEN and MARTIN E. 
MOSKI.Y. British Museum, London. June 8, 1940, Price 15 
shillings, ix and 248 pp., 122 figs. In 1852 Walker described 
101 species of Trichoptera, 71 from North America, the re- 
mainder from other scattered parts of the world. The species 
from North America have been a source of dispute and con- 
fusion since the time of their description and one of the gravest 
stumbling-blocks to students of the Trichoptera. The book of 
Betten and Mosely dealing with these is a fine piece of work 



178 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

which redescribes Walker's types to bring out every valuable 
taxonomic character used in present day studies. The aim of 
the book was to settle the many problems which have arisen in 
regard to the identity of these species and the two authors have 
succeeded brilliantly. It is now one of the basic papers which 
is indispensable to the study of North American caddis flies. 
Every specimen recorded by Walker is studied and an inter- 
pretation given on opinions published in the past by various 
authors. Definite types are designated for Walker's species 
and from the remainder of the material six new species and 
one new variety are described. Two new genera are erected, 
Trentonius and Frencsia. The drawings by D. E. Kimmins 
are ample, clear, and in fine scale. There is no doubt but that 
this book lays a foundation for a much more stable group of 
names in caddis fly literature. Both the authors and the 
Trustees of the British Museum deserve a vote of thanks for 
the planning, execution, and publication of this book. HERBERT 
H. Ross. 



OBITUARY 

Dr. LEVI W. MENGEL, founder and director emeritus of the 
Reading, Pennsylvania, Public Museum and Art Gallery and 
internationally known entomologist, died in Reading Hospital 
on the afternoon of February 3, 1941. 

He would have been 73 years old on September 27. He was 
stricken by a heart attack while working in the Reading 
Museum on the previous afternoon. Alone, save for one or 
two members of the janitorial staff, he telephoned his physician, 
telling him he had an attack of indigestion. The doctor found 
Mengel sitting in his accustomed chair in the Museum office, 
suffering from a coronary occlusion, treated him and drove 
him to the Reading Hospital where, on the following afternoon, 
Dr. Mengel fell asleep and never awoke. 

Dr. Levi Walter Scott Mengel, a son of the late Mathias 
and Amelia M. (Soder) Mengel, was born in Reading on Sep- 
tember 27, 1858. After his graduation from Reading High School 
he entered the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, taking his 
degree in 1891. In 1930, he received an honorary doctor of 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 179 

science degree from Bucknell University. Albright College, 
Reading, gave him an honorary doctor of laws degree in 1934. 
In 1891, he, with other members of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia joined Lieutenant (later Rear Ad- 
miral) Peary's expedition to West Greenland, he as the expedi- 
tion's entomologist. Returning to Reading, he was employed 
by the Reading School District as a teacher, was a vice prin- 
cipal from 1902 to 1915, director of the Reading Museum and 
Art Gallery from 1915 to 1939 and director emeritus until his 
death. 

In 1932 he spent some time in Czechoslovakia with the late 
Dr. Adelbert Seitz, the well-known lepidopterist, and on a 
number of occasions exchanged butterflies with the Grand 
Duke Nicholas Michaelovitch Romanoff. He was a collector 
of birds, minerals, stamps, postcards and butterflies ; the last 
named collection, valued at $250,000, he gave to the Reading 
Museum. It includes one of the best collections of Erycinidae 
in the world, that of the British Museum being perhaps more 
extensive ; it is also rich in Nymphalidae and Papilionidae. 

In 1892 he published, jointly with the late Dr. Henry Skinner, 
a paper on Greenland Lepidoptera (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. 1892, pp. 156-159). It is based on the specimens cap- 
tured by himself and Dr. Wm. E. Hughes, ornithologist of 
the Peary Expedition. Twelve species are represented : 2 
Pierids, 1 Lycaenid, 1 Nymphalid, 1 Bombycid, 4 Noctuids 
and 3 Geometrids. Two of them were described as new. 
Glaucoptcr\.\- imuiaculata, a geometer, and a Pierid butterfly, 
Colias hccla, new variety pallida. The latter and some of the 
others were figured in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS (vol. Ill, p. 49, 
pi. ii, March, 1892). 

In 1905 appeared A Catalogue of the Erycinidae, A Family 
of Butterflies with the synonomy | sic | brought down to July 1, 
1904. By Levi W. Mengel, Prof, Natural History. Boys' 
High School, Reading, Pa., May, 1905. The above is the printed 
title, but in the copy which the author presented to Dr. Henry 
Skinner, under date of June 10.05, "July" has been crossed 
out and "Oct." written in its place. The preface begins as 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [June, '41 

follows : "To Whom it may concern : This catalogue is the 
result of some years of study of the family of which the 
author makes a specialty. It was made as a working catalogue 
for the author's guidance. That it is not without fault is known 
even to the writer ; while he expects criticism, it is to be remem- 
bered that the sequence of genera, etc., is as the author thinks 
it ought to be with our present knowledge of the family. The 
writer uses 'Erycinidae' as the family name ; for while the name 
is preoccupied, yet working naturalists over the world are less 
familiar with 'Lemoniiclae' of Kirby, or with the still newer 
'Riodinidae' of Grote." 

The Catalogue comprises 161 pages, with, in most pages, 
two columns to the page. A brief notice of it was published by 
Dr. Skinner (unsigned) in the NEWS for June, 1905, page 
200, in which it is stated that Prof Mengel published it at his 
own expense. Mr. R. C. Williams, Jr., tells us that Mengel 
told him that the sales were sufficient to take care of the cost 
of publication and comments : "a rare thing for a privately 
printed paper in Entomology." A notice of the Catalogue 
appeared also in the Canadian Entomologist for July, 1905, 
page 267, but it was not entered in the Zoological Record until 
1907. 

Dr. Mengel was a member of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, a member and a Research Asso- 
ciate of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and 
a corresponding member of The American Entomological 
Society. He was one of the most widely known and universally 
respected men in Berks County and one of the first advocates 
in America of visual education. This he made one of the 
functions of the Reading Museum, of which museum he said 
that it was no rich man's luxury but an important adjunct to 
Berks County's educational institutions. His interest in the 
Museum has been more fully touched on by Lawrence S. 
Dillon in Science for March 14, 1941, and by the local news- 
papers, such as the Reading Times for February 4, 1941. 

FRIENDS OF L. W. M. 



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Wanted. To hear from specialists who would care to determine 
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specimens, especially in some families of Diptera and Hymenoptera. 
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Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Correo 1043, Buenos Aires, 
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I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
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Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
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Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes, T. halesus 
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Wanted Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder Colorado. 



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MANUAL OF MYIOLOGY (IN TWELVE PARTS) 

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Part VIII. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Microtropezini toVoriini). 

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Part IX. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Thelairini to Clythoini). 

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Part X. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Anacamptomyiini to 

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Prices and other information may be secured from: 

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An important work by the American authority on the Anthomyid Mus- 
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An exhaustive taxonomic work on a genus of flies of considerable econo- 
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For Sale by THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
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I 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



DIV INS 
JULY, 1941 U.S. HAIL, 



Vol. LII No. 7 



CONTENTS 

O'Byrne The Hibernation in Missouri of Zerene caesonia (Stoll) ar r 
Euptoieta Claudia (Cram.) (Lepid.: Pieridae and Nymphali- 

dae) 181 

Bell On Lerodea telata Herrich-Schaeffer and tyrtaeus Ploetz (Lepi- 

doptera: Hesperiidae) 183 

Clark The Genus Colias in North America (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). 185 

Obituary Dr. Lee Abram Strong 187 

Dahl The Leng Types of Cicindelidae (ColeopteraJ 188 

Alexander Undescribed Species of Crane-flies from the Eastern 

United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). Part VII. ... 192 
Wagner District of Columbia Butterfly Notes (Lepidoptera: Rhopa- 

locera) 196 

<^Franclemont Notes on Some Cuculliinae (Phalaenidae, Lepidoptera) 

1 201 

Current Entomological Literature 206 

Review of Harry Hoogstraal's Insects and Their Stories 210 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII JULY 1941 No 7. 

The Hibernation in Missouri of Zerene caesonia 

(Stoll) and Euptoieta claudia (Cram.) (Lepid. : 

Pieridae and Nymphalidae). 

By HAROLD I. O'BYRNE, 663 W. Lockwood Ave., 
Webster Groves, Missouri. 

Our knowledge of the winter status of many of our familiar 
butterflies is far from complete. This is especially true of a 
number of species of southern distribution which are known 
to remain on the wing during the winter months in the South, 
but whose winter habits in the northern parts of their ranges 
are shrouded in mystery. Missouri is a border state with re- 
spect to these species, and for that reason, data on their Ifiber- 
nation in Missouri should have special significance. The 
Missouri species that deserve study in this connection are 
Phocbis sennae cubule (Linn.), Zcrcne caesonia (Stoll), 
Eurema nicippe (Cram.), E. lisa (Bdv. & Lee.), Danaus plcx- 
ippus (Linn.), Euptoieta claudia (Cram.), Precis cocuia 
(Hbn.), and Anaea andria Scud. Of these, only Anaca andria 
has heretofore been definitely known to hibernate in the 
imagine stage. The following records refer to Zerene cae- 
sonia and Euptoieta claudia. 

Autumn individuals of Zerene caesonia are of the form rosa 
McNeill, characterized by the more or less extensive pink suf- 
fusion on the lower surface of the wings, especially in the 
females. In contrast, butterflies of the summer brood are plain 
yellow below, with no suggestion of pink. Butterflies captured 
in the spring, therefore, show by this character whether they 
belong to the brood that ordinarily emerges in the fall or the 
one that emerges in early summer. The forms and dates of 
the specimens in my collection are : 

Form rosa: Mar. 6*; Apr. (no date)*; May 1. 

Form caesonia: May 22, 25; June 11, 12, U>. 

Form rosa: Sept. 11*. 15, 22; Oct. 23. 

181 



182 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Specimens starred (*) represent the form of rosa known as 
rosca Roeber and belong to the autumn brood. 

The earliest three spring specimens show the coloration of 
the brood which emerges in the fall ; however, this is only 
circumstantial evidence that they actually emerged in the 
autumn preceding their capture. But the one caught on March 
6 (1932) was found actually hibernating, under a small log 
on the east slope of a narrow valley. The butterfly was lying 
on its side, dormant, and was clinging with its legs to debris 
on the ground. This observation was made shortly before 11 
a. m., when the temperature was 27 F., at Ranken (4 miles 
east of Eureka, St. Louis County), Missouri. 

Less conclusive is the evidence for hibernation in Euptoieta 
claudia. This species is supposedly triple-brooded, but I find 
no break in its flying period during the summer, though the 
autumn brood is well set off. I have specimens taken on the 
following dates : 

Summer brood : June 23. 
Autumn brood: Sept. 21; Oct. 26; Nov. 1, 9. 
Representative additional dates of its occurrence, taken from 
my records, are : 

Summer broods: May 25; June 3, 14, 27; July 5, 12, 26; 
Aug. 10. 

Autumn brood: Sept. 20, 22; Oct. 2, 11, 29. 
Possible hibernators : May 13. 

At Ranken, May 13, 1932, I saw a badly worn and faded 
female, and later on the same day a male just as worn, flying 
about on a sheltered, sunny hillside. The early date (for this 
species) and the evident worn condition of the butterflies, 
suggested strongly that they had hibernated. In view of the 
complete absence of records of possible hibernators in other 
years, it may be that 1932 was an exceptionally favorable year 
and that hibernation in Missouri takes place only under such 
favorable conditions. Scudder (Everyday Butterflies, 1899, p. 
358) says, "It seems probable that the butterfly often hiber- 
nates, and that some of the autumn chrysalids do not disclose 
their inmates until very early the following spring"; but 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 183 

Scudder worked in a locality considerably farther north than 
Missouri. My experience has been that all that have pupated 
emerge in the fall, but there are insufficient data to indicate 
whether the usual overwintering stage is the larva or the adult. 
French (Butterflies of the Eastern U. S., 4th eel., 1914, p. 167) 
says that the last brood probably hibernates in the larval state. 
A need for further observation is apparent. 



On Lerodea telata Herrich Schaeffer and tyrtaeus 
Ploetz (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). 

By E. L. BELL, Flushing, New York. 

There seems to have been more or less confusion in the 
application of the names telata and tyrtaeus, the latter usually 
having been considered as a form of or a synonym of the 
former. An examination of the male genitalia shows that the 
insects to which these names should be applied are really speci- 
fically distinct. 

LERODEA TELATA Herrich-Schaeffer (Fig. 1). 
1869. Cabal us telata Herrich-Schaeffer, Correspondenzblatt 

des Zoologisch-Mineralogischen Vereines zu Regensburg, 

xxiii, p. 201. 
1883. Hesperia telata Ploetz, Stettiner Entomologische Zeit- 

ung, xliv, p. 51 ; apellus Kaden, i. 1. Laguayra. 

Herrich-Schaeffer did not mention the locality whence came 
his type material. The original description distinctly says 
that the spots of the forewings are yellow and Ploetz also says 
that they are of that color. Specimens before the writer from 
localities in Venezuela, Trinidad, British West Indies and 
Brasil have yellow spots on the primaries and these are con- 
sidered to be the true telata of Herrich-Schaeffer. 

Examination of the male genitalia of four specimens from 
the countries above mentioned shows the same form in all of 
them. In the figure here given of a specimen from Venezuela 
it will be seen that the claspers terminate in a short triangular 
apex, immediate!) back of \vhich risc-s a stout dorsal tooth 
fxli-nding obliquely backward. 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u Lv, '41 





1 2 

Male genitalia uf 1. Lcrudca tclala Herrich-Schaffer, 2. L. lyrlacns 
Ploetz. 

LERODEA TYRTAETS Ploetz (Fig. 2). 

1883. Hcspcria tyrtacns Ploetz, Stettiner Entomologische 

Zeitung, xliv, p. 51. Laguayra. 
1900. Mcgistias tclata Godman, (not Herrich-Schaeffer), 

Biologia Centrali-Americana, Rhopalocera, ii, p. 574; pi. 

101, figs. 13, 14, 15 male genitalia. Mexico; Honduras; 

Venezuela ; Guiana. 
1907. Hcspcria tvrtacns Godman, Annals and Magazine of 

Natural History, (7) xx, p. 143, "Mcgistias tclata H.-S.- 

var." 
1909. CaUimonniis elides Weeks, Entomological News, xx, p. 

263, Suapure, Venezuela. 
1911. Callinionnns elides Weeks, Illustrations of Diurnal 

Lepidoptera, ii, p. 29; pi. xxi, fig. 1. 
1924. Mcgistias tclata Draudt, (not Herrich-Schaeffer), in 

Seitz Macrolepidoptera of the World, v, p. 974; pi. 187i. 

In his paper on the genus Hcspcria Ploetz describes tyrtacns 
immediately following his diagnosis of tclata Herrich-Schaeffer, 

and states that the spots on the primaries of tyrtacns are 
white, thus distinguishing that insect from tclata with yellow 
spots. Godman (1900) states that the insect he determined as 
telata had white spots, which he shows in his figure. He also 
figures the male genitalia of a Mexican specimen, this figure 
differing in the termination of the claspers from the form found 
in tclata. 

A female specimen from Ruatan Island, Honduras, in the 
collection of the American Museum of Natural History and a 
series of male specimens in the collection of the National 
Museum from Mexico ; Guatemala ; Costa Rica and Taboga 
Island, Panama, have small, dirty white spots on the pri- 
maries and these are believed to be tyrtacns. 

These specimens superficially agree with the Godman figures 
and the form of the genitalia from four specimens, kindly dis- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

seeled by Mr. \\'. \). Field, agrees in detail with the Godtnan 
figure. 

In the accompanying- figure of the genitalia of tyrhicus it 
will be seen that the claspers terminate in a long, narrow, 
sharply pointed apex, far back of which rises a short triangu- 
lar tooth. 

Tyrtacus usually has the spots of the discal band of the 
primaries much smaller than those found in t chit a and often 
some of them are very indistinct or entirely lacking, but other 
than this and the whitish color of the spots there is consider- 
able resemblance between the two species, especially on the 
under side of the secondaries where the color and pattern is 
very much the same, although variable in both species. 

The Ploetz type of t\rlacits was said to have come from 
Laguayra and in this region may possibly fly with tclata but 
in Mexico and the Central American region it appears to be 
the prevailing species. 



The Genus Colias in North America (Lepidoptera: 

Pieridae). 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK, U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

In the study of butterflies too much attention has bivn 
concentrated on the description and study of type or typical 
specimens and too little on the description of species as a 
whole. Yet it is quite as important to understand a species as 
a unit as it is to view it as an aggregation of subspecies. forms, 
and aberrations. 

The following description of the common local Colias is 
based upon a very large number of specimens, all from the 
District of Columbia. They were collected by Mr. Warren 
Herbert Wagner, Jr., who has been so kind as to permit me 
to study them in detail. He later presented them to the U. S. 
National Museum. 



186 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u b', '41 

Regarding this description the objection may be raised that 
the specimens represent the local philodicc, the recent immi- 
grant curythcmc, and hybrids between them. But since f>Jiilo- 
dice is only the northeastern form of eurytyieme and hybridi- 
zation occurs at all points where the ranges of these two forms 
overlap the picture presented by these specimens is a perfectly 
natural one so far as this species is concerned. 

The fore wings in the males vary from 18 to 32 mm. in 
length, and in the females from 18 to 33 mm. Dwarfs are 
most common in early spring, though they occur at all seasons. 
Giants are found only in the last half of the summer, in low 
and more or less damp meadows. 

The shape of the fore wings is very varied. They may be 
short and broad with the outer edge at right angles to the lower 
edge and the outer edge rather strongly convex, or longer with 
the angle between the outer and lower borders obtuse, the outer 
border straight, and the apex pointed. In early spring or 
winter individuals they may be markedly elongated and narrow. 
The extreme type of short wing and the extreme type of long 
wing occur most frequently in very small individuals and are 
rare in individuals above medium size. The pointed wing with 
the straight outer border is characteristic of all very large 
individuals, but occurs typically developed also among the 
smallest. The lower border of the fore wings is straight in the 
females, in the males either straight or bowed outward forming 
a very broadly rounded obtuse angle approximately in the 
center. There is no difference in wing shape between yellow 
and orange individuals, but the majority of the yellow indi- 
viduals have the outer border of the fore wings more or less 
convex and the lower border straight, while most of the orange 
ones, particularly the larger, have the outer border straight and 
the lower bowed outward. However, many yellow individuals, 
especially the larger ones, have the same wing shape as orange 
individuals of the same size. There is little difference between 
males and females in the shape of the fore wings, though in 
the females they are never so pointed as in the more extreme 
males, and the lower border is always straight. 

The hind wings vary from evenly rounded with scarcely any 
trace of an anal angle to subangulate with a sharply rounded 
anal angle, almost a right angle, and another sharply rounded 
angle at the end of vein 6. They are usually broad, the maxi- 
mum width in the females and in many males being 88 percent 
of the length. In the larger males with strongly angulated 



Hi. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 187 

wings the width is 80 percent of the length. In long-winged 
early spring or winter individuals the maximum width is only 
70 percent of the length. 

The color varies from a light clear citron yellow, sometimes 
more or less greenish, to a uniform brilliant orange, the males 
with more or less intense violet reflections, usually with the 
costal margin yellow, and in the females with the spots in- 
cluded in the dark borders yellow. But the costal margin in 
both sexes and the included spots in the dark borders of the 
females are occasionally orange like the rest of the wing. 
Rarely the males are chrome yellow or uniform light dull 



orange. 



In the transition from the yellow to the deep orange forms 
the orange first appears as a faint flush on the under side of 
the fore wings in the inner portion. The next stage is an 
orange flush between the lower edge and vein 1 of the fore 
wing. From this the orange flush spreads upward to the cell. 
Individuals are common that have the fore wings suffused with 
orange in a roughly triangular patch extending from the wing 
base outward to a line from the end of the cell to the lower 
end of the dark margin, the upper and outer sides of this orange 
triangle gradually shading into the yellow of the rest of the 
wing. More rarely this orange patch has sharply defined 
borders, or the veins anterior to the orange patch are broadly 
bordered with orange, the borders being broadest at the base 
and tapering outwardly. Next the orange suffusion appears 
on the hind wings, but here it becomes evident uniformly over 
the entire wing except anterior to vein 7 and below vein 1, 
these areas always remaining yellow. As the orange spreads 
over the wings it usually deepens in color, though this is not 
always true. Uniform pale orange, chrome yellow, or dull 
orange individuals occur, flying with the much more numerous 
bright orange and clear yellow ones. 

(To he continued.) 



OBITUARY 

Science for June 13, 1941, announced the death of Dr. LEE 
ABRAM STRONG, chief of the Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, on June 2. He was born at Russell, Iowa, 
June 17, 1886, was engaged in horticultural inspection and 
plant quarantine in California 1910-18, 1919-29, and in the 
Federal service from 1929 on, becoming chief of the Bureau 
above mentioned in July, 1934. 



188 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u lv, '41 

The Leng Types of Cicindelidae 
(Coleoptera). 

By RICHARD G. DAHL, Oakland, California. 
(Continued from page 172.) 

10. C. BELLISSIMA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, Cic. of Bor. 
Amer.; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 142. 

Lectotype Locality: Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Collector: 
Wickham. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a series of ten 
specimens all from Oregon (C. W. Leng collection). In the 
designated lectotype the color is coppery green above and dark 
green below ; the impressions of the thorax and elytra are 
metallic green ; the markings are uniformly widened. In the 
cotype series there is little variation, except in color, which 
varies from cupreous to greenish-bronze. 

11. C. LONGILABRIS var. NOVATERRAE Leng. Leng, C. W., 
1918, Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Vol. XXVI, Nos. 3-4, p. 140. 

Type Locality: Bay St. George, Newfoundland. Date: 
July. Collector: W. S. Genung. 

Discussion: Type designated by C. W. Leng in 1918 from 
four specimens, represented by a type (female) and three para- 
types. In the type the markings are narrow, and the subapical 
spot does not extend to the margin. The color is brilliant green 
with bronze reflections. This form is a synonym of Cicindcla 
longilabris subsp. laurenti Schp. 

12. C. LONGILABRIS var. VESTALIA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 
121. 

Lectotype Locality: Maiden, Montana. Date: June 17, 
1890. Collector: From the collection of Fred C. Bowditch. 

Discussion: Lectotype female designated from a cotype 
series of three. Additional cotype specimens are from Fort 
McLeod, British America, 1882, and Telegraph Creek, British 
America, all from the C. W. Leng collection. In the designated 
lectotype, the color is bright coppery bronze above and dark 
metallic green below. In the cotype series there is little varia- 
tion except in color, which varies from coppery-bronze to dark 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 189 

green. This form is a synonym of Cicindela longilabris Say. 

13. C. LONGILARRIS var. OSLAKT Leiig. Leng, C. \Y.. 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, 
p. 121. 

Lcctotypc Locality: Southwest slope of Mount Wilson, 
12,000 feet, San Miguel Range, Colorado. Date: July 18 to 27. 
Collector: Ernest J. Oslar. 

Discussion: Lectotype female designated from a cotype 
series of nine. Additional cotype specimens are from Colorado 
and Savoy, South Dakota, 5,000 feet, June 11, all from the 
C. W. Leng collection. In the designated lectotype the color 
is brilliant green throughout, with no humeral marking, but 
with a post-humeral spot, otherwise narrow markings. In the 
cotype series before me, six have humeral spots, one is without 
post-humeral spots ; otherwise the markings vary only in their 
widths, and in that very little. The color in the cotype series 
varies from coppery-bronze to bright green. This form is a 
synonym of Cicindela longilabris laurcnti Schp. 

14. C. OREGOXA var. MARICOPA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, 
p. 150. 

Lectotype Locality: Phoenix, Arizona. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a cotype series 
of six. Additional cotype specimens are labeled "Prescott, 
Arizona, May 13", and "Arizona", all from the C. W. Leng 
collection. In the designated lectotype the head and the pro- 
notum are a shining metallic green ; the elytra are a dull dark 
violet, and the underparts are a shining dark violet. In the 
cotype series there is little variation, except in size, which 
varies the same as in orcyona Lee. The markings are generally 
heavier than orcyona Lee. 

There is sufficient evidence to prove that this form should 
be known as Ciein/lela orcyona. subspecies maricopa. It is re- 
stricted to the southern arid regions of the Great Basin. In 
the M. A. Cazier collection there is a specimen from Zion 
Canon, Utah, of which the elytra are a dull dark green and 
the proiiolum a dull iMvt-n. A specimen from I'.arstow, Cali- 



190 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS FJ u lv, '41 

fornia, July, 1914, (R. T. Garnett collection) is typical of 
maricopa. In a series of maricopa from Prescott, Arizona, 
June, 1909 (H. Kushner), three stand out as different, varying 
in being entirely black above, and the thorax beneath dark 
violet and the abdomen dark green. Another specimen from 
White Mountains, Arizona, June, (D. K. Duncan collector) 
has heavy markings, a dark green elytra and a cupreous pro- 
notum. It is intermediate between maricopa and guttifera Lee. 

15. C. SEXGUTTATA var. HARRISI Leiig. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, 
p. 128. 

Lectotype Locality: Lake Memphremagog, Canada. 

Discussion: Lectotype male designated from a series of 
four cotypes. Other cotype specimens are from De Bruce, 
New York; Stamford, New York, August and North Caro- 
lina, all from the C. W. Leng collection. This variety can be 
distinguished from typical se.vguttata Fab., by the absence of 
the strong bluish or greenish reflections. It is a mountain 
form, being taken at high elevations throughout north-eastern 
United States. 

16. C. ROBUSTA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; 
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 124. 

Lectotype Locality: Alpine, Texas. Date: July 20-22. 
Elevation: 4,400-6,000 feet. Collector: Wickham. 

Discussion: Lectotype female designated from two cotype 
specimens, both from the C. W. Leng collection. The other 
cotype is from Marfa, Texas, June 15. In the designated 
lectotype the anterior parts of the elytra are more coarsely 
punctate than in that of mgrocoerulca Lee., and is a dark green 
in color. Neither of the cotypes have markings, as illustrated 
by W. Horn 1 . 

17. C. BOWDITCHI Leng. Leng, C. W.. 1902. Cic. of Bor. 
Amer. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XXVIII, p. 124. 

Lectotype Locality: Vicinity of Durango. La Plata County, 
Colorado. Date: July 23-August 8, 1885. Collector: Fred 

1 Horn, Walther, 2,000 Zeichnungen von Cicindelinae, Band 5, Marz 28, 
1938. p. 76. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 191 

C. Bowditch. Lectotype Now Located: Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Discussion: Two specimens were mentioned by Leng 2 , 
both as occurring in the vicinity of Durango, Colorado. 

Mr. M. A. Cazier, who has seen this specimen at Cambridge, 
has assured me that it agrees in every way with the description. 
This designated lectotype is entered as a cotype in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology type catalog under number 16,272. 
This form is at present considered to be the maculated variety 
of nigrocoerulea Lee. 

18. C. CARTHAGENA HENTZiANA Leng. Leng, C. W., 1918, 
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. XXVI, Nos. 3-4, p. 139. 

Discussion: This name was proposed by C. W. Leng in 
place of Cicindcla carthaycna hcntzi Geo. H. Horn which was 
previously occupied by Cicindcla cartfiagcna licntzi Dej. The 
type of this is in the George H. Horn collection at the Phila- 
delphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

19. C. PUSJLLA var. TUOLUMNAE Leng. Leng, C. W., 1902, 
Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XXVIII, p. 

157. 

Lectotype Locality: Hetch Hetchy Valley, Tuolumne 
County, California. Collector: Dr. Edwin C. Van Dyke. 

Discussion: Lectotype female designated from the unique 
specimen in the C. W. Leng collection. This is at present 
considered to be an aberrant form of Cicindcla pusilla lunal- 
onga Schp. 

20. C. KNAUSII Leng. Leng, C. W., Cic. of Bor. Amer. ; 
Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., XXVIII, p. 166. 

Discussion: There are no specimens of this in the C. W. 
Leng collection that agree with his descriptions well enough 
to be designated as a lectotype. This is at present recognized 
as a variety of ncvadica Lee. 

I have been unable to locate either types or cotype material 
of Onius intcnncdius Leng, Cicindcla tranqucbarica minor 
Leng, and Cicindcla knausii Leng. There is no material in 
the C. W. Leng collection that agrees with his descriptions of 
these. It is unfortunate that this type material became sepa- 
rated from the C. W. Leng collection of Cicindelidae. 

~ Leng, C. W., 1 ( J02, Cic. of Bor. AIIK.T ; Trans. Aincr. Knt. Soc. 
XXVIII, p. l.M. 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J U \Y> '41 



Undescribed Species of Crane-flies from the East- 
ern United States and Canada (Dipt.: Tipulidae). 

Part VII. 

By CHARLES P. ALEXANDER, Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst, Massachusetts. 

The Tipulidae discussed herewith have been received from 
various sources that are indicated in connection with each 
species. The preceding part under this general title was pub- 
lished in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, vol. 51 : 83-85, 99-103; 1940. 

Dolichopeza (Oropeza) pratti n. sp. 

Belongs to the obscnni group; general coloration of meso- 
notum opaque brown, without clearly defined stripes ; legs 
dark; wings with a brownish tinge, the oval stigma a little 
darker brown ; vein Sc\ preserved ; abdominal segments bi- 
colored; male hypopygium with median area of tergite narrowly 
produced into a tridentate lobe ; lateral tergal arms appearing 
as narrow spatulate blades ; outer dististyle a little dilated on 
basal portion, the apex a short spinous point ; inner dististyle 
deep, its rostral prolongation long; aedeagus simple, unarmed. 

(5. Length about 8-9 mm.; wing 10-10.5 mm.; antenna 
about 2.8 mm. 

Frontal prolongation of head brownish black; palpi dark 
brown. Antennae with scape brownish yellow ; pedicel light 
yellow; flagellum black; verticils of flagellar segments coarse. 
Head dark gray. 

Mesonotum brown, the surface of praescutum opaque, the 
posterior sclerites more nitidous ; in some cases, praescutum 
with faint indications of lighter stripes. Pleura paler brown. 
Halteres dusky. 

Legs with the coxae pale brown ; trochanters obscure yellow ; 
remainder of legs brown, including the tarsi. 

Wings with a brownish tinge, the oval stigma a little darker 
brown; prearcular field a very little brightened; veins brown. 
Venation: Sc\ preserved, Sc^ ending opposite or just beyond 
the origin of Rs; petiole of cell 71/i exceeding in. 

Abdominal tergites obscure brownish yellow to testaceous 
yellow, the lateral margins and incisures darkened, on the 
outer segments and hypopygium the dark color including all 
of the segments ; basal sternites yellow, the incisures narrowly 
darkened, the outer segments more generally suffused. Male 
hypopygium with the median area of lergite produced into a 



Hi, '41 | EXTO.MOI.or.irAL NEWS 1'^ 

narrow lobe, the apex of which is further toothed, usually tri- 
dentate, with the central point longest ; lateral tergal arms with 
outer blades expanded into weak spatulae, in some cases these 
only a little wider than the arms. Outer dististyle a little di- 
lated on basal portion, the apex a short spinous point. Inner 
dististyle with the blade deep, the rostrum long-produced, its 
apex weakly bidentatc. Aedeagus simple, unarmed. 

Habitat. MINNESOTA. Plolotypc: $, St. Paul, September 
14, 1940 (H. D. Pratt). Paratopotypes, 5 $ $ . Types in 
author's collection. 

I take great pleasure in naming this interesting crane-fly in 
honor of the collector, my former student, Dr. Harry Davis 
Pratt. From the other described species of the obscum group, 
the present fly is closest to obscnra (Johnson), tridcnticulata 
Alexander, and polita (Johnson), especially the last. The 
shape of the median tergal lobe is much the same in the two 
flies but the other details of structure of the hypopygium of 
polita are quite distinct, especially the more expanded lateral 
tergal arms, the bulbous basal enlargement of the long blackened 
outer dististyle, the tuft of longer setae on outer face of the 
inner dististyle, and the differently constructed gonapophyses 
with more abundant armature. All of these species differ 
further in the length and structure of the antennae. 
Limonia (Dicranomyia) broweriana n. sp. 

Allied to magnicauda; general coloration of thorax brown- 
ish yellow, the praescutum with a very conspicuous blackened 
median stripe ; antennae black throughout ; wings with a faint 
yellow tinge, the stigma only slightly indicated ; male hypopy- 
gium very large and complicated in structure ; ninth tergite 
subcordate in outline, the caudal margin truncate ; both the 
basistyle and ventral dististyle greatly complicated by lobes 
and outgrowths. 

$ . Length about 8 mm. ; wing 7.4 mm. 9 . Length about 
8 mm. ; wing 7.5 mm. 

Rostrum brownish black; palpi black. Antennae black 
throughout ; ilagellar segments oval, the outer segments a little 
more elongate; terminal segment (male) a trifle longer than 
the penultimate; verticils short. Head dark brown. 

Pronotum brownish black medially, paler on sides. Meso- 
notal praescutum brownish yellow pollinose, with a very con- 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u b', '41 

spicuous blackened median stripe and inconspicuous brownish 
lateral areas, all of these in some cases more or less confluent 
on the posterior portion of sclerite ; posterior sclerites of notum 
chiefly pale, the scutellum and median area of scutum faintly 
pruinose ; scutal lobes weakly darkened. Pleura brownish 
yellow pollinose, the ventral sternopleurite a trifle darkened. 
Halteres relatively short, stem yellow, knob dark brown. 

Legs with the coxae and trochanters yellow ; remainder of 
legs dark brown, the femoral bases yellow. 

Wings with a faint yellow tinge, the stigma only slightly 
differentiated ; prearcular field clearer yellow ; veins brown, 
flavous in the basal area. Venation : Sc variable in length, 
Sci ending shortly before to just beyond the origin of Rs, 
Sco slightly removed from its tip, Sci alone subequal to m-cu ; 
vein 2nd A gently sinuous. 

Abdominal tergites dark brown, the extreme caudal margins 
pale ; sternites obscure brownish yellow to pale brown, with 
the pale caudal borders somewhat wider and more conspicuous. 
Male hypopygium very large and conspicuous, the most so of 
any of the described Nearctic species of the subgenus. Ninth 
tergite very large, subcordate in outline, narrowed behind, the 
length and greatest width subequal ; caudal margin of tergite 
truncate, with numerous setae. Basistyle of moderate size, the 
ventromesal lobe large and very complicated by lobules and 
outgrowths, including one arm that is conspicuously but un- 
equally bifid, the lower branch being only about one-half as 
long as the more clavate upper branch ; besides this arm, the 
lobe is produced into an even larger and longer blade that 
gradually narrows to the pale obtuse apex. Dorsal dististyle 
a small, sickle-shaped rod. Ventral dististyle with the main 
body small and pale, the base and rostral prolongation more 
sclerotized and very complex ; from base of style extends a 
long, gently curved blackened arm, the tip expanded and further 
produced at apex into a small digitiform lobule; rostral pro- 
longation very complex, beyond the two subequal spines widened 
and bilobed, the upper lobe longer and terminating in a re- 
curved spinous point ; lower lobe broader and more obtuse. 
Gonapophyses with mesal-apical lobe small but slender, gently 
curved. 

Habitat. MAINE. Holotypc : $ , Richardson Lake, near 
Oquassoc, Oxford County, August 24, 1940 (A. E. Brower). 
Allotopotypc : 9 . 

This striking crane-fly is named in honor of Dr. A. E. 



Hi, '41 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS l f ->5 

Brower, to whom I am very greatly indebted for many inter- 
esting Tipulidae from Maine and from interior Gaspe. The 
nearest ally is Limonia (Dicranomyia) magnicauda (Lund- 
strom) of northern Europe. While both species agree in the 
great size of the male hypopygium and in the general structures 
of the same, yet all details of the tergite and the various lobes 
of the basistyle and ventral clististyle are distinct in the two 
flies. 
Dicranoptycha tennessa n. sp. 

General coloration brownish gray, the praescutum with a 
slightly darker median stripe ; antennae with scape brownish 
black ; pleura light gray, the anepisternum and ventral sterno- 
pleurite darkened ; legs obscure yellow, the femora with the 
tips rather narrowly infuscated ; wings with costal fringe 
(male) unusually long and conspicuous; abdominal tergites 
brown, sternites yellow, a black subterminal ring ; hypopygium 
yellow ; male hypopygium with the outer dististyle unusually 
broad and flattened, terminating in a short blackened point ; 
surface of style before apex weakly roughened ; aedeagus un- 
usually broad and flattened. 

$ . Length about 9 mm. ; wing 8.5 mm. 9 . Length about 
10 mm. ; wing 9.5 mm. 

Rostrum black, sparsely pruinose ; palpi black. Antennae 
with scape brownish black, pedicel brownish yellow, flagellum 
brownish black. Head gray, provided with long conspicuous 
black setae. 

Pronotum brownish gray. Mesonotal praescutum brownish 
gray, with a more or less distinct, darker brown, median stripe, 
the lateral stripes less evident ; posterior sclerites of notum 
grayish pruinose. Pleura light gray, more darkened on the 
anepisternum and ventral sternopleurite. Halteres relatively 
elongate, yellow. 

Legs with the coxae testaceous yellow ; trochanters yellow ; 
femora obscure yellow, the tips rather narrowly but evidently 
infuscated, the amount subequal on all legs; tibiae and basitarsi 
obscure yellow ; outer tarsal segments blackened. 

Wings with a yellowish tinge; veins brown. Costal fringe 
of male unusually long and conspicuous. Venation: Rs rela- 
tively short, only about one-fifth longer than the basal section 
of R i+5 and much shorter than cell 1st l\f, the latter relatively 
small; m-cu nearly its own length beyond the fork of M. 

Abdominal tergites brown ; sternites yellow, the subterminal 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jul>', '41 

segments black ; hypopygium yellow. Male hypopygium with 
the tergal arms relatively short, expanded into broad blades, 
their apices obtuse. Outer dististyle unusually broad and flat- 
tened, terminating in a short blackened point; surface of style 
before apex weakly roughened ; base of style with abundant 
short pale setulae. Inner dististyle relatively short, not or 
scarcely constricted before apex. Aedeagus unusually broad 
and flattened, more so than in mcgapliallus or sobrina. 

Habitat. TENNESSEE. Holotype : $ , Knoxville, June 10, 
1939 (Arthur C. Cole). Allotopotype, ?, pinned with type. 

This interesting fly was included in extensive series of 
Tipulidae from the Great Smoky Mountains, received from my 
friend, Dr. Arthur C. Cole, to whom I am greatly indebted for 
many favors. The species is allied to Dicranoptycha sobrina 
Osten Sacken and probably has been confused with this in col- 
lections. Both species have the costal fringe of the male long 
and very conspicuous. The present fly has the darkened apices 
of all femora subequal in amount and has a very different male 
hypopygium, with both the outer dististyle and aedeagus un- 
usually broad and flattened. 



District of Columbia Butterfly Notes (Lepidoptera : 

Rhopalocera). 

By WARREN HERBERT WAGNER, JR., Washington, D. C. 

In "The Butterflies of the District of Columbia and Vicinity" 
(U. S. Nat. Mus. Bulletin 157), Mr. Austin H. Clark listed 92 
species and subspecies from the area covered. Forty-five addi- 
tional species were listed in an appendix as possibly occurring 
as very local residents or casuals. 

Since the publication of this list 10 species have been added 
to the District fauna. Of these, 7 were given in the appendix, 
2 were not mentioned in the appendix, and one (Thorybes 
confusis) had been earlier recorded from the District by Mr. 
E. L. Bell but the record had been overlooked by Mr. Clark. 
These ten species are: Lycaena thoc (Guerin), Strytnon lip- 
arops strigosa Harris, Eurema jucunda Boisduval and LeConte, 



lii, '41 | ENTOMOLOGICAL XE\VS I'*/ 



palauicdcs Drury. fcrynnis zanicco Lucas, Tliorybcs 
con fusts Bell, Hcspcria we tea (Sctidder), Atrytouc biumcitla 
Grote and Robinson, Poancs aaroui Skinner, I.crodca ciifalu 
(Edwards). 

Of these 10 species Mr. Clark secured .-I fry tone bimacula; 
Poancs iiaronl was recorded from a specimen taken many years 
ago by Mr. Eugene M. Aaron; Thorybcs confusis was earlier 
recorded by Mr. Bell and has been taken both by Mr. Clark and 
myself; and I had the good fortune to secure the other seven. 

In addition to these Mr. Clark has taken Papilio philcnor \. 
(icuitda in nearby Maryland and Lycacna plilacas hypophlaeas 
ab. fitlliolus in nearby Virginia: Mr. Gilbert Vobst has taken 
Vanessa viri/inicnsis ab. ahwaslitcc in the latter place and I 
have taken several specimens of Pliycimics tliaros ab. dyari in 
Washington. 

These additions to the District list, with the exception of 
the last two have been briefly noted by Mr. Clark. I have, 
however, some supplementary notes on these and other species 
in the District of Columbia area which seem to be worthy of 
publication. For helping me I should like to acknowledge the 
\Yashington naturalists for their assistance and Dr. R. G. 
Schmieder of the University of Pennsylvania for his sugges- 
tions. Most of all I am indebted to Mr. Clark for his patient 
assistance in every way and for contributing introductory 
material. The nomenclature used is that of McDunnough's 
1938 Check List of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United 
States with two exceptions. 

SATYRODKS EURYDICE (Johannsen). There is a partial sec- 
ond brood in the Washington area. Mr. Shoemaker found it 
here in September and I have seen it a few times at Hyatts- 
ville, Maryland, in late September and I have one taken 
September 19, 1936, along Difficult Run near Tyson's Corner, 
Fairfax County, Virginia. 

MINOIS ALOPE (Fabricius). In Washington, those speci- 
mens without the lower eye-spot on the fore wings above, which 
are like the large southern subspecies pcgala, are merely vari- 
ants of f. maritima. However, those specimens that are found 



198 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J u b' '"H 

along the Chesapeake Bay salt marshes in Maryland east of 
Washington are larger and much closer to typical pcgala. 

POLYGONIA INTERROGATIONS (Fabricius). The winter form 
(fabncii) and the summer form (iimbrosa) are occasionally 
found out of season. It is interesting to note that in 1935, 
Wayne K. Hill and I found a number of the summer form in 
early May and I took a badly worn one in Rock Creek Park, 
May 28. At the last place I took the winter form on July 21, 
1935. 

PRECIS COENIA (Hubner). The wet form appeared in 
1933-34-35, late in the season in great numbers at MacMillan 
Park in Washington. The reddish underside varies from 

bluish to almost entirely dark brown in some individuals. 
ASTEROCAMPA CLYTON ( Boisduval and LeConte). Although 

they are sometimes found together, when alone clyton occurs 
in dry open places around hackberries and ccltis flies usually 
in deep woods. In the Soldiers Home Grounds in Washington 
clyton occurs alone. The first brood lasts from the end of the 
second week in June until the first week in July. July 10, 
1934, was an unusually late capture. The second brood starts 
the middle of August and flies until late September. Two 
chrysalids in my series are dated September 20, 1934. The 
color ranges from very light to very dark. On August 28, 
1938, I watched an old male court a fresh female. It took him 
about thirty minutes to rout three other males. The female 
repulsed him by quick darts for fifteen minutes and then they 
suddenly mated. The female carries the male in flight. The 
ceremony took place around the bottom branches of a cherry 
tree about ten feet above the ground. Clyton is found also at 
Camp Letts, Fair Haven, and Fort Washington in Maryland. 
PHYCIODES THAROS (Drury). Because of its great abund- 
ance aberrations are frequently found. Specimens with slightly 
fused markings are found in both broods and the markings 
come together in many different combinations. Melanism is 
frequent and the melanistic aberration dyari Gunder has been 
found several times in and near Washington. Males seem 
attracted to the females of this coloration as much as the fe- 
males of normal markings. 



Hi, '41 | ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 199 

ARGYNNIS APHRODITE Fabricius. Two males; a fresh one 
lacking the usual reddish tinge taken in Washington, June 8, 
1938, and an old broken one from Beltsville, Maryland, on 
July 2, 1938; indicate that at least some males appear before 
the middle of June instead of the first of July. 

VANESSA VIRGINIENSIS (Drury). A specimen of the aber- 
ration ahwashtec Fox was taken by Mr. Gilbert Yobst along 
Scotts Run, Fairfax County, Virginia, in May, 1936. The 
ground color of the hind wings underneath is snow white and 
all of the markings are slightly blurred. 

LIBYTHEA BACHMANII Kirtland. The Snout Butterfly is 
more common in the region along Chesapeake Bay in Maryland 
to the east of Washington, but it varies tremendously in num- 
bers. In 1932, it was exceedingly abundant at Camp Letts, 
near Beverley Beach, Maryland, but only of infrequent occur- 
rence since. During 1933-34-35, chrysalid skins were found on 
hackberries in the Soldiers Home Grounds around the bottom 
branches near the trunks. 

STRYMON FALACER (Godart). In certain very restricted 
localities this hairstreak is abundant for a limited period. 
Sunny glades in dry oak woods (often with much pine) form 
the playgrounds for the males. Beside chasing one another 
I have seen them pursue Achalarus lyciadcs, Epargyrcus titynis 
and Thorybcs species. Males appear the first week in June 
and remain in their woods until after the middle of June 
when they start wandering out into the open fields. It was 
found at Widewater, Beltsville and Muikirk, in Maryland, and 
in the Soldiers Home, Catholic University Grounds and in 
woods east of 16th Street, N. W., near the District line. Some 
specimens found showed a decided breaking up of the band on 
the underside approaching .5". cdu-ardsi. 

S. LIPAROPS STRIGOSA Harris. Only one has been found : 
this was a female taken June 10, 1935. on Aster flowers near 
the bog at Hyattsville, Maryland. 

S. TITUS MOPSUS Hiibner. This hairstreak is also more 
common than previously supposed. The Catholic University 
Grounds and the bog at Hyattsville, Maryland, are the locali- 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS tJ u l v - '41 

ties where it is most common. The males select brushy knolls 
of dry grassy hills for their playgrounds and they are very 
pugnacious. Orange and Red Milkweeds are its favorite flow- 
ers. My earliest date is June 13, 1936, at Camp Letts, Mary- 
land and it becomes rare after the middle of July. It is never 
found in the woods but rather in open country. Dwarfs are 
occasional in both sexes. 

INCISALIA HENRICI (Grote and Robinson). This is one of 
our earliest appearing butterflies. I have a male taken March 
30, 1935, at Cabin John, Maryland. It also occurs at Hyatts- 
ville, and near the Powdermill Bogs along Paint Branch, in 
Maryland and in woods west of 16th Street, N. W., near the 
District line. 

FENISECA TARQUINIUS (Fabricius). On June 11, 1939, this 
butterfly was common on elms along Morningside Drive, N. 
W., in Washington. The elms were infested with aphids and 
I suspect that these were the food. Its usual haunt is along 
streams. 

LYCAENA THOE (Guerin). In 1934, I took an old female 
in a dry field in the Soldiers Home Grounds on June 15 and a 
perfectly fresh male in the Beltsville, Maryland Bog on July 
22. This extends the known range on the Eastern Seaboard 
considerably southward. 

PHOEBIS SENNAE EUBELE (Linnaeus). Spring records are 
a female taken by Mr. Wayne K. Hill, May 11, 1935, at Cabin 
John, Maryland, and a male that I took in April, 1933, at 
Terra Cotta in the District. Both are somewhat old specimens. 
A female taken in August, 1939, at Camp Letts, Maryland, 
(where cubclc is much more common) is very pale yellow show- 
ing an approach to f. pall id a. 

EUREMA NICIPPE (Cramer). A male taken March 21, 1938, 
in downtown Washington and a female taken April 27, 1935, 
at Cabin John, Maryland, are the only spring records for this 
area. 

(To be continued.) 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 201 

Notes on Some Cuculliinae (Phalaenidae, 
Lepidoptera) I. 

By J. G. FRANCI-KAIOXT, Ithaca, Xru York. 

MNIOTYPE nom. nov. 

Genotype: Hudena ducta Grote=Mniotype ducta (Grote). 

This name is proposed to replace iCrino Hampson, Cat. Lep. 
Phal. B. M., vi, 321, 1906. nee \\Crino Hiibner Samml. exot. 
Schmett., ii, plate (197), 1821 [nee Crluo Lamarck in Yirey, 
Journ. de Phys., iv, 429. 1798]. Hampson erred in that he 
credited the type of Crino, summer!, to Lefehure. Sommeri 
Lef., a noctuid, was clescrihed in 1836, fifteen years after 
Hiibner described his genus Crino, which included one specks 
sommeri ?lubner, a notodontid ! ."Nevertheless Hiil)iier's generic 
name Crino is preoccupied by Crino Lamarck, so Tarsolepis 
Butler will be, as it has been, used for sommeri Hbn. and its 
allies. 

Mniotype will include all the species listed under Crino in 
McDunnough's Checklist, page 84, 1938, and the Eurasian 
species, adust a Esp., satitra Schiff. and related forms. 
SERICAGLAEA gen. nov. 

Genotype : Ortliositi signata French=Sericaglaea siynuta 
(French). 

Proboscis well developed; palpi short, porrect. clothed with 
scales and long hair, the third segment drooping, inconspicuous, 
hidden in the hair of the second; eyes moderate and rounded; 
antennal scape without lashes, antennae of male simple, minutely 
ciliate; thorax clothed with hair, no anterior or posterior crests; 
forelegs with the first tarsal segment bearing 6 to 7 moderately 
long slender spines, distinctly longer than those on succeeding 
segments of the same leg. the femora and tibiae of all legs 
fringed with long hair; abdomen very much flattened, fringed 
with very evident lateral and anal tufts, no dorsal tufts, 
clothed on the dorsum with scales and hair; fore wing with the 
costa evenly curved, the apex blunt and rounded. 

Male genitalia symmetrical: uncus simple, long and curved; 
tegumen broad uilh i\\n expanded ba-al lobe-.; vinculum 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July, '41 

moderate, long; harpes with a distinct pollex and long curved 
clasper ; corona slight ; aedoeagus moderate, vesica with a 
long spine, which" possesses a bulbous base, and with a large 
group of micro-chaetae. 

This genus differs from Epiglaca, Harpaglaca and Pscctra- 
glaca by the absence of the conspicuous, sharp frontal tuft and 
from the latter two genera also by the lighter spination of the 
first fore tarsal segment. It differs from Mcia.vaglaca, in 
which I placed the sole species when describing that genus, 
first, by the palpi, which have the third segment drooping and 
hidden in the hair of the second, while Mcta.vaglaca has the 
third segment of the palpi visible and porrect ; second, by the 
cut of the fore wings, those of Mcta.raglaea having the apex 
distinctly more acute ; third, in that the species of Sericaglaca 
hibernates as an adult, while the two species of Meta.vaglaca 
oviposit in the fall, shortly after emerging. Since the author 
feels that a genus should, besides being structurally a unit, be 
fundamentally also a biological unit, he believes that this last 
difference is as valid as a difference of structure. The geni- 
talia approach those of Pscctraglaca, differing mainly in that 
the aforementioned genus entirely lacks a corona ; from Metaxa- 
glaea, they differ in the well developed clasper, the slight corona 
and the shorter and stockier harpes (valves). 

Included species: Sericaglaca signata( French.) 

PYREFERRA HESPERIDAGO (Guenee). 

Hoporina hcspcridago Guenee, Spec. Gen. Lep., vii (Noct. 
iii). 393, 1852. 

Xanthia indirecta Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. B. M., x, 468, 
1856 (New synonymy!) 

Scopclosoma gracfiana Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc., ii, 
69, 1874. 

Scopclosoma moffatiana Grote, Bull. U. S. Geol. & Geog. 
Surv., vi, 583, 1882. 

Guenee described Hoporina hcspcridago from an unpub- 
lished Abbot drawing, which is without a doubt the species that 
has been called Pyreferra indirecta Wlk. by McDunnough in 
his 1938 Checklist and Conistra indirecta by other workers 
following Hampson. Guenee's description is repeated here to 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NKWS 203 

make it available to those persons to -whom the above work is 
inacessible, and it amply bears out my contention as to the 
identity of the species in question. 

"38 mm. Ailes super, coupees carrement, comme chez cro- 
ccago, d'un fauve-orange, nuance cle jaune-safrane et de rouge, 
avec quatre lignes d'un rouge-brique. presque paralleles et 
presque egalemant ecartees : 1'extrabasilaire et la subtermina! 
un peu ondees ; le coudee et 1'ombre mediane presque droites : 
la premiere ne formant un coude que pres de la cote ; la seconde 
lineaire et separant les deux taches ordinaires : 1'orbiculaire 
annulaire et rouge; la reniforme indiquee seulement par le 
point noir du base. Ailes infer, d'un blanc-jaunatre, avec 
deux lignes fine, paralleles et non ondees et un lisere terminal 
rougeatres." 

The types of indirect a and t/racfiunu are in the British Mu- 
seum, and Mr. \V. H. T. Tarns assures me that they are one 
species ; as such they are referrable to hesperidago. The type 
of moffatiana is in the United States National Museum and is 
likewise referrable here. 

The last mention of hcsf>crida(jo in American entomological 
literature appears to have been by Grote in his 1875 Checklist 
of the Noctuidae of America, North of Mexico, page 14, foot- 
note 16 : following this the name has been ignored by all 
workers in the Noctuidae. 
Pyreferra citrombra n. sp. 

Head russet ochre intermingled with dark hairs ; thorax 
ochre brown, collar darker, patagia with a dark russet brown 
line across the tip. Abdomen pale creamy yellow, the lateral 
and anal tufts concolorous. 

Forewings ochreous, very heavily irrorate with varying de- 
grees of russet fuscous, with an evident silken sheen ; the basal 
half-line straight, dark russet fuscous with a pale shade on the 
outer side ; antemedial line absolutely straight, orange russet 
in color with a pale shade on the inner side ; the median shade 
straight, of the same color as the antemedial line, with a pale 
shade on the inner side, not as noticeable as that of the antemed- 
ial line; the postmedial line angled sharply outward from below 
costa, then oblique and straight to inner margin, of the same 
color as the antemedial line and the median shade, with a dis- 
tinct pale shade on the inner side; the four aforementioned 
lines almost parallel ; subterminal line- vague, irregular, with a 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [July. '41 

pale shade on the inner side; terminal line lunulate, dark 
blackish brown ; the fringe concolorous with the general tone 
of the wing; orbicular rather inconspicuous, small and round; 
reniform constricted at middle on outer side, the inner side 
resting on the median shade ; both ordinary spots ringed by 
orange russet scales; reniform with a few dark scales in base. 

Hindwings pale creamy yellow, with a very evident silken 
sheen ; postmedial line pale reddish russet, parallel to the outer 
margin ; terminal line lunulate of the same color as the post- 
medial line ; fringe concolorous with the general tone of the 
wings. Beiow, the fore and hind wings creamy white with a 
silken sheen ; a common postmedial line of reddish russet, 
crossing both wings, following the same course as that on the 
upper side ; terminal line of both wings lunulate, dark reddish 
russet; hind wings with faint discal spots. Expanse: 28-35 
mm. 

$ genitalia somewhat asymetrical ; the uncus short and 
broad ; the tegumen broad ; the vinculum long and moderate ; 
valves assymetrical, especially at the apex, the left valve 
stouter than the right, corona absent, represented by a few 
hairs, claspers moderately long and irregularly bent ; aedoeagus 
moderately long and stout, the vesica armed only with very 
minute spinules. 

Holotype: $, Ithaca, NEW YORK, Sept. 22, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), [in Coll. FranclemontJ. Allotype: ?, Ithaca, 
NEW YORK, Oct. 2, 1940 (J. G. Franclemont), [in Coll. 
Franclemont]. Paratypcs all from New York: 23 $ $ , 
339 9, Ithaca, Sept.-April (J. G. Franclemont), 4$ $ 
3 9 $ , McLean Bogs Reserve, Tompkins County, Oct.-Apr. 
(J. G. Franclemont), [in Coll. Franclemont] ; 16 $ $ , 26$ 9, 
Horseheads, Oct.-Apr. ( L. R. Rupert), [29 in coll. Rupert, 13 
in Coll. Franclemont]; 1 <5 , Sardinia, Oct., (L. R. Rupert), 
[in Coll. Rupert]; 9$ $, 3$ $, Ithaca, Oct.-Apr. (Various 
Collectors), [in Cornell Univ. Coll.]. 

This species differs from ccromatica and pcttiti by the dark 
ordinary lines contrasting with the ground color and by the 
lack of evident dark points on the veins on the outside of the 
postmedial line, and further from ccromatica by its very light 
color, that of ccromatica being deep vinous red, it is also con- 
siderably yellower than pcttiti, which is rather bright orange. 
From hesperidago Gn. dndii-fctn \Vlk.j, ilu- dust-st species 



lii. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 205 

superficially, it differs, first, in its paler color, hesperidago 
being bright fiery orange; second, the ordinary lines (except 
the basal) are straighter and preceded on their inner sides by 
pale shades ; third, the hindwings are also much paler, lacking 
the orange tint of hesperidago. 

The male genitalia differ from licspcridago and ccromatica 
in that they lack a pollex on the left valve, and from pcttiti, 
which they most nearly resemble, in that they have a narrower 
uncus, broader claspers, broader apices to the valves and a 
generally larger size. 

This is the species that has erroneously been identified as 
gracfiana Grt. and is figured as such by Barnes and McDun- 
nough, Contrib. Nat. Hist. Nat. Lep. N. Am., iv (2), pi. xv. 
fig. 16, 1918, but it cannot conceivably be that species, as the 
type of gracfiana is in the British Museum, and is equal to 
hesperidago Gn. (indirccta Wlk.). I cannot agree with the 
two aforementioned authors that this type is spurious. Since 
no other type has turned up, as they suggested might 1 , when 
they discussed the matter in the Contributions, iv (2), pp. 
102-103, 1918, I feel that the type in the British Museum is 
unquestionably the real one. I am inclined to believe, more- 
over, that they have misinterpreted the original description ; 
Grote definitely says, "Yellowish, powdered with deep orange," 
and the species under discussion is never that color, whether 
it be from the fall or the spring; then too, he says that the 
hind wings have a distinct orange cast, leaving the costal 
region free ; this species has no such orange cast, the costal 
region being of the same pale yellow color as the disk of the 
wing. As one carefully considers the original description of 
gracfiana point by point with specimens of both species before 
him, only one conclusion can be reached, that gracfiana is a 
synonym of hesperidago (indirccta}. 

1 In a letter of October 20, 1938, Mr. J. F. Gates Clarke of the United 
States National Museum has assured me that no type or specimen that 
might possibly be the type of gracfiana Grt. was obtained with the 
Brooklyn Museum collection, which contained the Graef Collection. It 
was in this latter collection that Barnes and McDunnough thought an- 
other type might be found. 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J"1.V> '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Alexander, C. P. Frederick Wallace Ed- 
wards. [4] 73: 94-95. Bohart & Stabler. Winter insect 
collecting in Mexico. [55] 17: 96. Davis, W. T. Charles 
W. Leng and the Brooklyn Entomological Society. [19] 
36: 45-49, ill. Essig, E. O. Charles William Woodworth. 
February, 1941. 2 pp., ill. The University of California 
Entomological Society and The Entomologist's Daily Post 
Card. [55] 17: 73-74. Felt & Bromley. Major shade tree 
insects of 1940. [12] 34: 180-181. Frost, S. W. Trans- 
parencies for certain insect and plant materials. [12] 34: 
319, ill. Mengel, Levi W. In Memoriam. Reading Public 
Museum and Art Gallery. 1941. 23 pp., ill. de la Torre- 
Bueno, J. R. Edward Payson van Duzee. An apprecia- 
tion. [19] 36: 80-81. Casting up accounts. Directed to 
authors. [19] 36: 93. Usinger, R. L. Obituary. [55] 17: 
84. Wade & Hyslop. Obituary notice of Samuel Hen- 
shaw. [10] 43: 108-110. Zerny, H. Hans Rebel. [64] 25: 
113-115, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Beall, G. The 

study of the effect of temperature upon pupation. [Cana- 
dian Jour. Res.] 19: 177-184. Headlee, T. J. Further 
studies of the relative effects on insect metabolism of tem- 
peratures derived from constant and variable sources. [12] 
34: 171-174. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 2< >7 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Archer, A. F.- 

The Argiopidae or orb-weaving- spiders of Alabama. [Ala. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.] Mus. Pap. 14: 77 pp.. ill. Chamberlin, 
R. V. On five new polydesmid millipeds from Mexico. 
1 95 J 54: 63-66, ill. Loomis, H. F. Millipeds collected in 
Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic by Dr. P. |. 
Darlington in 1938. [Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 88: 17-80, ill. 
New genera and species of millipeds from the southern 
peninsula of Haiti. [Jour. Washington Acad. Sci.] 31 : 188- 
195. ill. Lundblad, O. Weitere neue wassermilben atis 
Brasilien und Paraguay. [28] 62: 122-126. Stiles & Stevens. 
Studies of eastern Iowa spiders. [Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.| 
47: 333-342. Verhoeff, K. W. Zur vergleichenden mor- 
phologic der Colobognathen. [Arch. Naturg. N. F.J 9: 
501-511, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Claassen, 
P. W. A catalogue of the Plecoptera of the World. 
[Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta.] Mem. 232: 235 pp. Craw- 
ford, J. C. The genus Zonothrips in North America. [10] 
43: 105-107, ill. Eichler, W. \Virtsspezifitat und stam- 
mesgeschichtliche gleichlaufigkeit bei parasiten im allge- 
meinen und bei Mallophagen im besonderen |34] 132: 254- 
262. Hanson, J. F. Studies on the Plecoptera of North 
America. [ 19] 36: 57-66, ill. (*k). Hubbard, C. A.- 
Ectoparasites of western Lagomorpha. [Pacific Univ. Bull.] 
37: 8 pp.. ill. A review of the western fleas of the genus 
Malaraeus with one new species and the description of a 
new Thrassis from Nevada. [Pacific Univ. Bull.] 37: 4 pp., 
ill. Wilson, F. H. The slender lice of American pigeons 
and doves with descriptions of two new species. [Jour. 
Parasit.] 27: 259-264, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Giinther, K. Ueber die verbreitung 
einiger insekten um gebiete des Amazonenstromes und die 
frage eines columbischen faunendistriktes in der brasilian- 
ischen subregion. [Arch. Naturg. N. F.] 9: 450-500, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Barber, H. G. A new species of 
Tibraca, injurious to rice in Ecuador (Pentatomid.). [10| 
43: 110-111, ill. Drews, E. A. Aphididae of Nevada with 
a new genus and species. [55] 17: 59-61, ill. Knight, H. H. 
-New species of Irbisia (Mirid.). [19] 36: 75-79. Mc- 
Connell, H. S. New species of Pseudococcidae. [10] 43: 



208 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [J U "y '41 

93-105, ill. Mazzotti, L. Experimental infection of Haem- 
atosiphon inodora with Trypanosoma cruzi. [19] 36: 67-68. 
Millspaugh, D. D. Preliminary survey and ecological notes 
of Iowa Corixidae. [Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.] 47: 331-332, 
ill. Oman, P. W. Revision of the nearctic Megopthal 
minae (Cicadellid.). [91] 31: 203-210, ill. (k*). Padley, C. 
A list of the leaf hoppers (Cicadellid.) in the Iowa Insect 
Survey Collection [Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.] 47: 393-395. 
Pelaez, D. Un caso de segmentacion anormal asimetrica 
en el abdomen, de una larva de Triatoma. [121] I: 406-408, 
ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Help notes toward a revision 
of the genus Harmostes. [19] 36: 82-92. (k). Usinger, R. 
L. Notes and descriptions of neotropical Triatominae 
(Reduviid.). [55] 17: 49-57, ill. (k). Wood, S. F. Notes? 
on the distribution and habits of reduviid vectors of 
Chagas' disease in the southwestern United States. (Redu- 
viid.). [55] 17: 85-94, cont. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Dampf, A. Nota sobre la biologia 
del Noctuido Antaplaga. [121] I: 454-455, ill. Fletcher, 
T. B. A noctuid larva living in animal tissues. [8] 77: 107. 
Franclemont, J. G. Gluphisia lintneri and related species 
(Notodontid.). [4] 73: 92-94, ill. Maria, H. A. Catalogo 
explicative de las ropaloceras Colombianas del Museo del 
Institute de la Salle. [Rev. Acad. Colombiana Cien., Fis. y 
Nat.] 4: 61-63. Mortimer, M. F. The life history and 
control of the pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Tortri- 
cidae) at Nashville, Tennessee. [Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci.] 16: 
190-206, ill. Newcomb, W. W. Note on the occurrence of 
Oeneis macouni. [19] 36: 56. Richards, A. G. The genus 
Arugisa in the United States, with the description of a new 
species (Phalaenid.). [40] No. 1114: 4 pp., ill. A new- 
species of Metalectra from Florida (Phalaenid.). [40] No. 
1115:2 pp., ill. The noctuid moths of the Galapagos Islands 
from the collections of the Allan Hancock Foundation. 
[Allan Hancock Pac. Exp.] 5: 233-251, ill. The genus 
Bulia in Mexico and Central America. (Phalaenid.). [Allan 
Hancock Pac. Exp.] 5: 255-267, ill. The male genitalia of 
Epipomonia multipunctata (Epipyrop.). [Allan Hancock 
Pac. Exp.] 5: 271-275. ill. Zerny, H. Ueber Caligopsis 
seleucida (Brassol.) [64] 25: 150-152, ill. 

DIPTERA. Aczel, M. Vorarbeiten zu einer mono- 
graphic der Dorylaiden. [34] 132: 149-169. ill. (k*). 



Hi, '41 J ENTOMOI.OCICA1. NKWS 209 

Aitken, T. H. G. A new American subgenus ami species 
of Aedes. (Culicid.). |55j 17: 81-84. Alexander, C. P- 
New nearctic crane-flics ( Tipulidae). |4| 73: 85-90. Bohart, 
G. E. The oviposition of conopid flies upon smaller an- 
drenid bees. | 55 | 17: 95-96. Brookman, B. A new Cali- 
foniian Stenopogon (Asilid.). |55j 17: 78-80. Buddington, 
A. R. The nutrition of mosquito larvae. 1 12J 34: 275-280. 
Curran, C. H. Xew neotropical Tachinidae. |40| No. 
1113: 5 pp. (k). Halvorson & Jaques. A preliminary 
list of the crane flies (Tipulidae) of Iowa. [Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci.] 47: 329-330. Hase, A. - - Parasitologische 
betrachtungen uber pupiparen insbesondere uber crataerina. 
[Zeit. Parasitenkde] 11 : 637-651. ill. MacCreary, D. Com- 
parative density of mosquitoes at ground level and at an 
elevation of approximately one hundred feet. [12] 34: 174- 
179, ill. Ouellet, J. Additions an catalogue des diptrrc- 
du Quebec. [Le Xat. Canadien] 68: 121-141. Reeves, W. 
C. The genus Orthopodomyia in California. [55j 17: 69- 
72. Vargas, L. Xew variety of Anopheles pseudo-puncti- 
pennis (Culicid.). 1 19] 36: 73-74. Wilcox, J. Xew Hetero- 
pogon with a key to the species (Asilid.). [19] 36: 50-56. 

COLEOPTERA. Balthasar, V. - Xeuc Canthidium- 
arten. [Ent. Xachricht.J 13: 111-140. (s) Barber, H. S.- 
Species of fireflies in Jamaica ( Lampyridae). [Proc. Roch- 
ester Acad. Sci.] 8: 48 pp., ill. (k*). Bart, W. F Distri- 
butional notes and new records of Acmaeodera ( Bupresticl. ). 
[55] 17: 62-69. Fiedler, C. Xeue sudamerikanische arten 
der gattung Rhyssomatus (Cryptorhynch.). [Ent. Nach- 
richt.] 13: 81-92. Leech, H. B. The species of Matus, a 
genus of carnivorous water-beetles ( Dytiscicl.). [4] 73: 77- 
83, ill. The male of Hydroporus coelamboides, |4] 73: 96. 
Collecting of the rare water beetle Laccornis difformis by 
the late Ch. Roberts. |4| 73: 96. Malkin, B. A new 
locality for Cantharis cartwrighti. [19] 36: 96. McDun- 
nough, J. A new coleophorid of the metalic-winged group. 
|4| 73: 91, ill. Precht, H. Ein beitrag y.uv biologic der 
triungulinuslarven von Meloe. 1 34 1 132: 245-254, ill. Say- 
lor, L. W. A new Mexican scarab beetle. |95| 54: 67-68. 
Stone, M. W. Life history of the sugar-beet wire worm in 
Southern California. |U. S. Dcpt. Agric.| Tech. P>ull. 744: 
87 ])]>., ill. Uhmann, E. Amerikanische llisiiinen aus dcm 
Berliner Museum. |28| 61: 14-18, ill. Die genotypen der 
von mir anrge>tellten Hispinen-gattungen. |28| (>1 : 1-13- 



210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

144. Wright & Whitehouse. Additions to the list of 
Cincinnati Coleoptera. [19] 36: 69-73. 

HYMENOPTERA. Bequaert, J. - - Pseudodynerus, a 

neotropical complex of Eumenine wasps (Vespid.). [40] 
No. 1106: 10 pp., ill. (*k). Bohart, R. M. Yellowjackets 
versus campers. [55] 17: 58. Duran-Moya, L. Die Thyn- 
niden Chiles. [Arch. Naturg. N. F.] 10: 71-176, ill. Gahan, 
A. B. A revision of the parasitic wasps of the genus 
Necremnus (Eulophicl.). [91] 31: 196-203. (k*). Gaul, A. 
T. An unrecorded sleeping habit of Dolichovespula aren- 
aria (Vespid.). [19] 36: 49. Hitchings, J. M. A compar- 
ison in size of pollen baskets of three races of honeybees. 
[Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.] 47: 405-408, ill. Martorell, L. F. 
Biological notes on the sea-grape sawfly, Schizocera 
krugii in Puerto Rico. [Caribbean Forester] 2: 141-143, ill. 
Walley, G. S. A new species of Mirax parasitic on Cop- 
todisca arbutiella (Braconid.). [4] 73: 83-84. 



INSECTS AND THEIR STORIES. By HARRY HOOGSTRAAL with 
camera studies by MELVIN MARTINSON and drawings by Dr. 
CARL O. MOHR. Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1941, 
7^4 inches high x 9?4 inches wide. 144 pages, including 46 
full-page half-tone reproductions of photographs of entire in- 
sects and 38 drawings of whole insects or of parts. $2.00 A 
non-technical account of the form, habits and life-history of 
46 different insects under their common names, grouped in 
five sections : Introduction, Insects of the house, garden, trees 
and woods, in or near the water. The most striking feature 
of the book is the photographic reproductions, but while some 
of these, such as the stink bug, buckeye, cabbage and tiger 
swallow tail butterflies, lacewing, dobson fly and water strider 
are, as the jacket says, "clear," others, such as most (but not 
all) of the beetles, the honeybee, hornet and thread-waisted 
wasp, are cloudy or indistinct, owing to the lack of contrast 
with the background or to faulty focussing. Prof C. L. Met- 
calf, of the Department of Entomology, University of Illinois 
(where Mr. Hoogstraal is a graduate student) writes the fore- 
word. At the end is an "Index and guide to recognition of 
insects . . . arranged according to orders" and an alphabetical 
index. P. P. CALVERT, 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



OCTOBER, 1941 rev. 

IATI 
Vol. LII No. 8 



CONTENTS 

Richards A Stenogamic Autogenous Strain of Culex pipiens L. in 

North America (Diptera: Culicidae) 211 

Williams A List of Butterflies Which May be Found Within 50 Miles 

of Philadelphia. (Lepid.: Rhopalocera) 217 

Clark The Genus Colias in North America (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). 220 
Gillespie Some Unusual Dragonfly Records from New Jersey (Odo- 

nataj 225 

Fisher A Zippered Sweeping Net 226 

Robinson Notes on Some Rare Scarabaeidae with the Description of 

One New Species. (Coleoptera) 227 

Tabanidae of Panama (Diptera) 232 

Current Entomological Literature 233 

Review Ferris's Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America . . 23 

Review Macy and Shepard's Butterflies 239 

Review Cotton's Insect Pests of Stored Grain and Grain Products, 

Indentification, Habits and Methods of Control 239 

Obituary Professor Myron Harmon Swenk 240 

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EiNTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

VOL. LII OCTOBER 1941 No 8. 

A Stenogamic Autogenous Strain of Culex pipiens 
L. in North America (Diptera: Culicidae). 

By A. GLENN RICHARDS, Jr., Zoological Laboratory, 
University of Pennsylvania. 

This preliminary note is to call attention to the fact that the 
Culex pipiens complex in the eastern United States shows a 
differentiation similar to that shown by this complex in 
Europe. There it is the only known genetically diverse species 
or species group of the subfamily Culicinae. However, the 
problem of anopheline races has recently received attention in 
this hemisphere (Hoffman, 1936; King, 1939; Hinman, 1940; 
de Leon, 1940; Vargas, 1941) following the extensive work 
on the European Anopheles maculipennis complex (see Hack- 
ett, 1937; Bates, 1940). 

During the past two years I have used for histological and 
other purposes a strain of Culc.v pipicns that apparently es- 
tablished itself in the vivarium of our laboratory years ago. 
This strain breeds there unattended and maintains itself by 
breeding continuously during all seasons of the year ( Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania). Using Roubaud's terminology, this 
strain is autogenous, i. c., can breed without taking a blood 
meal, stenogamic, i. e., mates readily in a confined space, and 
homodynamic, i. c., does not have a true winter diapause al- 
though it may hibernate under adverse conditions. In con- 
trast to this strain, there is another strain, also present in the 
eastern United States, which usually requires a blood meal 
(non-autogenous or anautogenous ) , and does not mate in a 
small space (eurygamic). Xo data are available on the ques- 
tion of whether or not this anautogenous eurygamic strain ha- 
an obligatory diapause (/'. e. is heterodynamic). 

211 



007 



212 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

In my laboratory, specimens emerged in small covered 
aquaria on six different occasions ; and left undisturbed they 
laid viable egg rafts. In one case three successive generations 
were obtained without any special feeding for adults or larvae 
and without renewal of the water. In the other cases only one 
generation was produced, but it is to be noted that the rearing 
was in clear vivarium water without the added nourishment 
usually given larvae to speed their development and increase 
egg-laying. The number of eggs per raft was rather low 
(30-115, average about 65), and egg-laying did not take place 
until 5-8 days after emergence. 

Observations in our vivarium where the adults fly around 
the room indicate that the same occurs there. The hundreds 
of egg rafts that have been seen in the vivarium tanks during 
these two years have all been relatively small, whereas en- 
gorged autogenous and engorged anautogenous females both 
are recorded as laying considerably larger rafts ( 150-300 or 
more eggs). Hundreds of adult females have been observed 
loose in the laboratory and in the vivarium ; no specimen ob- 
viously engorged with blood has been seen and 25 randomly 
captured females on being dissected showed no visible evidence 
of blood. Finally, although various persons are around the 
vivarium during the evening, as well as during the day, I have 
heard only one report of the mosquitoes attempting to bite 
during the winter and early spring (during summer months 
there is an influx from out-of-doors). 

The preceding observations established the autogenous char- 
acter of this line. I must add that not all females lay eggs 
although some did in every batch tested. In the three aquaria 
that were set-up specifically to observe this (at different times), 
there were never as many egg rafts as there were females. 
Also, in one of the six cases treated some of the egg rafts 
were non-viable, presumably having been laid by virgin females 
(it is well known that eggs from virgin female mosquitoes 
are not viable). This agrees with European data which shows 
40-86% of the females of autogenous lines capable of laying 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 213 

eggs (only 46-94% lay eggs if allowed to engorge with blood) 
(Tate & Vincent, 1936). 

The data cited for the autogenous characteristic also in- 
dicate ability to mate in confinement (stenogamy). In addi- 
tion to this presumptive evidence, pairs have been seen 
copulating on the sides of the aquaria during the daytime on a 
number of occasions. In the observed cases the male was 
resting on the side of the container and the female seemed to 
be the aggressor since she flew around the male and eventually 
came to rest on top of him. Copulation ensued, the male ap- 
pearing passive throughout the entire performance. Mating 
has been observed in a round jar with an air-space of approxi- 
mately 6^4 x 6 inches (200 cu. in.), and judging from viable 
egg rafts must have occurred in a round jar of approximately 
5x5 inches (115 cu. in.). 

For the third character (homodynamic development), there 
is obviously no seasonal interruption in our moderately heated 
vivarium. In our unheated frog room adults continue activity 
until ice is present out-of-doors and larvae continue to develop 
in spite of some ice in the aquaria each night. On warmer 
days pupation occurs. The winter temperature of this room 
is too low for adult activity, and only the one brood of larvae 
occurs after the appearance of ice during the night. 

I accidentally discovered another interesting feature of this 
strain, namely its lack of phototropism. Adults are not at- 
tracted to lights in the laboratory, and while they usually rest 
in the darker damp places, they commonly fly around during 
the day. In January, 1941, I gave some hundreds of larvae 
and pupae to Mr. H. B. Weiss for use in his studies on light 
reactions. Mr. Weiss writes that he tested 64 adults in three 
different trials several days after emergence and that they 
failed to react either positively or negatively to different wave 
lengths of light (for his technique see Weiss, Soraci & McCoy, 
1941). This contrasts with definite reactions obtained by him 
for the yellow-fever mosquito, Acdcs acgypti, but agrees with 
the indifference to light reported by Tate & Vincent (1936) 
for European autogenous strains. 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

The idea of two strains of Culc.r pipicns is also supported 
by field observations made on Long Island, New York. These 
observations taken alone have little or no validity, but are most 
amenable to the idea of two strains existing there. On Long 
Island, larvae of C. pipicns are occasionally found in small 
numbers in water containing some ice. Occasional reports 
come in of winter activity in one case in February, 1941, 
Mr. D. E. Longworth sent me series including as many males 
as females ; yet only females are known to hibernate, so this 
could hardly represent emergence of a diapausing group. 
Aquaria placed on exhibit there during the summers of 1936 
and 1937 sometimes gave adults showing stenogamic auto- 
genous characteristics, but in most cases no egg rafts were pro- 
duced (exhibits at different times and larvae from various 
sources). Light traps used to sample mosquito populations 
usually produced satisfactory samples (positive phototrop- 
ism), but in certain areas produced no C. pipiens, although 
adults were fairly common within the immediate vicinity of 
the trap. This may have been due to the inconsistency of trap- 
light efficiency, but it is also possible that it reflects the absence 
of phototropism found for my autogenous strain by Mr. Weiss 
and recorded for the European strain by Tate & Vincent. 

The presence of autogenous individuals in the United States 
has already been recorded by Mitchell (1907) and Huff (1929) 
but these authors did not recognize the inherited nature of this 
characteristic. In Europe Roubaud (1929-1933), Weyer 
(1935), Tate & Vincent (1936), Marshall & Staley (1935- 
1937), Mathis (1940) and others have shown that the bio- 
logical characteristics are definitely inherited. Claims have 
been made by Roubaud and Weyer that stenogamy versus 
eurygamy and autogeny versus anautogeny are simple Mende- 
lian characters, but this is disclaimed by Tate & Vincent, who 
cite extensive experiments showing that within pure strains the 
characteristics were maintained for the duration of the 49 
generations bred but that cross-breeding results were peculiar 
and certainly not genetically clear. Tate & Vincent also point 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 215 

out that stenogamy is the best of the biological characteristics 
because of the great variability (40-86%) in the expression 
of the autogenous characteristic. 

Marshall & Staley consider the autogenous and anatitoge- 
nous forms in Europe to represent separate species. They 
retain the name C. pipiens L. for the anautogenous form and 
resurrect the name C. molestus Forskal for the autogenous 
form. The situation in this country certainly differs from that 
in England. In structural characters my autogenous strain 
does not agree with the description of C. molestus as given by 
Marshall & Staley. The males, while usually having the first 
four palpal joints somewhat shorter than the proboscis, com- 
monly have longer palpi ; the number of setae on the lobes of 
the ninth abdominal tergite is less (averaging even less than 
in the British anautogenous form), and the number of branches 
in each tuft of the respiratory siphon averages less. From the 
biological point of view, I have seen no indication that our 
anautogenous strain shuns human blood in fact the contrary 
is true. The autogenous strain of this laboratory seldom seeks 
human blood, although autogenous lines at times certainly are 
pests of humans in this country ; in Europe the autogenous 
form is reported as always an avid feeder on humans. It 
seems probable, therefore, that although stenogamic autogen- 
ous and eurygamic anautogenous lines occur in the eastern 
United States, we do not have an exact duplicate of the Euro- 
pean situation. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

BATES, M. 1940. The nomenclature and taxonomic status 
of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipcnnis complex. 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 33: 343-356. 

HACKETT, L. W. 1937. Malaria in Europe. Oxford Univ. 
Press. 

HINMAN, E. H. 1940. The problem of races of Anopheles 
niiadrimaculahts in the United States. VI Congr. Internac. 
Ent. Madrid, 2: 937-942. 

HOFFMAN, C. C. 1936. Algunas palabras acerca de las 
razas americanas del Anopheles maculipcnnis Meigen. Rev. 



216 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

Paras. Clin. Lab., 2: 403-411. 

HUFF, C. G. 1929. Ovulation requirements of Culex 
pipicns Linn. Biol. Bull., 56: 347-350. 

ID. 1935. Natural immunity and susceptibility of culicine 
mosquitoes to avian malaria. Amer. J. Trop. Med., 15: 427- 
434. 

KING, W. V. 1939. Varieties of Anopheles crucians Wied. 
Amer. J. Trop. Med., 19: 461-471. 

DE LEON, J. R. 1940. La formacion de razas en los Ano- 
pheles guatemaltecos. Ciencia, 1 : 349-352. 

MARSHALL, J. F. & STALEY, J. 1935. Some adult and 
larval characteristics of a British "autogenous" strain of Culex 
pipiens L. Parasitology, 27: 501-506. 

ID. 1937. Some notes regarding the morphology and bio- 
logical differentiation of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex 
inolcstus Forskal (Diptera, Culiciclae). Proc. R. ent. Soc. 
London, ser. A, 12: 17-26. 

MATHIS, M. 1940. Biologic d'une souche de Culex pipicns 
autogenicus Roubaud 1933, au cours d'un elevage de vingt 
generations en serie. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 33: 201-207. 

MITCHELL, E. G. 1907. Mosquito Life. Knickerbocker 
Press, New York. 

ROUBAUD, E. 1929. Cycle autogene d'attente et genera- 
tions hivernales suractives inapparentes chez le moustique 
commun, Culex pipicns L. C. R. Acad. Sci., 188: 735-738. 

ID. 1930. Sur 1'existence de races biologique genetique- 
ment distinctes chez le moustique commun, Culex pipiens. C. 
R. Acad. Sci., 191 : 1386-1388. 

ID. 1933. Essai synthetique sur la vie du moustique 
commun (Culex pipiens}. L'evolution humaine et les adapta- 
tions biologiques du mostique. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool., (10) 
16: 5-168. 

TATE, P. & VINCENT, M. 1936. The biology of autogen- 
ous and anautogenous races of Culex pipicns L. (Diptera. 
Culicidae). Parasitology, 28: 115-145. 

VARGAS, L. 1941. New variety of Anopheles pseudopunc- 
tipennis (Diptera, Culicidae). Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 36: 
73-74. 

WEISS, H. B., SORACI, F. A. & McCov, E. E. 1941. Notes 
on the reactions of certain insects to different wave-lengths of 
light. Jour. New York Ent. Soc., 49: 1-20. 

WEYER, F. 1935. Die Rassenfrage bei Culex pipiens im 
Deutschland. Zts. Parasitenk., 8: 104-115. 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



217 



A List of Butterflies Which May be Found Within 
50 Miles of Philadelphia. (Lepid.: Rhopalocera). 

By R. C. WILLIAMS, Jr., Research Associate, Acad. Nat. 
Sciences, Philadelphia. 

The nomenclature follows that of Macy & Shepard's re- 
cently published "Butterflies". 

The rare or doubtful species are indicated by an asterisk. 
Authentic data on the occurrence of any of these or of any 
species omitted from the list will be appreciated by the 
American Entomological Society or the writer. 



PAPILIO 
1 PHILENOR L. 

2 AJAX L. 

3 CRESPHONTES Cr. 

4 GLAUCUS L. 

9 f. TURNUS L. 

5 TROILUS L. 

6 MARCELLUS Cr. 

ANTHOCHARIS 

7 MIDEA Hub. 

COLIAS 

8 EURYTHEME Bd. 

f. KEEWAYDIN Edw. 
f. ERIPHYLE Edw. 
f. AMPHIDUSA Bd. 

9 PHILODICE Godt. 

ZERENE 

10 CESONIA Stoll. 
PHOEBIS 

1 1 SENNAE L. 

r. EUBELE L. 
EUREMA 

12 LISA Bd. LeC. 

13 NICIPPE Cr. 

PlERIS 

14 PROTODICE Bd. LeC. 

15 NAPI L. 

f. OLERACEA Har. 

16 RAPAE L. 



DANAUS 

17 PLEXIPPUS L. 

ENODIA 

18 PORTLANDIA F. 

MEGISTO 

19 MITCHELLII French 

20 EURYTUS F. 

SATYRODES 

21 EURYDICE Johan. 

MlNIOS 

22 ALOPE F. 

r. MARITIMA Ed\V 

* r. NEPHELE Kir. 

DlONE 

* 23 VANILLAE L. 

EUPTOIETA 

24 CLAUDIA Cr. 

ARGYNNIS 

25 IDALIA Dru. 

26 CYBELE F. 

27 APHRODITE F. 

* 28 ATLANTIS Ed\V. 

BRENTHIS 

29 MYRINA Cr. 

30 BELLONA F. 

EUPHYDRYAS 

31 PHAETON Dru. 



218 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



[Oct., '41 



PHYCIODES 

32 NYCTEIS West. 

33 THAROS Dru. 

f. MARCIA Edw. 
f. MORPHEUS Edw. 

* 34 BATESII Reak. 

POLYGONIA 

35 INTERROGATIONS F. 

36 COMMA Har. 

f. DRYAS Edw. 

* 37 SATYRUS Edw. 
38 FAUNUS Edw. 

* 39 PROGNE Cr. 

NYMPHALIS 
40 J-ALBUM Bd. LeC. 

* 41 MILBERTI Godt. 

42 ANTIOPA L. 

VANESSA 

43 ATALANTA L. 

44 VIRGINIENSIS Dru. 

45 CARDUI L. 

JUNONIA 

46 COENIA Hub. 

BASILARCHIA 

47 ARTHEMIS Dru. 

hy. f. PROSERPINA 

Edw. 

48 ASTYANAX F. 

49 ARCHIPPUS Cr. 

ASTEROCAMPTA 

50 CELTIS Bd. LeC. 

51 CLYTON Bd. LeC. 

LlBYTHEA 

52 BACHMANII Kirt. 

NYMPHIDIA 

* 53 BOREALIS Gr. Rob. 

ATLIDES 

* 54 HALESUS Cr. 

STRYMON 

* 55 CECROPS F. 

* 56 M-ALBUM Bd. LeC. 



57 MELINUS Hub. 

* 58 FAVONIUS Ab. Sm. 

* 59 TITUS F. 

60 ACADICA Edw. 

61 EDWARDSII Saund. 

62 FALACER Godt. 

63 LIPAROPS Bd. LeC. 

MlTOURA 

64 DAMON Cr. 

INCISALIA 

65 AUGUSTUS Kir. 

* 66 IRUS Godt. 

67 HENRICI Gr. Rob. 

68 POLIOS Cook Wats. 

69 NIPHON Hub. 

FENISECA 

70 TARQUINIUS F. 

LYCAENA 

71 THOE Gray. 

* 72 EPIXANTHE Bd. LeC. 

73 HYPOPHLEAS Bd. 
EVERES 

74 COMYNTAS Godt. 
GLAUCOPSYCHE 

75 LYGDAMUS Doub. 

LYCAENOPSIS 

76 PSEUDARGIOLUS Bd. 

LeC. 
r. LUCIA Kir. 

f. MARGINATA Edw. 
f. NEGLECTA Edw. 

URBANUS 

77 PROTEUS L. 

PROTEIDES 

78 CLARUS Cr. 

ACHALARUS 

79 LYCIADES Gey. 

AUTOCHTON 

* 80 CELLUS Bd. LeC. 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



219 



THORYBES 

81 BATHYLLUS Ab. Sm. 

82 PYLADES Scud. 

f. IMMACULATA 

Skin. 

PYRGUS 

83 COMMUNIS Grote. 

* 84 CENTAUREAE Ramb. 

PHOLISORA 
85 CATULLUS F. 

* 86 HAYHURSTII Ed\V. 

ERYNNIS 

87 ICELUS Scud. Burg. 

88 BRIZO Bd. LeC. 

89 MARTIALIS Scud. 

* 90 LUCILIUS Scud. Burg. 

* 91 BAPTISAE Forbes. 

92 PERSIUS Scud. 

93 JUVENALIS F. 

94 HORATIUS Scud. Burg. 

* 95 ZARUCCO Luc. 

CARTEROCEPHALUS 

* 96 PALAEMON Pall. 

ANCYLOXYPHA 

97 NUMITOR F. 

HESPERIA 

98 SASSACUS Har. 

* 99 UNCAS Edw. 
100 LEONARDUS Har. 

*101 METEA Scud. 
*102 ATTALUS Edw. 

HYLEPHILA 

103 PHYLEUS Dru. 

ATALOPEDES 

104 CAMPESTRIS Bd. 

POLITES 

105 THEMISTOCLES Lat. 

106 MANATAAQUA Scud. 



107 VERNA Ed\V. 

108 PECKIUS Kir. 

109 MYSTIC Scud. 

110 BRETTUS Bd. LeC. 

WALLENGRENIA 
*111 OTHO Abb.-Sm. 

r. EGEREMET Scud. 
POANES 

112 HOBOMOK Har. 

$ f. POCAHONTAS 

Scud. 

113 ZABULON Bd. LeC. 

114 MASSASOIT Scud. 

f. SUFFUSA Laurent. 
r. HUGHI Clark. 
*115 AARONI Skin. 

116 VIATOR Edw. 

ATRYTONE 

117 RURICOLA Bd. 

118 BIMACULA Gr. Rob. 
*119 AROGOS Bd. LeC. 

120 LOGAN Edw. 

121 CONSPICUA Edw. 

122 DION Edw. 

ATRITONOPSIS 

123 HIANNA Scud. 

LEREMA 

124 ACCIUS Ab. Sm. 

AMBLYSCIRTES 

125 VIALIS Edw. 

126 HEGON, Scud. 

LERODEA 

127 L'HERMINIER Lat. 

CALPODES 

128 ETHLIUS Cr. 

PANOQUINA 

129 OCOLA Edw. 

130 PANOQUIN Scud. 



220 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

The Genus Colias in North America (Lepidoptera : 

Pieridae). 

By AUSTIN H. CLARK, U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

(Continued from page 187.) 

The dark border of the wings in the males is exceedingly 
variable, ranging from vestigial to very dark and broad. 7 mm. 
wide at the narrowest point in a specimen with the fore wings 
30 mm. long. In a long-winged spring male with the fore 
wings 22 mm. long, taken on April 12, 1938, the border of the 
fore wings below vein 4 is represented by a fine diffuse dusting 
of dark scales forming a series of narrow crescents, with the 
convexity inward, one in each interspace. Anterior to vein 4 
the dark dusting in the interspaces extends further and further 
inward so that the whole apex is dusted with dark scales; the 
infuscated apical area is crossed by broadly yellow veins and 
there is a marginal more or less semicircular yellow spot at the 
outer end of each interspace. On the hind wings there is a 
dusting of dark scales at the ends of the interspaces between 
veins 4 and 5, 5 and 6, and 6 and 7, that between veins 5 and 
6 the most extensive, that between veins 6 and 7 smaller, and 
that between veins 4 and 5 very slight. The margin of the 
wing beyond these small patches of dark scales is narrowly 
yellow. 

The reduction of the dark border in the males to a rather 
faint and very narrow submarginal dusting of dark scales is 
rare; usually the border is continuous and dark, and the dark 
scales extend outward to the base of the fringe. On the fore 
wings the dark border varies in width in its lower half from 
scarcely more than one-third of an interspace to more than 
twice the width of an interspace. Most commonly it is approxi- 
mately the width of an interspace, often slightly more or slightly 
less. 

When the border of the fore wings is narrow its inner edge 
is frequently deeply indented by long narrow angles running in- 
ward along the veins, and the veins may cross it as narrow 
yellow lines. Most commonly, however, only the veins at the 
apex are yellow, and these do not quite reach the outer edge. 
When the dark border is broad the inner edge may be more or 
less deeply scalloped, the black of the border extending out- 
ward as long narrow angles along the veins. In most cases the 
inner edge of the dark border is simply irregular. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 221 

In the males the dark border of the hind wings is developed 
proportionately to that of the fore wings. It may reach down- 
ward to vein 1, but usually ends at about vein 2. When the 
border is narrow it may not pass vein 3, and in extreme cases 
it is developed only between veins 6 and 4. 

In the females the inner edge of the dark border of the fore 
wings is abruptly bent inward in the interspace between veins 
3 and 4. Rarely it is broadly curved inward in its anterior 
half as is the case in C. werdandi. The inner edge of the 
border is usually very irregular, though occasionally smooth. 
The spots in the dark border vary greatly in size, being largest 
in the small light orange individuals. They are usually of 
different sizes, that in the interspace between veins 3 and 4 
being much smaller than the others or absent. Rarely they 
are large and subequal and more or less confluent, forming a 
partially interrupted broad yellow band separated from the 
orange or yellow of the inner portion of the wing by a narrow 
dark band of uniform width broadly and evenly curved in its 
anterior half. Not infrequently the spots are entirely absent, 
the black border then closely resembling that of the male. In 
spring individuals the dark border is narrower than it is in 
summer individuals, and below vein 4 the inner portion may 
be narrow, vestigial, or even entirely absent, the dark border 
of the female then resembling approximately that of the male 
except for the inclusion of a curved row of four spots in the 
apical portion. Similar borders are found in the south Russian 
forms chryseis and diana of C. crate. 

On the hind wings in the females the dark border may be 
narrow, resembling that of the male though with the inner 
edge vaguely denned. Sometimes it is as broad and continuous 
as it is on the fore wings with the inner edge well denned and 
parallel to the edge of the wings, and completely enclosing a 
row of subequal yellow spots, largest anteriorly, one in each 
interspace, much as in the females of C. cogcne from Kashmir. 
Usually it is broad anteriorly where it completely encloses from 
one to three spots, the inner border then becoming obsolescent 
or represented by a slight dusting of dark scales in the inter- 
spaces. Occasionally the border is represented merely by long 
narrow dark triangles with their bases outward that extend 
inward along the veins. Rarely it is wholly absent, there being 
merely a few dark scales at the outer ends of the anterior veins. 

The spot at the end of the cell of the fore wings is usually 
well developed, black, and conspicuous, sometimes with an 
orange, yellow, or white center. Rarely it is much enlarged, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

taking the form of a black circular ring surrounding a white 
center. It may be reduced to a narrow line, or even vestigial, 
represented simply by a few dusky scales. Not infrequently 
it is produced into a more or less extended angle on the side 
toward the apex. It may be bright orange instead of black. 
In pale orange early spring individuals it is commonly more or 
less broadly bordered with orange or mixed with orange scales, 
sometimes entirely orange. 

The spot at the end of the cell of the hind wings varies from 
pale straw yellow to orange red. In light orange spring individ- 
uals it is sometimes very large, its greatest diameter, parallel 
to the cell, being as great as the maximum width of the cell. 
Usually it is somewhat less in diameter than the width of the 
interspace between veins 4 and 5. Rarely it is very small, only 
about one-third the width of this interspace. There is usually 
a small supplementary spot on its outer side just across vein 
5, but this may be absent, especially if the spot be small. 

The wing bases above are usually marked with blackish 
scales. In the males these may be very dark, and the blackish 
patch is sometimes extended as a sooty infuscation along the 
lower border of the fore wings half way to the outer margin, 
and also on the hind wings in the interspace between veins 1 
and 2 and the lower half of the cell downward almost to the 
anal angle. In the females the infuscation is less dense than 
in the males, but more extensive. On the fore wings it may 
be confined to the costal border, though it commonly affects 
about the basal third of the fore wings and the area below the 
cell in the hind wings, becoming diffuse toward the outer edge. 
Occasionally the entire hind wing is infuscated except for a 
light marginal band or row of more or less indistinct spots. 

In the females the veins of the fore wings for their whole 
length and the outer half of the veins of the hind wings may 
be narrowly blackish. Rarely in the males all the veins may 
be marked by narrow back lines. I have not seen an example 
of this last varietv from Washington but Mr. Wagner has 
taken it in Nebraska. 

The hind wings on the under side may be clear yellow, 
usually darker than on the upper side, yellowish white, yellow- 
ish orange, dull white, or grayish blue. They are usually more 
or less heavily dusted with dark scales, when the dusting is 
heavy becoming dusky olive yellow and in extreme cases in 
winter dull green with a broad indefinite lighter border. 

The antemarginal spots on the under side of the fore wings 
are usually well developed with the three lowest the largest. In 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 223 

the forms with very narrow dark borders above they may be 
as much as four times as far from the edge of the wings as 
the inner edge of the dark border; in the forms with broad 
borders they may be somewhat nearer the edge of the wing 
than the inner edge of the dark border. Usually they are 
approximately under the inner edge of the dark border, in 
most of the yellow males slightly further from the edge of the 
wings. This line of spots is usually straight and parallel with 
the outer edge of the wings, but it may be somewhat curved 
inward, especially in yellow males. In males in which the dark 
border is narrow, the outer edge of the fore wing markedly 
convex, and the spot at the end of the cell of the hind wings 
small and that at the end of the cell of the fore wings vestigial 
the spots are greatly reduced and not infrequently wholly 
absent. 

The fringes of the wings vary from light dull olive with or 
without a pink edging to entirely bright pink. They are usually 
more or less dull rosy or pinkish. 

This composite description covers all forms between the most 
extreme eurythcmc (form amphidnsa) and the most extreme 
philodicc, including the yellow phase or variety of curythcme 
and criphyle. Two of the spring males if their origin were un- 
known would almost certainly be referred to pelidne. 

To the insects included in the description 46 different names, 
covering species, subspecies, forms, and aberrations, have been 
applied. These names are usually divided between two accepted 
species, eurythcme and philodicc. There is, however, no char- 
acter or group of characters by which eurythcme and philodice 
may be distinguished. Originally in the east philodicc ranged 
from the highlands of Georgia and the lowlands of northern 
North Carolina northward, becoming more and more distinctive 
toward the northeast. Philodice therefore is (or was) the 
northeastern representative of curythemc. 

Toward the west philodice intergrades insensibly with 
eriphyle, which is only an extreme form (with the subcentral 
spot on the upper surface of the secondaries reduced) of the 
yellow phase of curythcme. Toward the northwest criphyle 
passes into the more distinctive kootenai, and in the extreme 
south into guatemalana. 



224 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

Comparison between cury theme and the European and Asi- 
atic chrysotheme fails to show any features by which the two 
may be differentiated ; curythcmc and the forms associated 
with it should therefore be regarded as forms of Colias chry- 
sotheme (Esper). The significant forms having a more or 
less definite significance are : 
COLIAS CHRYSOTHEME (Esper) 

Colias chrysotheme eurythcmc Boisduval 
Colias chrysotheme eriphyle W. H. Edwards 
Colias chrysotheme kootenai Cockle 
Colias chrysotheme philodicc Godart 
Colias cJirysothcma guatemalana Staudinger 
The four yellow forms (eriphyle, kootenai, philodicc, and 
guatemalana) occupy mainly, or largely, distinctive areas. 
The orange eurytheme, which has a yellow phase running 
directly into eriphylc, covers most of the range of eriphyle and 
part of the ranges of kootenai and philodice. 

The relation of Colias chrysotheme to the other species of 
Colias in North America may be made clear by a brief analysis 
of the genus as a whole. The species of Colias fall naturally 
into five groups, as follows: 1. The Crocea group; a mealy 
patch at the base of the secondaries above ; chiefly orange ; 
Asia, Europe, Africa, and South America, with one species 
(meadii) in western North America. This passes into : 2 
The Hccla group ; no mealy patch ; under side of secondaries 
green ; chiefly orange ; Alpine and Arctic in Asia, elsewhere 
Arctic, with one species (hccla) in northern North America. 
3. The Werdandi group ; an extreme development of the 
preceding ; upper side also green or greenish and sexes similar ; 
Alpine and Arctic in Asia and Europe, in North America 
Arctic (various forms of werdandi) and Alpine (bchrii in 
California). The two following groups are distinct from the 
three preceding. 4. The Hya-le group ; no mealy spot ; beneath 
usually yellow, sometimes orange, gray, or bluish ; often in- 
fuscated ; an antemarginal row of spots on the under side of 
the fore wings ; sexes similar or different ; chiefly yellow, some- 
times orange, white or gray-blue; Asia, Europe, and Africa, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 225 

with one species (chrysotheme} over almost the whole of 
North America. 5. The Palaeno group; essentially as in the 
northern yellow forms of chrysotheme but without the ante- 
marginal spots on the primaries below and with the dark 
margins in the females usually obsolescent; yellow, rarely 
white, the males of some species with an orange form ; chiefly 
in the Rocky Mountain region and in boreal and subarctic 
North America; two species in Alpine and Arctic Asia and 
Europe; in North America represented by occidentalis, har- 
fordii, interior, Christina, alexandra, gigantca, scudderii, pcl- 
idne, and palaeno. 



Some Unusual Dragonfly Records from New Jersey 

(Odonata). 

By JOHN GILLESPIE, Glenolden, Pennsylvania. 

During the past summer, while collecting dragonflies in 
New Jersey, I obtained five males and one female of Cclithc- 
mis verna Pritchard. They were taken on July 12 and July 
20, at Bennett, which is located in Cape May County, on the 
peninsula at the southern extremity of the state. This species 
was originally described in 1934 by Pritchard from specimens 
taken in Oklahoma and Georgia. Its occurrence in a region 
so far to the northeast as New Jersey seems particularly note- 
worthy. The identification has been confirmed by Dr. P. P. 
Calvert. 

The environment in which vcrna was found consisted of 
an extensive boggy swamp and an adjoining sphagnum bog. 
The greater number were observed at the swamp, which was 
boggy around the edges, but with a large amount of open 
water in the middle. Several individuals in addition to those 
captured were seen. 

Other species of Celithcmis occurring here were clisn, 
mart ha and eponina. Some of the more noteworthy of the 
twenty-five species of dragonflies observed at Bennett, besides 



226 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

vcrna, were Ana.r longipes, Pautala hyincnaca, Enallagma 
pictum, and Nchallcnia gracilis. 

Other interesting captures were : 

DOROCORDULIA LEPiDA (Hagen). Lake near Kirkwood, June 
22. 

CELITHEMIS MONOMELAENA Williamson. Keswick Grove, 
August 6; Atco, August 16. 

ENALLAGMA CARUNCULATUM Morse. Lenape Lake, near 
Newton, August 31. 

E. WEEWA Byers. Cedar stream at Chatsworth, August 3 ; 
two different localities on cedar streams between Whiting and 
Bamber, August 6. 

E. DIVAGANS Selys. Cedar stream between Whiting and 
Bamber, August 6. 

TELEALLAGMA DAECKII (Calvert). Reedy edge of lake 
near Newtonville, July 12. 

NEHALLENIA INTEGRICOLLIS Calvert. Same as above. 

ARGIA BIPUNCTULATA Hagen. Chatsworth and Keswick 
Grove, August 3. 



A "Zippered" Sweeping Net. 

A very convenient sweeping net for micro-diptera was made 
of heavy unbleached muslin. The net tapered below to an 
open bottom of about five inches in diameter. To this bottom 
rim one side of a coat zipper (the type in which the two sides 
of the zipper may be completely separated) was sewn. Two 
or more cup-shaped bags were made whose rims were the 
same diameter as the open bottom of the net. To the rim of 
each cup-bag the opposite side of a coat zipper was sewn. 
Thus when zippered together a complete net was formed with 
quickly interchangeable bottoms. The cup part when swept 
full of insects and debris was tied with tapes near its mouth, 
un-zippered and inserted into a large cyanide bottle. Another 
cup-bag was zippered onto the net and the sweeping continued 
while the first lot of insects was being killed. ELIZABETH G. 
FISHER, The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Notes on some Rare Scarabaeidae with the Descript- 
ion of One New Species. (Coleoptera). 

By MARK ROBINSON, Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

For a long time it was apparent to me that some of our 
species of Tro.v, which were never found in the usual places 
where I had looked for them but where I found many other 
species, must be specialized, just like some of our Aphodiini 
and other Scarabaeidae. With this in mind I set out this 
spring to prove or disprove this theory. I had several clues 
on which to work viz : material collected by Sim and Frost, 
plus several specimens from unidentified sources. 

The method used was to scour the woods for birds building 
their nests in the early spring and, after the birds had raised 
their young, collect the nests and examine them bit by bit. 
The nests ranged from ten to seventy feet in the air and were 
in a great variety of trees including Beech, White Oak, Chest- 
nut, Sycamore, Red Maple, Tulip Poplar, Norway Spruce and 
White Pine. 

In the case of such birds as crows, titmice and other Passer- 
ines, the Trox are feeding on the feathers used to line the 
nest or the hairs which crows will intertwine through their 
nests ; hawks' and owls' nests will always have scattered 
through them hair and feathers from the mammals and birds 
with which the Raptores had fed their young. In order for 
the Tro.v to be able to subsist in these nests, the nests must be 
very thick, or be in the cavity of a tree, in order to preserve 
the moisture which the larvae must have in order to mature. 

The nest which proved to be the most productive was that 
of a barn owl at Broomall, Pennsylvania. This abode was 
located about twenty feet above the ground in the hollow of a 
dead Chestnut tree. I have collected Trox in these woods for 
the past eight years without ever taking any of the species that 
were collected in this nest. These consisted of over five hun- 
dred specimens of striatus, acqualis, affinis and the new species 
described in the following pages. 

Thanks are due to the following men for their assistance in 



ENTOMOLOGICAL XEVVS 



[Oct., '41 



locating nests or otherwise helping in the studies undertaken 
in this paper: Nelson D. Hoy, Robert M. Stabler, R. C. 
Casselberry, M. W. Sanderson, R. J. Sim, C. A. Frost and 
R. Swett. 
Trox (Omorgus) tytus new species. 

It is remarkable that an insect as large as this could have 
remained out of the hands of taxonomists and collectors as 
long as has been the case. Until I examined the material 
taken in the Broomall Owl nest I had never seen this species 
and yet I have seen most of the large collections of Trox in 
this country. 

The nearest known species to this one is suberosus Fab., but 
tytus is smoother through-out, and the side margins of the 
pronotum are straight and not incised as they are in suberosus. 
In addition to the external characters, the male aedeagus has a 
very different shape. All the specimens in the type series were 
taken in barn owl (Tyto alba pratincola Bonap.) nests. 




Fig. 1. Dorsal view of aedeagus of Trox tytus. 

Oblong; completely covered with a yellowish-brown granule- 
pollinose, opaque coating. Interspersed over the body are 
yellowish-brown scale like hairs, which are a little more con- 
centrated on the elytral tubercules. The underparts of the 
head and anterior tips of the tibiae are reddish and shining. 

Clypeus triangular, rather strongly reflexed laterally. On 
either side of the median line and just to the rear of the genae 
is an elongate, deeply excavated pit. Head rounded without 
trace of tubercules. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Pronotal sides arcuate, converging to the rounded hind angles 
in the posterior one-sixth, sinuation within the hind angle well 
pronounced. Hind margin rounded medially, sinuate on each 
side. On the disk of the pronotum is an ill-defined median 
groove which runs posteriorly into a deeply, transversely ex- 
cavated pit ;. the sides of this pit are sloping. The usual 
tubercules of this subgenus are but vaguely indicated on the 
pronotum. 

The elytral tubercules are low, barely rising above the plane 
of the intervals. The tubercules on the first and sutural rows 
are elongate and 'sometimes longitudinally confluent, the tu- 
bercules on the lateral rows are oval to rounded. The intervals 
are biseriately punctured. Humeral umbone moderately promi- 
nent while the apical umbone is indefinite. 

Scape of antennae reddish, bristling with long ochraceous- 
orange hairs ; funicle fulvous, glabrous ; club testaceous. Api- 
cal process of anterior tibiae bifid, side margin of tibiae with a 
sharp denticle just back of the anterior process. 

Wings: Length, 18 mm.; Breadth, 6.25 mm. Length, 12 
to 13 mm.; Breadth, 7 to 8 mm. 

Type. $ Broomall, Delaware County, PENNSYLVANIA, June 
14. 1941 (Mark Robinson). Allotypc. S, With same data 
as type. 

Paratypes. 190 of both sexes; 162 Broomall, Pennsylvania, 
from May 29, 1941 to June 20, 1941 (Mark Robinson); 4 
Broomall, Pennsylvania, June 1, 1941 (R. Stabler); 24 
Lyndell, Pennsylvania, June 18, 1941 (Mark Robinson). 
Paratypes will be deposited in the collections of : Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; American Museum of Na- 
tural History; Museum of Comparative Zoology; United States 
National Museum; University of Kansas; O. L. Cartwright; 
M. A. Cazier; R. C. Casselberry and the writer. 
TROX SIMI Robinson. 1940. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LXVI, 
p. 157. 

The type series of this species consisted of fifteen specimens 
found in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Virginia. The food 
records I had at the time of description were : Hen feathers, 
mouse hair, dead crow, dead mole, old carpet and owl pellets. 
This year T have found ninety-two specimens in Broomall, 
Darby and Sharon Hill, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, from 



230 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

April 28 to June 19. All specimens were found feeding on 

Barn Owl (Tyto alba pratinicola Bonap.) pellets which were 

disgorged on the ground beneath the trees in which the owls 

roosted. 

TROX AEQUALIS Say. 1832. Say, New Harmony, p. 5. 

This species seems to he found in a great variety of mammal 
and bird nests, as prior to 1941 I had only collected one speci- 
men ; this was on an old felt hat on the ground at Broomall, 
Pennsylvania, June 12, 1934. This year I collected between 
two and three hundred specimens in the nests of crows (Corvus 
brachyrchynchos Brehm), screech owl (Of us asio naevius 
Gmelin), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus Gmelin), barn 
owl (Tyto alba pratinicola Bonaparte), tufted titmouse (Baeol- 
opJius bicolor Linnaeus), hawk (Butco sp.) and gray squirrel 
(Sciurus carolincnsis Gmelin). All specimens were collected 
in Chester or Delaware Counties, Pennsylvania, between May 
11 and June 15, 1941. In addition I have seen specimens 
collected in the nests of turkey vulture (Cathartcs aura scpten- 
trionalis Wied) and the starling (Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus). 
TROX AFFINIS Robinson. 1940. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 
LXVI, p. 158. 

At the time I wrote the original description of this form I 
thought it was a subspecies of Trox acqualis Lee. Since then 
I have examined specimens from New York, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia, Iowa, Kansas and California. While I 
haven't found any more characters to separate the two species 
I think the larger size, different male genitalia and lack of 
intermediate specimens are sufficient to rank it as a separate 
species. 

In addition to the type series of fifty-nine specimens collected 
in various localities in New Jersey, which were all collected in 
crows' nests, I have collected twenty-four specimens in four 
different crows' nests this spring and Dr. Robert M. Stabler 
collected two specimens in Chester County on May 18, 1941, 
in a crow's nest. In the great horned owl nest which I ex- 
amined on June 18, 1941, I collected fifty-two specimens of 



lii, '41 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 231 

this species. I believe the reason for the large number of 
specimens being found in this Owl's nest is that the owl had 
used a last years crow's nest as the basis for its own nest and 
the Trox, when they matured this year, started to feed on the 
hair of rabbits and feathers of pheasants and grouse, which 
remains were found in the nest. 

TROX STKIATUS Melsheimer. 1846. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. II, p. 137. 

This species has always been rare in collections and was one 
of the species I endeavored to trace to a definite host. In the 
barn owl's nest at Broomall, I took several hundred specimens 
of striatus along with the other Trox and Histcr collected 
there. In addition I collected it in the nest of a barn owl at 
Lyndell, Pennsylvania, on June 18, 1941, a great horned owl's 
nest at Cupola, Pennsylvania, on the same date, and screech 
owl's nest at Chester Heights, Pennsylvania, also yielded 
several specimens on June 15 ? 1941. 

Conjointly with the above biological data is the record of 
Sim's that he collected several specimens in May and June, 
1930 at Moorestown, New Jersey, in the nest of a barn owl. 
All of these records add up to but one conclusion, that Trox 
striatus is found in the nests or nesting cavities of our species, 
of owls. 

TROX LATICOLLIS Leconte. 1854. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. VII. p. 213. 

This species was always very rare in collections until Mr. C. 
A. Frost collected over twenty-five specimens in May, 1939, 
in a fox den at Natick, Massachusetts. Since then Dr. Milton 
\Y. Sanderson sent me four specimens which he found feeding 
on a dead fox in a cave in Washington County, Arkansas, on 
November 12, 1938. On July 1. 1941, I took one specimen 
in the den of a gray fox (Urocynn cinereoargenteus Schreber) 
at the Springton Dam in Delaware County, Pennsylvania. 
APHODTTS MAMTOHENSIS P.nnvn. 1928. Can. Knt. LX, p. 
302. 

Mr. Robert Swett presented to me a male specimen of this 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

species which he collected at Canadensis, Pennsylvania, in 
March, 1939, in the ground under a pile of white-tailed deer 
(Odocollcus virginiainis Boddaert) excrement. At the time 
that the specimen was collected there was frost in the ground 
and patches of snow here and there on the surface. 

Mr. W. J. Brown, who described the species and compared 
this specimen with the type stated that this was only the second 
specimen he had seen. 
APHODIUS OBLONGUS Say. 1823. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. Ill, p. 215. 

Four specimens of this rare species were taken by myself at 
Broomall, Pennsylvania, in two gray squirrel (Sciitnts caro- 
lincnsis Gmelin) nests on June 14, 1941. Both nests were in 
cavities of dead chestnut trees about thirty feet above the 
ground. They were composed of piles of leaves which were 
chewed into small pieces. Whether the Aphodius were feeding 
on the decomposing leaves or the squirrel excrement scattered 
through the nest I was unable to determine. 
PHYLLOPHAGA POSTREMA Horn. 1887. Horn, Tran. Amer. 
Ent. Soc. XIV, p. 233. 

This rather rare Melolonthid was taken by myself for the 
first time in New Jersey at White's Bogs on June 24, 1939. 
Six specimens were found feeding at night on tupelo (Nyssa 
syhatica Marsh.), sweet fern (Myrica asplcni folia L.) and 
blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Ait.). 



Tabanidae of Panama (Diptera). 

The annual report of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, 
located in Panama City and in three field stations, for 1940, 
states that Mr. G. B. Fairchild, Junior Entomologist continued 
work on the Tabanidae of Panama. "A considerable number 
of species were added to the collections and three papers on 
the group were prepared. Two additional species were reared 
from larvae. In February, the services of a reliable native were 
secured which enabled collections to be made at one spot every 
two weeks. When a year's collection has been gathered, it 
will enable us to gain a very fair idea of the seasonal abundance 
of the various species." 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 233 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY V. S. L. PATE, L. S. MACKEY and J. W. CADBURY. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer t9 the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Anon. Dr. Lee Strong dies in Arizona. 
[4] 73: 114-115. A. W. B. Professor Lawson Caesar re- 
tires. [4] 73: 97-98, ill. Crabb, E. D. Abbreviation of 
names of biological publications. [Univ. Colo. Studies] 1 
(D) : 177-191. Davis, J. J. Willis Stanley Blatchley. [7] 
34: 279-283, ill. Fossa-Mancini, E. Noticias sobre hallaz- 
g-os de insectos fosiles en la America del stir. [Notas Mus. 
de la Plata] 6: 101-140. Riley, et. al Catalogue of the 
books, manuscripts, maps and drawings in the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.). Vol. 8: 969-1480. Smart, J. In- 
structions for collectors. No. 4A. Insects. [Brit. Mus. Nat. 
Hist.] 1940: 164 pp., ill. Torre-Bueno, J. R.- -A useful 
catalogue. [19] 36: 128. Compendium of entomological 
methods-Pt. 2. Orthoptera. [19] 36: 136. Turner, H. J- 
Notes on nomenclature. 1. [21] 53: 63-67. Williams, E. C. 
An ecological study of the floor fauna of the Panama Rain 
Forest. [Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci.] 6: 63-124, ill. Wood, 
S. F. A method of collecting and transporting cone-nosed 
bugs. [19] 36: 137-139, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Crowell, H. H. 
-The utilization of certain nitrogenous and carbohydrate 
substances by the southern armyworm. Prodenia eridania. 
[7] 34: 503-512. ill. Day, M. F. Pigment migration in the 
eyes of the moth. Ephestia kuehniella. [Biol. Bull.] 80: 
291. ill. Dethier, V. G.--The function of the antennal re- 



234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

ceptors in lepidopterous larvae. [Biol. Bull.] 80: 403-414, 
ill. Evans, J. W. Morphology of Tettigareta tomentosa 
(Cicadidj. [Pro. R. S. Tasmania] 1940: 35-49. ill. Hard- 
man & Craig. A physiological basis for the differential re- 
sistance of the two races ot red scale to HCN. [68] 94: 187. 
Henke & Mertz. Ueber die kerngrossenunterschiede im 
rlugelepithel der mehlmotte und ihre beziehungen zur 
grossendifferenzierung der schuppen. [97] 61 : 40-64, ill. 
Hungate, R. E. Experiments on the nitrogen economy of 
termites. [7] 34: 467-489. Kuhn, A. Zur entwicklungs- 
physiologie der schmetterlingsschuppen. [97] 61 : 109-147, 
ill. Lotmar, R. Das mitteldarmepithel der raupe von 
Tineola biseiliella, insbesondere sein verhalten wahrend 
der Hautungen. [41] 18: 233-248, ill. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, 
H. A. Temperaturmodifikabilitat des zeichnungsmusters 
bei verschiedenen populationen von Epilachna chrysome- 
lina. [97] 61 : 68-84, ill. Vargas, L. Detalles morfologicos 
de los Anopheles americanos del grupo maculipennis y 
especies proximas. [121] 2: 23-25, ill. Detalles morfologi- 
cos poco o nada conocidos de Anopheles mexicanos [121] 
2: 66-69, ill. Vogt, M. Anatomic der pupalen Drosophila- 
ringdruse und ihre mutmassliche bedeutung als imaginales 
metamorphosezentrum. [97] 61: 148-158, ill. See also 
under Diptera, various authors. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Archer, A. F 

The Argiopidae or orb-weaving spiders of Alabama. [Geol. 
Surv. Alabama] Mus. Pap. 14: 77 pp., ill. (*). Chamberlin, 
R. V. New genera and species of American Lithobiid 
centipeds. [Bull. Univ. Utah] Biol. Ser. 6: 23 pp. New 
western Millipeds. [Bull. Univ. Utah] Biol. Ser. 6: 23 pp., 
ill. Malkin, B. New spider records for New York State. 
[19] 36: 122. Marshall, R. Preliminary list of the Hydra- 
carina of Wisconsin VI. [Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci. Arts & 
Letters] 32: 135-165, ill. (*). de Mello-Leitao, C. Ancho- 
coema ogloblini, nova especie de Proscopiida. [15] 13: 99- 
102, ill. Notas sobre a sistematica das Aranhas, com de- 
scricao de algumas novas especies sul Americanas. [15] 13: 
103-127, ill. Aranhas do Parana. [14] 11: 235-257, ill. (*). 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Buxton, 

P. A. Studies on populations of head-lice (Pediculus hu- 
manus capitis). [116] 33: 224-242. Crawford, J. C. A new 
Taeniothrips from Michigan. [10] 43: 142-143. Leeson, 
H. S. The effect of temperature upon the hatching of the 
eggs of Pediculus humanus corporis. [116] 33: 243-249. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 235 

Ross, H. H. Descriptions and records of North American 
Trichoptera. [1] 67: 35-126. ill. Silvestri, F. Tr e nuove 
sp. di Machilellus del Brasile. [14] 11: 545-550 ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Alexander, G. Keys for the identifi- 
cation of Colorado Orthoptera. [Univ. Colo. Studies] 1 (D) : 
129-164, ill. Chagnon, G. The cockroach Supella supellec- 
tilium in Quebec (Blattidae). [4] 73: 104. Deoras, P. J. 
Structure of Hemimerus deceptus var. ovatus ; an ex- 
ternal parasite of Cricetomys gambiense. [116] 33: 172-185, 
ill. Rehn, J. A. G. A new California!! species of Gammaro- 
tettix (Gryllacrididae). [Notulae Nat.] No. 85: 4 pp., ill. 
Shotwell, R. L. Life histories and habits of some grass- 
hoppers of economic importance on the Great Plains. [U 
S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. No. 774: 47 pp., ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Barber, H. G. Descr. of a new bat 
bug (Cimicid.). [91] 31: 315-317. de Carlo, J. A.- 
Descripcion de tres especies nuevas del genero Crypho- 
cricus. Una nueva especie del genero Heleocoris (Naucori- 
dae). [104] 10: 426-433, ill. Drake & Harris. Concerning 
some Halobalinids from western Hemisphere (Gerridae). 
[Iowa Sta. Jour. Sci.] 15: 237-240. (s*). da Fonseca, J. F. 
Contribuicao para o conhecimento dos membracideos neo- 
tropicos III. [14] 11: 133-138 (*). Harrington, C. D.- 
Influence of aphid resistance in peas upon aphid develop- 
ment, reproduction and longevity. [47] 62: 461-466, ill. 
Harris & Drake. Notes on the family Mesoveliidae with 
descr. 2 n. sps. [Iowa State Jour. Sci".] 15: 275-277 (s*). 
Harris, H. M. Concerning Neididae, with new species and 
new records for North America. [19] 36: 105-109. Haus- 
man, S. A. Leaf-mining insects. [Sci. Monthly] 53: 73-75. 
ill. Knight, H. H. N. sps. of Lygus from West. U. S. 
(Miridae). [Iowa State J. Sci.] 15: 269-273. (*). Knowl- 
ton, G. F. Studies of western aphids. [Pro. Utah Acad. 
Sci. Arts & Letters] 18: 41-44. deLong, D. M. The gen. 
Arundamis in N. Am. (Cicadellid.). [119] 25: 632-643. (*). 
Monte, O. Tingitideos novos pouco conhecidos da fauna 
Americana. Notas sobre Gargaphia subpilosa. [14] 11 : 283- 
300, ill.: 301-308. ill., (s*). Morrison, H. A new Steato- 
coccus from Mexico. [10] 43: 140-141. de Toledo, A. A.- 
Notas sobre a biologia do Chrysomphalus aonidum no F.- 
tado de S. Paulo. Brasil. [14] "ll : 559-78. ill. de la Torre- 
Bueno, ]. R. Remarks on the genus Corizus of authors, 
not of Fallen. [7] 34: 284-288. (k). Usinger, R. L. The 
present status and synonymy of some Orsilline species 



236 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

(Lygaeidae). [19] 36: 129-132. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bell, E. L Un nuevo genero y al- 
gunas nuevas especies de Hesperides del Peru. [Bol. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. "Javier Prado"] 5: 208-218, ill., cont. Ficht, G. 
A. Notes on Indiana Noctuidae. [Proc. Indiana Acad Sci.] 
49: 243-253. Franclemont, J. G. Some new noctuids from 
New York State with notes on other well known species 
(Phalaenidae). [4] 73: 111-114. Gaede, M. Lepidopteror- 
um Catalogus. Pars 92. Oecophoridae II. 209-476. Geigy 
& Zinkernagel. Beobachtungen beim aufbau einer tech- 
nischen grosszucht der kleidermotte (Tineola biselliella). 
[41] 18: 213-232, ill. Hoffman, C. C. Catalogo sistematico 
y zoogeograrlco de los Lepidopteros Mexicanos. [An. Inst. 
Biol., Mexico] 11 : 639-739, ill. Hovanitz, W. The selective 
value of aestivation and hibernation in a California butterfly 
[19] 36: 133-136. Klima, A. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. 
Pars 94. Pyralididae. subfam. Pyraustinae II. 225-384 
Kloet, G. S. Experiments on living pupae. [8] 77: 139-140. 
Klots, A. B. Two European Tortricidae not hitherto re- 
corded from North America. [19] 36: 126-127. Littlewood, 
F. On rearing Lepidoptera. [9] 74: 88-94, 101-106, 124-130, 
161-165, cont. Lustig, E. F. Parasitism in Papaipema 
purpurifascia. [19] 36: 141. de Martin, M. La coleccion 
de Lepidopteros del Museo. [Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. "Javier 
Prado"] 5: 197-208. McDunnough, J. A new Albertan 
Olethreutid. [4] 73: 98-99, ill. Moeck, H. W. A butterfly 
migration in Mexico. [Trans. Wise. Acad. Sci. Arts & 
Letters] 32: 113-122. O'Byrne, H. I. Some noteworthy 
Missouri butterflies: Papilio troilus ab. radiatus and a 
variation of Lycaenopsis pseudargiolus. [19] 36: 124-125. 
Schweizer & Kay. Lepidopteros del Uruguay. [An. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. Montevideo] 5: 14 pp., ill. Stichel, H. Lepi- 
dopterorum Catalogus. Pars 93. Nymphalidae III. Sub- 
fam. Charaxidinae II. 543-794. Urquhart, F. A. Sulphur 
and white butterflies. [Canadian Nat.] 1941: 106-107, ill. 

DIPTERA. Bouvier, G. Ouelques observations biolo- 
giques sur les Tabanides. [41] 18: 280-285, ill. Cazier, M. 
A. A generic revision of the fam. Apioceratidae with a re- 
vision of the N. A. sps. [119] 25: 589-631. (*). Champlain, 
A. B. Botflies and game. [Penna. Game News] 1941 : 29, 
ill. Coe, R. L. Callicera rufa (Syrphidae) ; colour-varia- 
tion of abdominal hairs in the adult, with a note on long- 



Hi. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 237 

evity of the larva. [9] 74: 131-132. Cregan, M. B. Generic 
relationships of the Dolichopodidae. Based on a study of 
the mouth parts. [111. Biol. Monogr.J 18: 68 pp., ill. Harm- 
ston, & Knowlton. Courting antics of a robber fly. [19J 
36: 110. Hull, F. M. Some nn. spp. of Syrphidae from 
South America. [91J 31: 311-315. Muller, H. J. Biblio- 
graphy on the genetics of Drosophila. [Imp. Bur. Animal 
Breeding & Genetics] 1939: 132. Pessoa & Guimaraes- 
Nota sobre Streblideos de Morcegos de Matto-grosso, Bra- 
sil [14] 11: 421-426, ill. Philip, C. B. Notes on Nearctic 
Pangoniinae (Tabanid.). [10] 43: 113-130, ill. (*). Notes 
on Nearctic Tabaninae. Pt. 1. Stenotabanus, Atylotus and 
Tabanus. [4] 73: 105-110. (*). Pritchard, A. E. Annamyia, 
a new genus of Asilidae, with a revision of the genus Apha- 
martania. [10] 43: 131-140, ill. (*). Rifenburgh, Walker & 
Johnson. Radiation of Drosophila melanogaster with low- 
intensity ultra-violet light for one complete generation. 
Effect on crossing-over in the second chromosome of the 
male. [Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci.j 49: 215-226. Steyskal, G. 
A curious habit of an Empidid fly. [19] 36: 117, ill. 
A new species of Euparyphus from Michigan (Stratiomy- 
idae). [19] 36: 123-124. Odontomyia records (Stratiomyid). 
[19] 36: 125. A new species of Pterodontia ( Acroceridae). 
[19] 36: 140. Ward, H. L. A note on the occurrence of a 
syrphid larva as an accidental parasite of man. [Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci.] 49: 199-200. 

COLEOPTERA. Bolivar y Pieltain, C. Descripcion 
de un Trechinae silvicola del Mexico central. [An. Escuela 
Nac. Cien. Biol. Mexico] 2: 111-118, ill. Buchanan, L. L.- 
A n. sp. of Melamasius from Cuba (Curcul.). [Mem. Soc. 
Cuba Hist. Nat.] 15: 169-172. ill. Chapin, E. A. Lady 
beetles belonging to the genus Procula. [Mem. Soc. Cuba 
Nat. Hist.] 15: 165-168, ill. (s*). Dahl, R. G. Two new 
southwestern Chrysomelidae with a key to the known 
varieties of Saxinis saucia. [13] 33: 29-31. Dillon & Dillon. 
-The tribe Monochamini in the Western Hemisphere. 
(Cerambycidae). [Reading Pub. Mus. & Art Gallery] 
Scien. Publ. No. 1: 135 pp., ill. Dodge, H. R. Observa- 
tions on Sandalus niger. its egg. and first instar larva. |7| 
34: 458-466. ill. Fiedler, K. Monograph of the South 
American weevils of the genus Conotrachelus. [Brit. Mn-. 
Nat. Hist.] 1940: 365 pp., ill. (k*). Frost, C. A. X..u-s on 
Notiophilus. [19] 36: 127-128. Hinton, H. E. A mono- 



238 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

graphic revision of the Mexican water beetles of the 
family Elmidae. [71] 42: 396 pp., ill. (k*). Lane & Fisher. 

Notes on the Schaeffer types in the families Cebrionidae, 
Elateridae and Throscidae. [19] 36: 118-122. Malkin, B 
A European buprestid in the United States. [19] 36: 132. 
Pereira, F. S. Pinotus de la Republica Argentina. (Cop- 
ridae). [106] 131: 262-267, ill. (*). Rempel' & Shevkenek. 

Notes on the morphology, life history, and economic im- 
portance of Smicronyx utilis (Curculionid.). [4] 73: 100- 
104, ill. Robinson, M. Studies in the Scarabaeidae of 
North America. Pts. 1 and 2. [1] 67: 127-136, ill. (*). 
Seevers, C. H. Taxonomic investigations of some termi- 
tophilous Staphylinidae of the sub-families Aleocharinae 
and Trichopseniinae (n. subfam.). [7] 34: 318-349, ill. 
Williams, R. W. Methods of collecting and marking large 
numbers of beetles. [19] 36: 139-140. 

HYMENOPTERA. Arajo, R. L. Contribuicao para o 
conhecimento de Gymnopolybia meridionalis. [14] 11: 11- 
16. Bequaert, J. Two neotropical Polistes imported with 
bananas. [19] 36: 109. Additions and corrections to the re- 
vision of North American Vespinae (Entomologica Ameri- 
cana, 1932). Second Paper. [19] 36: 111-117. Buren, W. F. 
Lasius (Acanthomyops) plumopilosus, a new ant with 
plumose hairs, from Iowa. [Iow T a State Jour. Sci.] 15: 231- 
235. Gemignani, E. V. Los tipos de las especies del genero 
Trypoxylon existentes en el Museo Argentine de Ciencias 
Naturales. [104] 10: 434-447, ill. Parkin, E. A. Symbiosis 
in larval Siricidae. [31] 147: 329. 

ATLAS OF THE SCALE INSECTS OF NORTH AMERICA, by 
GORDON FLOYD FERRIS, Professor of Zoology, Stanford Uni- 
versity. Series III, 269-384. Stanford University Press. 
Published March 27, 1941. Price bound $7.75, unbound $6.75. 
In the NEWS for May, 1937, page 150, and for October, 
1939, pages 238-239, we have noticed respectively the appear- 
ance of Series I and II of this Atlas. The present series con- 
tinues in the style of its predecessors and is devoted to the 
Tribes Diaspidini (23 genera, 11 of them new, with 5 previ- 
ously described and 40 new species) and Aspidiotini (13 
genera, 3 of them new, with 26 previously described and 24 
new species). Many of the new species are based on material 
collected by the author in his expedition of 1938 from Cali- 
fornia to Panama. Members of both the tribes here repre- 
sented also appeared in the earlier series. P. P. CALVERT. 



Hi, '41 j ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 239 

BUTTERFLIES. A handbook of the butterflies of the United 
States, complete for the region North of the Potomac and 
Ohio Rivers and East of the Dakotas, by RALPH W. MACY 
and HAROLD H. SHEPARD. Published by the University of 
Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 8 vo. Cloth, 247 pp., 4 colored 
plates and many text illustrations. Price, $3.50. Dr. Macy 
is the author of many technical papers on biological subjects, 
as is Dr. Shepard, as well as the Hesperidae section of the 
Catalogus Lepidopterorum ; the completion of which is un- 
fortunately interrupted by the war. 

In the first section the authors give new information about 
ancient beliefs about butterflies, and curious facts about their 
life histories and habits. The second section describes the 162 
species to be found in N. E. United States and adjoining 
Canada, with special reference to their occurrence in Minne- 
sota. 

The keys, adequate descriptions, and plates and text illus- 
strations will enable the collector to identify the butterflies 
that may come to his net. There is included a sufficient amount 
of references to other more expensive or obscure publications, 
but this book is indispensible to the amateur as well as the 
advanced student of these most charming members of the in- 
sect world. R. C. WILLIAMS, Jr. 



INSECT PESTS OF STORED GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS, 
IDENTIFICATION, HABITS AND METHODS OF CONTROL, by 
RICHARD T. COTTON, Senior Entomologist, Bureau of Ento- 
mology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. 8 vo., photo offset, flexible binding, 242 pp., illus., 
Minneapolis, Minn.. Burgess Publishing Company, 1941, $3.00. 
-This is a compact, practical handbook prepared for ready 
reference use of farmers, elevator operators, shippers, millers 
and all cithers who are engaged in the storage, shipping and 
processing of grain, as well as manufacturers and users of 
pest control supplies. It has been estimated that as a result 
of their feeding activities, their presence in grain and cereal 
products and the cost of methods employed to destroy them, 
this group of insects exacts a toll yearly of at least $300,000,- 
000 in the United States alone. In order intelligently to combat 
these insects it is essential to possess a knowledge of their life 
histories, habits and environmental needs. In order to acquaint 



240 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., '41 

the reader with these pests and the most effective methods of 
controlling them, the subject matter of the book has been 
arranged in the following subdivisions : The insect pests of 
stored grain and milled cereals ; Controlling stored grain in- 
sects on the farm ; Control of insects in grain stored in elevators 
and warehouses ; The insect problem in flour mills ; Practical 
control methods in the mill ; Protecting flour after manufac- 
ture ; Fumigants and fumigation ; The common f umigants ; 
Flour mill and warehouse fumigation ; Fumigation in atmos- 
pheric vaults and vacuum chambers ; and Heat sterilization in 
flour mills. Lists of selected references following each of 
these subdivisions will aid those who desire to pursue study 
of any of the various phases of its subject matter beyond the 
scope of this book. The illustrations likewise have been 
chosen with particular care adequately to supplement or to 
make clearer the text discussion. In view of the highly prac- 
tical importance of the whole subject, particularly at this time 
when a nationwide public defense program is being stressed, 
it is believed that this book will fill a definite need and will 
speediy attain a wide usefulness. J. S.W. 



OBITUARY 

The death, on July 17, 1941, of Professor MYRON HARMON 
SWENK, chairman of the department of entomology of the 
University of Nebraska since 1919, was announced in Science 
for August 8. He was born at Polo, Illinois, August 8, 1883, 
and received the A.B. (1907) and A.M. (1908) degrees from 
the University of Nebraska, with which his professional life 
was continuously spent. His entomological interests were on 
the pollination of plants by insects and the taxonomy of bees. 
He contributed descriptions of a new Collet cs to volume 15 
of the NEWS (1904) and of other species of the same genus 
to the volume for 1906, and of species of the genus Antho- 
phora to that for 1909. P. P. CALVERT. 



This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 
not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 



These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and, only when necessary those at the top (being 
longest in ) are discontinued. 



Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Correio 1043, Buenos Aires, 
Rep. Argentina. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
Benito, Texas. 

Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
of Michigan Platysamia Columbia, that will emerge June, 1941. W. 
S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Michigan. 

Wanted Specimens of the genus Trox from North America. Will 
exchange or determine for duplicate material. Mark Robinson, 231 
Cherry St., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes, T. halesus 
and E. jucunda to exchange for fauna from other localities. H. W. 
Eustis, Woodbine Rd., Lakemont, Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted- Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology. The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder Colorado. 

Arctic Lepidoptera especially Noctuidae Wanted to hear from 
collectors who desire the Arctic Species. Have large collection. 
R. J. Fitch. Lloydminster Saskatchewan, Canada. 



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The volumes already published since 1931 comprise thousands of 
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MANUAL OF MYIOLOGY (IN TWELVE PARTS) 

by Charles H. T. Townsend 

Part I. Development and Structure. 1934. 275 pp. 

Part II. Muscoid Classification and Habits. 1935. 280 pp. 9 pis. 

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1936. 303 pp. 

Part V. Muscoid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Glossinini to Agriini). 

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Part VI. Muscoid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Stephanostomatini to 

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Part VII. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Gymnosomatini to Ste- 

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Part VIII. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Microtropezini toVoriini) . 

1939. 405 pp. 
Part IX. Oestroid Generic Diagnoses and Data (Thelairini to Clythoini). 

1939. 268 pp. 
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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



NOVEMBER, 1941 



Vol. LII No. 9 



CONTENTS 

Samuel Henshaw, 1852-1941. An Appreciation 241 

Beard and Wallace Prothetely in Scolytus multistriatus Marsham 

(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) 242 

Wagner District of Columbia Butterfly Notes (Lepidoptera: Rhopa- 

locera) 245 

Bequaert A New Race of Vespula squamosa (Drury) from Michoa- 

can, Mexico (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) 249 

Chamberlin Seven New Millipeds from Mexico (Chilopoda) . . . . 250 
Rau Cockroaches: The Forerunners of Termites (Orthoptera Pla- 

ttidae; Isoptera) 256 

Review Peairs' Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard . . . 259 

Current Entomological Literature 260 

Review Cregan's Generic Relationships of the Uolichopodidae 

(Diptera) Based on a study of the Mouth Parts 267 

Obituary M. P. Riedel, Alexandre Arsene Girault, Prof. Charles 

Branch Wilson, Prof. Ellison Adger Smyth, Jr 263 



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ENT. NBWS, VOL. LII. 



Plate III. 






Fig. 1. Clcidoyona nueva, new species. Right gonopod of male, 
ectal view. 

Fig. 2. The same. Left leg of 9th pair of male, caudal aspect. 

Fig. 3. Clcidogona nuci'a michoacana, new variety. Right leg of 
9th pair of male, anterior view. 

Fig. 4. The same. Left leg of 10th pair of male, caudal view. 

Fig. 5. Eitrclus tancitarus. new species. Collum as seen from the 
right side. 

Fig. 6. The same. Anterior gonopod of left side, anterior view. 

Fig. 7. The same. Posterior gonopod of left side, caudal view. 

NEW MEXICAN MILLIPEDS.- CHAMBERLIN. 



ENT. NEWS, VOL. LII. 





Plate IV. 
9 



8 









Fig. 8. Orthoporus Icouicns, new species. Collum as seen from 
right side. 

Fig. 9. Rhinocricus potosianus, new species. Scobina of segment in 
middle section of body. 

Fig. 10. Mcssicobolus hoogstralli, new species. Anterior gonopods of 
male, anterior view. 

Fig. 11. The same. Distal end of telopodite of anterior gonopod, 
caudodo r sal view. 

Fig. 12. The same. Right gonopod of posterior pair, caudal side. 

Fig. 13. The same. Right posterior gonopod, anterior side. 



NEW MEXICAN MILLIPEDS-CHAMBERLIN. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LII NOVEMBER 1941 No 9. 

Samuel Henshaw, 1852-1941. An Appreciation. 

Announcement of the death of Samuel Henshaw, on Febru- 
ary 5, 1941, was made in the NEWS for March last. Since 
then two biographical notices of him have appeared : one by 
his associate in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cam- 
bridge, the paleontologist, Robert T. Jackson (Science for 
April 11), the other by two entomologists of the United 
States Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaratine, Joseph S. 
Wade and J. A. Hyslop (Proceedings, Entomological Society 
of Washington 43: 108-110). To those accounts we can add 
nothing. Henshaw's reticence concerning himself is illustrated 
by the brevity of his autobiographical data in American Men 
of Science and in Who's Who in America. 

His positions at the Museum from 1891 to 1927, first as 
assistant to Dr. H. A. Hagen, then as assistant in entomology, 
curator and director, gave him the opportunity to influence 
greatly the careers of students of insects. As one of these, I 
wish to put on record some evidences of appreciation. I made 
his acquaintance on July 25, 1890, when at the Museum to meet 
Dr. Hagen. I must have made a favorable impression on 
him for repeated visits to the M. C. Z., enabled me to acquire 
a knowledge of American Odonata from what was at that 
time one of the largest collections in the world, certainly in 
the western hemisphere. In 1899, he allowed me to borrow 
and bring from Cambridge to Philadelphia, an extensive 
series of neotropical specimens which were utilized in the 
preparation of the Biologia CentraK- Americana and in a con- 
tribution to the Neotropical Odonate fauna other than that of 
Mexico and Central America. It is idle to speculate whether 
my and others' opportunities would have been greater or 

241 









242 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

less had someone else occupied Henshaw's positions. Suffice 
it to say that I appreciated them then and now, and just as I 
told him on that cold snowy evening of December 29, 1933, 
when I last saw him, in his Fayerweather Street house, so now 
I repeat : I am grateful and I thank him. 

, PHILIP P. CALVERT. 



Prothetely in Scolytus multistriatus Marsham (Col- 

eop.: Scolytidae). 

By RAIMON L. BEARD and PHILIP P. WALLACE. 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 

New Haven, Conn. 

Prothetely, or the presence of pupal characteristics in the 
larval stage, has been reported in several families of Lepi- 
doptera and Coleoptera. Earlier literature covering these re- 
ports has been summarized by Thomas (1933). 

Since 1933, prothetely has been reported in Ef>ilacJma var- 
ivcstris (E. cormMa) by Landis and Davidson (1934), in 
Tribolium confnsnui by Oosthuizen and Sheparcl (1936), and 
in Mchtiiotus lonynlus by Stone (1938). 

Observation of several cases of this developmental abnor- 
mality among larvae of the elm bark beetle, Scol\tus innlti- 
striatus Marsham, adds a representative of the family Scolyti- 
dae to the list of Coleoptera exhibiting this phenomenon. 

The larvae of this beetle are typically scolytoid in form and 
do not normally possess legs. The pupal stage of the insect is 
preceded by a short prepupal period which is characterized by 
an enlargement of the thoracic region, with the presence of 
bulbous structures indicative of the future legs. The pro- 
thetely observed is chiefly marked by the presence of legs 
which are readily distinguished from these prepupal protuber- 
ances. 

The specimen showing the greatest development of "pupal" 
characteristics possessed both legs and wing pads. The legs 
were conspicuous, having the shape illustrated in Figure 1, B. 



Hi, '41] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



243 






B 



Fig. 1. Prothetely in S. multistriatus. A. Dorsal aspect of lateral 
region of mesonotum, showing position and relative size of wing pads. 
B. Outline of leg. C. Outline, drawn to scale, of prothetelous larva. 

Although the legs had a jointed appearance, there was no evi- 
dence of their having any functional significance. The two 
pairs of wing pads were sclerotized, the posterior pair heing 
somewhat better developed. The wing pads (Fig. 1, A) were 
flattened sacs, appearing to evaginate from the lateral region 
of the mesonotum and metanotum. It is presumed that this 
larva, when found, was in the penultimate stadium, as it 
molted once and later succumbed (probably from desiccation), 
when it showed evidence of approaching the prepupal con- 
dition. 

Another specimen, found in the last larval instar, had legs 
developed almost as well as the one just described, but only 
the posterior pair of wing pads was evident. This individual 
pupated and reached the imaginal stage witli no apparent 
difficulties. The adult form did not appear abnormal in any 
way, indicating that the presence of premature legs and rudi- 
mentary wings had no obvious effect upon the viability of tin- 
insect. 



244 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 



Approximately twelve other larvae were observed to bear the 
abnormality in degrees varying from the above two to larvae 
possessing slight conical protuberances suggestive of leg struc- 
tures. No confusion, however, arose between these and the 
protuberances which characterize the prepupal stage. 

In only three cases were wing pads present. 

An estimated one fourth of one percent of the beetle larvae 
showed the abnormality, as the number of larvae examined 
carefully enough to detect the legs approximated 5,000. 

Fruthi (1927) believed that in certain Tenebrionids a com- 
bination of larval and pupal characteristics indicated a con- 
dition of inhibited metamorphosis to which he applied the term 
neoteny. There is no doubt that the cases here reported for 
S. multistriatus are conditions of prothetely, as the possession 
of legs and wing pads was noted in the larval instar preceding 
the definitive prepupal and pupal stages. 

In most cases on record (vide Thomas 1933) prothetely has 
not been observed on material taken in nature, but on experi- 
mental material subjected to unusual environmental conditions. 
Moreover, such a morphological abnormality has generally pre- 
vented normal development. It is of particular interest to 
note, then, that these prothetelous larvae of S. multistriatus 
were taken from infested elm bark exposed to natural condi- 
tions and that of the two most extreme cases, one molted as a 
larva without difficulty, and the other pupated and developed 
into an apparently normal adult beetle. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

LANDIS, B. J., and DAVIDSON, R. H. 1934. Prothetely in 
Epilacliua corrupta Muls. (Coleop.) Ohio Jour. Science, 34: 
147-149. 

OOSTHUIZEN, M. J., and SHEPARD, H. H. 1936. Prothetely 
in larvae of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confitsitin 
Jacq.-Duv.) Ann. Pint. Soc. Amer., 29: 268-272. 

PRUTHI, HEM SINGH. 1927. Prothetely in insects. Na- 
ture, 119: 391-392. 

STONE, M. VV. 1938. An occurrence of prothetely in the 
wireworm Mclanotns loui/iilus Lee. Pan-Pacific Ent., 14: 16- 
18. 

THOMAS, C. A. 1933. Prothetely in an Elaterid larva 
(Coleop.) Ent. News, 44: 91-96. 



Hi, '41 | ENTOMOLOGICAL XKWS 245 

District of Columbia Butterfly Notes (Lepidoptera : 

Rhopalocera). 

By WARREN HERBERT WAGNER, JR., Washington, D. C. 

(Continued from page 200.) 

EUREMA JUCUNDA Boiscluval and Leconte. I took an old but 
unbroken male on alfalfa flowers in the Soldiers Home Grounds 
on July 24, 1935. Mr. Carroll Wood told me that every year 
specimens are found at Salem, Virginia, so perhaps this butter- 
fly can be expected to reach Washington regularly and therefore 
should be regarded as a rare visitor. 

PIERIS PROTODICE Boisduval and LeConte. A distinctive 
autumn form occurred in the District region in 1934-35-36. 
Similar specimens are found in other localities according to 
Dr. George W. Rawson. The shape is nearest that of the 
summer form, but the chalky white color of the wings and 
dark markings underneath are closer to the spring form. 

PAPILIO AJAX Linnaeus. In the spring a small, light form 
occurs just as in all of the other swallowtails. It is found in 
the last half of April and early May and is characterized by 
the greater amount of yellow relative to the black ground color. 
The row of spots nearest the outer edge is larger and the fe- 
males have more yellow in the inner row than in the summer 
form. There is more hair on the bodies of both sexes. 

P. PALAMEDES Drury. On July 31, 1937, I saw an unmis- 
takable palauicdcs near Chillum Heights in Washington from 
a distance of about 200 feet. Even at this distance the lumber- 
ing flight and checkered appearance make it easily recognizable. 
I caught up with it but unfortunately "muffed" it. It was a 
fresh specimen. A previous storm may account for its presence 
so far from its native swamps. 

P. MARCELLi's Boisduval. Intermediates between the late- 
spring and the summer forms are found occasionally in late 
May. A fresh one at hand taken by Mr. Wayne K. Hill is a 
female and intermediate in every respect. 

KHABDOIDES CELLUS (Boisduval and LeConte.) This butter- 
fly is a permanent resident here, reappearing every year in the 
locality near Great Falls, Maryland, discovered by Mr. and 



246 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

Mrs. Clark. 

ERYNNIS ZARUCCO Lucas. This species was taken for the 
first time when a mated pair was captured July 12, 1935, in 
the Soldiers Home Grounds. They were identified by Foster 
H. Benjamin as zarucco (terentious}. It is probably more 
common along the Chesapeake Bay Region of Maryland east 
of Washington. 

STAPHYLUS HAYHURSTII (Edwards). Although it does not 
occur in the original Washington area, this skipper is quite 
common at Camp Letts, Maryland, just twenty-nine miles 
away. It is found along paths in woods and the edges of woods 
bordering on old fields and salt marshes. 

HESPERIA METEA (Scudder). Mr. and Mrs. Clark have 
this skipper from nearby in Virginia. It is not uncommon in 
the Catholic University Grounds in Washington wherever 
there are dry grassy fields interspersed with pines. My earliest 
date is April 25, 1938, when three fresh specimens of both 
sexes were taken. My latest capture was May 29. It is ex- 
tremely inconspicuous and hard to catch. 

POLITES MANATAAQUA (Scudder). Before 1932, this 
skipper was apparently rare but since that time it has been 
abundant. May 25, 1936, is my earliest date and it disappears 
around the end of June appearing again toward the end of 
July. I took a gynandromorph in field east of 16th Street, 
N. W., near the District line. A common tendency among 
the males is to lose the orange-yellow markings above the 
stigma, making the specimens almost completely melanic. 
Some of these have been confused with Atrytonc vcstris, but 
the stigma shape and the presence of light tan scaling on the 
underside of the hind wings in ina-nataaqiia, which is absent 
from A. vcstris, enable easy identification usually. 

ATRYTONOPSIS HIANNA (Scudder). The same localities 
that yield H. mctca also yield hianna in much greater quantities. 
H lamia emerges later than mctca my earliest date is May 5, 
1938 and it can be found until the first week in June. It 
rarely visits flowers but when it does this skipper is usually 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

found on blackberry blossoms. The height of the season is 
the middle of May when fifty or so can be taken in a morning: 
mated pairs are most common at this time. Hianna is occa- 
sional in several other places in and arovmd Washington. 

The specimen captured August 26, 1939, by Mr. Clark and 
listed as this species has since been found to be Lcrcma accius. 
Hianna has but one brood. 

LERODEA EUFALA (Edwards). A single male was taken 
September 7, 1935, in a flower bed in MacMillan Park. It 
should be regarded as a very rare visitor here late in the 
summer. 

POANES ZABULON (Boisduval and LeConte). This common 
skipper has two broods here instead of one. My records show 
that it disappears toward the end of June and reappears the 
last week in July and flies until September. 

P. MASSASOIT HUGHI Clark. Another bog where this butter- 
fly is abundant was located at Hyattsville, Maryland. Both 
the Beltsville, Maryland Bog and that at Hyattsville are being 
destroyed in their natural flora and fauna by "improvements," 
In 1936, this butterfly appeared as early as June 25. The 
form of this subspecies, corresponding to siiffusa of typical 
massasoit, is frequent in both sexes and has the yellow-orange 
patch on the underside of the hind wings evenly covered over 
with dark rusty brown. Poancs massasoit hitghi may conceiv- 
ably disappear from our area as did P. aaroni and viator. 

P. VIATOR (Edwards). This is a common skipper in and 
near salt marshes around Camp Letts and along the Patuxent 
River at Benedict, in Maryland, but I doubt if it now occurs 
normally much nearer to Washington. My earliest and latest 
dates are June 20 and September 7. There are at least two 
broods. 

P. AARONI Skinner. The above named localities for viator 
also yield this skipper, but in smaller numbers. Aaroni wanders 
quite far away from its supposed home at Camp Letts, Mary- 
land. In fact all but one taken there were found in an old 
field a quarter-mile from the nearest salt marsh. On June 20, 
1939, Dr. George W. Rawson and I took more than a dozen 



248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

of both sexes in this field. There are two broods ; the first is 
from the second week in June to the first week in July and the 
second from the third week in August to at least the second 
week in September. Many specimens, both Mr. Clark and Mr. 
Williams agree, approach in size and color the subspecies 
howardi from Florida. Although this interesting skipper has 
been often reported from the Eastern shore of Maryland, I be- 
lieve these records are the first from the Western shore side of 
Maryland. 

PANOQUINA OCOLA (Edwards). I have taken this butter- 
fly in Washington from August 4 to September 23. It is rare 
here and the only female I have ever seen here was on the 
Chain Bridge Flats along the Potomac River. Held between 
two fingers, a male will slowly rotate its antennae after the 
curious fashion of Ancylo.rypJia nwnitor when at rest, as 
described by Mr. Scudder, and Atrytonc logan held between 
the fingers, as described by Mr. Clark. 

PAPERS INCLUDING REFERENCES TO DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 
BUTTERFLIES PUBLISHED SINCE 1932. 

CLARK, AUSTIN H. [Clirysophanus thoc, Papilio philcnor 
acauda, and Atrytonc bimacula recorded from the District of 
Columbia area.] Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 36, Nos. 
8, 9, November-December 1934, Feb. 18, 1935, p. 263. 

ID. [Cercyonis alopc pcgala, Strymon liparops form stri- 
gosa, E it re ma jiicunda, Thanaos tcrentius, and Lcrodca cufala 
recorded from the District of Columbia area, and Hcsperia 
Dietca and Tfwrybcs confusis recorded from Difficult Run, 
Virginia.] Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 37, No. 8, No- 
vember 1935, Jan. 17, 1936, p. 169. 

ID. Life History of the Gold-banded Skipper (Rhabdoidcs 
ccllns}. Science, new series, vol. 80, No. 2068, Aug. 17, 1934, 
pp. 163-164. 

In. The Gold-banded Skipper (Rhabdoidcs cellus). Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 95, No. 7, May 6, 1936, 
pp. 1-50, pis. 1 [colored frontispiece] 8, text figures A-D, 
26, E-H, p. 29. 

CLARK, AUSTIN H., and LEILA F. CLARK. Butterflies from 
Virginia and the District of Columbia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, vol. 51, pp. 1-6, Feb. 18, 1938. [Lycaena phlacas hy- 
po phlacas, ab. fulliolus, Papilio palanicdcs, Folites manataaqua 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 249 

(gynandromorph), and Calpodcs ctJiIins recorded from the 
District of Columbia area.] 

ID. Butterflies from Virginia. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, vol. 52, pp. 177-184, Dec. 15, 1939. [Poancs aaroni re- 
corded from Washington.] 



A New Race of Vespula squamosa (Drury), from 
Michoacan, Mexico (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). 

By J. BEQUAERT, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The small collection of Vespidae made in Mexico last summer 
by Mr. Harry Hoogstraal and Mr. Kenneth Knight was re- 
cently acquired by the Museum of Comparative Zoology. It 
contains an interesting local race of Vespula (Vespula} squa- 
mosa (Drury), the first to be known of that species. 
Vespula squamosa var. (or subsp.) michoacana, new. 

Worker. Black with the following yellow markings : 
clypeus, except for a median longitudinal spot in upper two- 
thirds ; inner orbits, filling the ocular sinuses but not reaching 
the vertex; a large, lozange-shaped spot above insertion of 
antennae, very narrowly divided from the inner orbits ; outer 
orbits covering the entire genae and extending over hind part 
of vertex, but narrowly interrupted behind the ocelli ; most of 
mandibles ; scape beneath ; broad hind margin of pronotum, 
narrowed and widely interrupted medially ; two narrow, slightly 
curved, median, longitudinal stripes on mesonotum ; a basal 
transverse band, broadly interrupted on scutellum, very nar- 
rowly divided on postscutellum ; a small spot on each side of 
propodeum ; a large spot in upper corner of mesepisternum ; 
a small spot in upper corner of metapleura ; tegulae ; most of 
legs (often somewhat orange and the femora extensively m- 
fuscate) ; hind margins of all tergites and sternites, continued 
along the sides, narrow- and uniform on tergites 1 and 6, much 
wider and with wavy anterior margin on tergites 2 to 5, very 
extensive and with lateral black spots on sternites 2 to 5. 

Tn addition tergite 1 bears on the edge of the slope a narrow 
transverse band which docs not reach the sides and is inter- 
rupted medially; the disk of tergite 2 is either entirely black- 
er bears a narrow cross-band (sometimes mere traces of it) 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

which does not reach the sides and is interrupted medially. 
Under side of flagellum somewhat russet, particularly toward 
the tip. Wing as in typical squainosa. The yellow color is 
sulphur-yellow on head and thorax, slightly tinged with orange 
on abdomen. 

Holotype, worker, and eight paratvpcs (workers), Tanci- 
taro, 6600 ft., State of Michoacan, Mexico, July, 1940 (II. 
Hoogstraal and K. Knight). Mus. Comp. Zool., Camhridge, 
Mass. Paratypes also at Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, U. S. Nat. Museum and American Mus. of Natural 
History, New York. 

It seems reasonable to assume that the curious reduction of 
the color markings of the abdomen is caused by the mountain 
climate. In the many workers of F. squainosa I have seen 
from the eastern United States and other parts of Mexico 
(Mexico City; Puebla; Hidalgo; Chihuahua), the discal trans- 
verse bands of tergites 1 and 2 are broad, connected with the 
yellow sides and not or very narrowly interrupted in the 
middle; the yellow markings of propodeum and mesopleura 
are also more extensive. 



Seven New Millipeds from Mexico (Chilopoda). 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, University of Utah, 

Salt Lake City. 
(Plates III and IV.) 

The seven species of diplopods described as new in the pres- 
ent paper are based upon material collected by Harry Hoog- 
straal and Kenneth Knight, chiefly in June and July, 1940, on 
the "Third Hoogstraal Mexican Biological Expedition." Some 
specimens, however, as hereafter noted, were taken in June, 
1938. All types are at present deposited at the University of 
Utah. 

Order CHORDEUMIDA. 
Suborder CHORDEUMOIDEA. 
Family PSEUDOCLEIDIDAE. 
Cleidogona nueva new species (Figs. 1, 2). 
A blackish band across the dorsum of each metazonite en- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 251 

closing four light spots in transverse series, from each of which 
arises a seta, the lateral spot on each side more elongate; 
prozonite also with cross band of black embracing at middle 
two contiguous or sub-contiguous light spots and large lateral 
light area on each side more extensive than the corresponding 
spot on metazonite. A longitudinal dark band along the upper 
part of each side just below line of keels while the lower part 
of side is pale, the line of junction between dark and light 
deeply remote. Legs somewhat dusky white, darker distally. 
Antennae dark. 

Eyes large, triangular with apex ectad, ocelli numerous and 
distinct, arranged in 6 or 7 series much as in michoacana. 

Antennae slender, with articles of usual proportions, the 
seventh more slender and scarcely longer than the sixth. 

Distinguished from michoacana in the form of gonopods 
and adjacent legs as shown in figs. 1 and 2. 

Length 12-13 mm. 

Locality. NUEVO LEON: Sabinas Hidalgo; Ojo de Agua. 
One male taken on June 14, 1940, in decaying wood outside 
of a cave at an elevation of 1300 feet by K. Knight. 

A lighter colored form than C. nueva michoacana from which 
it differs superficially also in color pattern ; e. g., in having the 
pair of submedian dorsal light spots on prozonites which are 
wholly lacking in michoacana. 
Cleidogona nueva michoacana new variety (Figs. 3, 4). 

A black band along dorsum and a similar one along each 
side with upper border at or just below level of pores; on each 
side between dorsal and lateral dark stripes a longitudinal 
yellow stripe with irregular margins and the sides also light 
colored below lateral dark bands ; the two more median setae 
on each segment each inserted on a small circular yellow spot; 
anal tergite black. Legs dusky yellow. 

Eyes large and black, composed of numerous ocelli arranged 
in series from above below as follows: 7, 7, 7, 5, 5, 3, 1. An- 
tennae long and slender, with the articles of the typical relative 
proportions. 

Cannae weak, and setigerous tubercles slight. 

Gonopods close to those of nueva, but the dorsal tooth on 
the basal spur appears lower and less acute. 

Ninth legs of male as shown in fig. 3. Tenth legs of male 
as shown in fig. 4. Process of eleventh legs nearly the 
as those of the tenth. 



252 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

Length, about 13 mm. 

Locality. MICHOACAN : Tancitaro. Elevation, 6,500 feet. 
Under logs in damp ground. A male and female taken by 
Hoogstraal, July 22, 1940. 

Order JULIDA. 
Suborder SPIROSTREPTOIDEA. 

Family SPIROSTREPTIDAE. 
Orthoporus leonicus new species (Fig-. 8). 

Brown, the segments with a lighter ferruginous annulus 
about the caudal border and lighter brown anteriorly adjacent 
to each preceding segment. Legs brown of a somewhat fer- 
ruginous cast. 

Head and collum smooth. O ilium with form and character- 
istic lateral sulci as shown in fig. 8. Segmental encircling 
sulcus on ordinary somites deeply impressed throughout, 
widely and moderately excurved opposite the pore which is 
separated from it by about twice its diameter ; longitudinal 
striae deep and complete up to the level of pore, above which 
they are abbreviated and are not present across dorsum ; the 
metazonites appearing smooth but under the lens revealing 
numerous very fine punctae and slight anastomosing ridges. 
Last tergite with caudal portion sharply set off by transverse 
depression from anterior part, exceeded by the valves. Anal 
valves smooth, their inner borders compressed and strongly 
elevated. 

Number of segments in female holotype, 72. In female 
paratypes 69 and 73 respectively. 

Length, near 160 mm. ; width. 9.5 mm. The two younger 
female paratypes are respectively 5.5 and 7.5 mm. in diameter. 

Locality. NUEVO LEON : Ojo de Agua, Sabinas Hidalgo. 
Elevation 1500 feet. Under damp rock near a stream. Three 
females taken by Harry Hoogstraal, June 18, 1938. 

This is a larger, more robust form than other species here- 
tofore reported from Mexico, apparently also quite distinct in 

sculpturing of collum and other segments. 

Suborder SPIROBOLOIDEA. 
Family RHINOCRICIDAE. 
Rhinocricus potosianus new species (Fig. 9). 

Olive to olive brown, the caudal borders of segments deeper 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

in color. Antennae and legs brown. 

Head smooth and shining; median sulcus distinct below 
level of antennae, but obscure across vertex. 

Collum with ends widely rounded; surface smooth and shin- 
ing; a fine margining sulcus about the anterior corner on 
each side. 

Second tergite extended well below level of the colluni 
where its anterior border is thickened and elevated. On ordi- 
nary segments the median sulcus is distinct throughout, in- 
terrupted with impressed cross lines or punctae ; slightly 
angled at level of pore with which it is in contact; surface 
above smooth and shining. Scobina beginning on ninth or 
tenth segment, where weak and small, and continuing to about 
the fiftieth where they again gradually fade out. In the seg- 
ments of the middle region the scobina are deeply impressed 
with the striae very fine and close-set, the deep lunate areas 
separated by somewhat less than twice their width. See 
further fig. 9. 

Number of segments in female holotype, 60. 

Length, 108 mm. ; diameter, 8.8 mm. 

Locality.- SAN Luis POTOSI : Valles, 7 miles south of El 
Banito. Elevation, 100 feet. Under bark of fallen tree. One 
female taken by Hoogstraal and Knight, June 26. 1940. 

In general structure possibly near to R. aurocinctus of Dur- 
ango, but strikingly different in coloration. The scobina in 
form and distance apart seem distinctive. 

Family SPIROBOLIDAE. 
Spirobolus nigrior new species. 

Deep blackish brown, nearly uniform in color. Antennae 
and legs also blackish. 

Eyes large, ocelli distinct, about 50-55 in number; arranged 
in 6 series. Clypeal foveolae 4 + 4. 

Collum of usual general form ; surface mostly smooth ; a 
sharply defined anterior margining sulcus from level of eye to 
lower caudal corner; just above and subparalld with tbr 
margining sulcus a short stria running from caudal margin 
forward. 

Second tergite extending well below level of the collum. On 
ordinary tergites the primary sulcus less sharply impressed 
across dorsum than the one in front of it. Posterior area of 
segments with numerous punctae; anterior ring marked with 
numerous fine short curved striae; striae on sides fine but 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

distinct, present to level of pores. Caudal triangular portion 
of last tergite depressed below level of anterior portion, some- 
what roughened, the anterior area smooth and shining. Anal 
valves with borders strongly compressed and elevated. 

Number of segments, 53. 

Length of female holotype, about 72 mm. ; width, 7 mm. 
The largest paratype is 8.2 mm. in thickness. 

Locality. NUEVO LEON: Villa Santiago (Hacienda Vista 
Hermosa Horsetail Falls). On arid plateau at elevation of 
2500 ft. One female taken by Hoogstraal and Knight on June 
18, 1938. Ojo de Agua, Sabinas Hidalgo; twelve females 
taken under damp rocks near stream, elevation 1500 ft., by 
Hoogstraal on June 12, 1938. 

In large size of eyes apparently differing from other known 
Mexican species excepting 6". platyops Pocock from Mescala. 

It is, however, conspicuously different from that form in 
lacking yellow posterior borders to the segments, etc. 

Messicobolus hoogstralli new species (Figs. 10-13). 

Brown, in part of chestnut cast, the somites darker on sides 
adjacent to preceding segment. Legs light brown. Antennae 
somewhat chestnut brown. 

Antennae obviously compressed, lying in a wide groove 
down side of head in front of eye and forward in mandible 
at side of clypeal region. Clypeal foveolae 4+4. 

Collum narrowly rounded at ends ; with a submarginal sulcus 
extending from level of eye to lower end on each side; surface 
smooth and shining. Second tergite produced well below 
level of collum; four longitudinal sulci above lower margin. 
On typical segments the pore lies its diameter or more in front 
of the segmental suture ; a supplementary sulcus branches off 
from the suture above the level of the pore and parallels the 
primary suture across dorsum. Metazonites appearing smooth 
and shining above but under the lens showing numerous but 
not dense fine punctae and short impressed lines ; sides longi- 
tudinally striate below level of pore. 

Gonopods of male as shown in figs. 10, 11, 12, and 13. 

Number of segments 48-49. 

Length of male holotype, about 100 mm.; diameter, 11 mm. 
Diameter of female allotype, 13 mm. 

Locality. NUEVO LEON : Sabinas Hidalgo, Ojo de Agua. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Five males and one female taken by Harry Hoogstraal, June 
14, 1940, under damp rocks near a stream. "Arid semi-des- 
ert." 

A larger form than M. godinani (Pocock) with 48-49 seg- 
ments as against 42, distinct also in the form of the male 
gonopods. 

Family ATOPETHOLIDAE. 
Eurelus tancitarus new species (Figs. 5-7). 

The male holotype is brown with the caudal borders of 
somites darker. Legs and antennae brown. Some of the 
associated females vary to chestnut, but the dark annuli about 
borders of segments are conspicuous in all. 

Antennae slender as usual. Ocelli 28-30 in each patch, 
arranged in 6 series, the eyes widely separated. 

Collum smooth and shining; at ends narrowly rounded as 
shown in fig. 5. Second tergite extending much below end of 
collum, its lower posterior corner widely rounded as shown in 
the figure. Segmental sulcus single, distinct throughout. Pore 
contiguous with segmental sulcus ; a short deep longitudinal 
sulcus behind middle at level of pore. Longitudinal striae 
numerous and fine beneath but not reaching level of pore by a 
wide distance. Surface not punctate. 

In the male the claws of the first two pairs of legs enlarged. 
The processes of coxae of third legs much smaller than in 
other known species and the coxae of immediately following 
legs scarcely compressed and with processes obsolete. 

The gonopods of the male also distinctive among the known 
species. See figs. 6 and 7. 

Number of segments in male holotype, 43. In females, 
41-42. 

Length of male holotype about 35 mm. ; diameter, 4.5 mm. 
Females up to 60 mm. long and 8 mm. in diameter. 

Locality. MICHOACAN : Tancitaro. On soil under rocks 
in moist woods. One male (holotype) and ten females taken 
by Hoogstraal on July 20, 1940. 

In the reduced size of coxal processes in the male E. kcr- 
rcusis forms a transition to the present species. E. tancitarus 
is clearly distinct from other known species also in the char- 
acters of the male gonopods. 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

Cockroaches: The Forerunners of Termites (Ortho- 
ptera: Blattidae; Isoptera). 

By PHIL RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 

The termites show a very close structural relationship to 
cockroaches ; they are, however, much more recent in geological 
time, having made their appearance during the age of Reptiles, 
whereas the cockroaches are known to he among the oldest 
of insects. There is little doubt, says Imms 1 that the Isoptera 
rose from cockroach-like forms and "subsequently developed a 
complex social organization." In observing cockroaches inti- 
mately for a number of years I am inclined to believe that 
termites did not subsequently develope a complex social organi- 
zation, as Imms says, but that many of the features of social 
behavior which they possess were handed down to them from 
their ancestors, the cockroaches. Certain characteristics of 
termite behavior were already evident in cockroaches long be- 
fore termites came upon the earth, and my attention was 
especially attracted to this problem when I found two species 
of domiciliary cockroaches mixing bits of wood, grains of 
sand, fecal pellets, or chunks of soil with the glutinous secre- 
tions of the mouth and applying the mixture to egg-cases, 
thereby completely disguising them.- Now termites have the 
habit of using similar mixtures for nest building and nest 
repairing and since this habit was evidently inherited from the 
cockroaches I thought perhaps that the gathering of additional 
data on how other species of cockroaches treat the egg-cases 
would throw some phylogenetic light on the subject. 

I found that the two species alluded to, Blatta orientalis and 
Periplancta americana, glue bits of surrounding material to 
the egg-case; Periplancta australasiae 3 also covers the egg-case 

1 Recent advances in Entomology; p. 85, 86, 1931. 

2 Ent. News 51: 186-187, 1940; also article soon to appear in Annals 
Ent. Soc. Amer. 

3 Rau, Jungle Bees and Wasps of Barro Colorado Island P. 196, 1933. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 257 

in the same way. Two species of wood-roaches in Missouri, 
Parcoblatta virginica (unrecorded observation) and Parco- 
blatta pennsyh'anica (Ent. News 51:6, 1940) do not cover the 
egg-cases but drop them as they are in galleries in rotten wood 
or under loose bark. The wood-eating roach, Cryptoccrcus 
punctulatus* cuts a groove in the wood, deposits the egg-case 
and seals it up so completely, that only one end is visible. 

In the German cockroach, Blattclla germanica, the period of 
incubation is much reduced, and also the egg-cases are carried 
for a longer time; the result is that often an egg-case gives 
forth its young while it is still being carried about by the 
mother 5 . The hatching of the eggs while the egg-purse is pro- 
truding from the mother's body is apparently a step toward the 
viviparous habit in cockroaches, and we have in the species 
Panchlora viridis an example of a cockroach that gives birth 
to its young alive; of P. viridis Sharp says (Insects, Pt. 1, 
229, 1895) the egg-case is either wanting or present only in a 

very imperfect form. 

We may note that the examples given thus far show the 
tendency of cockroaches to cover the egg-cases, to seal them 
up in a groove, to drop them loosely without cover, to carry 
them about until the eggs hatch from the protruding egg-case, 
and lastly to dispensing entirely with the egg-case in the 
viviparous species. Dispensing with the egg-case and dropping 
the eggs singly is the usual method of oviposition in termites; 
but even this method was anticipated by the cockroach for 
Gould and Deay 5 (p. 5) find that, during the latter part of 
their lives, the females of the American cockroach often "de- 
posit eggs entirely unprotected by any trace of a capsule", and 
also there are indications that certain fossil Blattidae of Car- 
boniferous did not make egg-capsules, but deposited the eggs 
singly in trees (Sharp, loc. cit., p. 239). While these t\v 

'Cleveland, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 17: (2) 185-342, 1934. 
5 Gould and Deay, Bull. 451, Purdue Univ. Agri. Exp. Station pp. 
15-16, 1940. 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

unusual examples are very similar to the habit of termites in 
depositing their eggs singly, we have on the other hand a 
habit of oviposition in certain primitive termites, Mastotermes 
darwniniensis, which resembles very much the egg-laying habits 
of cockroaches. Snycler states that this species has an egg- 
mass similar to the egg-capsule of cockroaches, "the individual 
termite eggs are firmly cemented together by a light brown 
gelatinous secretion which fills the insterstices between the eggs." 
The fact that M. dan^hiicusis is a primitive species makes its 
egg-laying habits all the more interesting as a connecting link 
to the cockroach. 

There are other patterns in cockroach behavior which par- 
allel termite behaviour or anticipate it ; for example, Snyder 
tells us that in the wings of certain primitive cockroaches, a 
break occurs similar to the humeral suture or line of weakness 
near the base of the termite wing, where the wing breaks off 

after the colonizing flight. He also tells us that the large wing- 
less brown roach, Cryptocerus f>nnctiihitns leads a sub-social 
life in partly decayed logs, where the wood serves both as 
shelter and food. And finally, as if flying directly into the 
arms of termite behavior, we have a cockroach an Australian 
species belonging to the genus Paucstliia 7 which "lives in 
burrows in the soil in strict family communities, each of which 
consists of an adult male, a viviparous female, and from ten 
to twenty of their larval progeny in various stages of growth, 
***** and soon after reaching maturity the adults bite off 

their own tegmina and wings, for these organs are inconven- 
ient for inhabiting the burrow"- and this, I may say in pass- 
ing, is about as far as a cockroach may dare go without 
actually becoming a termite. 

To conclude then, this little review indicates that cockroach 
behavior in many of its aspects is the forerunner of termite 

6 Our Enemy the Termite, pp. lf>-17, 1935. 

7 Tillyard, Insects of Australia and New Zealand, p. 92, 1926. 



lii, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 259 

behavior and that the termites themselves are not responsible 
for the development of all of the complex traits of their social 
behavior but much of it has been handed down to them from 
their Blattoid ancestors. This outline, however, is suggestive 
rather than exhaustive and future research will, I am sure, 
supply many of the connecting links and strengthen many of 
the weak places in the phylogenetic scheme. 

I may mention in passing, Dr. Wheeler's contention 8 that 
the historical and comparative method "still has much to 
offer in the study of behavior, although it has fallen into un- 
deserved disuse, and even disrepute among laboratory biolo- 
gists." 



INSECT PESTS OF FARM, GARDEN AND ORCHARD. By 
LEONARD M. PEAIRS. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 
1941. $4.00. In 1912, Dr. E. Dwight Sanderson published 
the first edition of this work, which met with such well de- 
served success that he, with the coauthorship of Dr. Peairs, 
had to revise it for two more editions. The present edition is 
the fourth and from which, as coauthor, Dr. Sanderson had to 
withdraw. Although the general format of the former edi- 
tions has been retained in the present one the subject matter is 
presented in a much improved manner, making a more com- 
prehensive work, better serving the purpose for which it is 
published, i. e., as a text book for agriculturists and students 
of economic entomology. The contents are divided into chap- 
ters on: 1, Structure and Development; 2, Classification; 3-5, 
Control: climatic, biological, mechanical, cultural and chem- 
ical; 6-19, Insects injurious to various crops and fruits; with 
the last two on insects injurious to stored products and on those 
injurious to man and domestic animals. It contains 523 pages 
including the index, and 648 illustrations. The illustrations, 
with few exceptions are good and satisfactorily delineate the 
subjects. On the whole, a work that should find a useful place 
on the desk of all economic entomologists and should be a 
valuable consulting work for the practical agriculturist. E. T. 
CRESSON. 

8 Essays in Philosophical Biology, p. 52, 1939. 



260 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY L. S. MACKEY and R. G. SCHMIEDER, 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Abbott, C. E. The sensory basis of court- 
ship. [6] 49: 217-220. Anon. Arthur Paul Jacot. [39] 24: 
43-47. Balch, R. E. The climate of the Maritime Prov- 
inces. [4] 73 : 139. Bates, M. Laboratory observations 
on the sexual behavior of anopheline mosquitos. [42] 86: 
153-174. Bruch, C. Miscelaneas entomologicas. [Notas 
Mus. de la Plata] 6: 157-171, ill. Buxton, P. A. A map 
projection of biological interest. [107] 16:34, ill. Chamber- 
lin, W. J. Entomological Nomenclature and Literature. 
Michigan. 1941. 103 pp. deLeon, D. Some observations 
on Forest Entomology in Puerto Rico. [Caribbean For- 
ester] 2: 160-163. Diakonoff, A. Het paramount-kaart- 
systeem ten dienste van de entomologie. [102] 7: 34-40. 
Essig, E. O. Bibliographv of entomological publications 
of Charles William Woodworth. [12] 34: 595-596. Itin- 
erary of Lord Walsingham in California and Oregon, 1871- 
1872. [55] 17: 97-113', ill. Fichter, E. Apparatus for the 
comparison of soil surface Arthropod populations. [841 22: 
338-339, ill. Grier, M. C. Oceanography of the North 
Pacific Ocean. Bering Sea and Bering- Strait: a contribution 
toward a bibliography. [Univ. Washington Publ.] 2: 160. 
Hatch, M. H. The logical basis of the species concept. 
[90] 75: 193-212. Hickin, N. E. Methods used in rearing 
small insects infesting stored food products. [107] 16: 35- 
38, ill. Hovanitz, W. Parallel ecogenotypical color varia- 
tion in butterflies. [84] 22: 259-284, ill. Porter, L. C. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 261 

What kinds of light attract night flying insects most? 
Least? [General Electric Rev.] 44: 310-313, ill. Snapp, O. 
I. History of the cotton states branch of the American 
Association of Economic Entomologists. [12] 34: 485 
Wade, J. S. Obituary Lee Abram Strong. [12] 34: 479- 
480, ill. Whelan, D. B. The role of plastics in the field 
of entomology. [103] 14: 73-84. Young, F. N. A correc- 
tion. [39] 24:'31. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Bodenstein, D.- 

Investigations on the problem of metamorphosis. Yll. Fur- 
ther studies on the determination of the facet number in 
Drosophila [42] 86: 87-112. VIII. Leg determination 87: 
31-54. Brehme, K. S. The growth of transplanted minute 
and wild-type optic disks in Drosophila melanogaster 
[Growth] 5: 183-196. Caspari, E. The influence of low 
temperature on the pupation of Ephestia kiihniella. Z. 
[42] 321-332. Classey, E. W. The Breck : an excerpt from 
a lepidopterist's diary, with notes on light. [9] 74: 171-173. 
Day, M. F. Pigment migration in the eyes of the moth, 
Ephestia kiihniella Z. [92] 80: 275-291, ill Dethier, V. G. 
-The function of the antennal receptors in lepidopterous 
larvae. [92] 80: 403-414, ill. Chemical factors determining 
the choice of food plants by Papilio larvae [90] 75: 61-75. 
Gjullin, Hegarty & Bollen. The necessity of a low oxygen 
concentration for the hatching of Aedes mosquito egrs. 
[Jour. Cell. & Comj). Physiol.] 17: 193-202. Hinton, H. E. 
Notes on the internal anatomy and immature stages of 
Mucetophagus quadripustulatus (Mycetophagid.). [107] 16: 
39-48, ill. Krogh & Zeuthen -Th'e mechanism of flight 
preparation in some insects. [Jour. Exp. Biol.] 18: 1-10. 
Kuhn, A. Zur Entwicklungsphysiologie der Schmel 
lingsschuppen. [97] 61 : 109-147, ill. Pearl, Park & Miner. 
-Experimental studies on the duration of life. XVI. Life 
tables for the flour beetle Tribolium confusum D. [93] ', 
5-19. Rosenblad, L. E. Description of ejaculatory 
rliverticula in certain Drosophilinac. [90] 75: 285-288 ill. 
Schneider, B. A. The nutritional requirements of Tribol- 
ium confusum Dnval \<>2\ 80: 208-227. Stanley, J.- 
mathematical theory of the growth of populations of the 
flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duv. IV. [84] 
Stern, C. The growth of testes in Drosophila. L The re 
lation between vas defcrens and testis in various 
IT. The nature of interspecific differences [42] 87: 113 159. 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Bingham, M. L. 

A note on the bionomics of Ixodes ricinus. [116] 33: 316- 
319. Chamberlin, R. V. New western millipeds. [Bull. 
Univ. of Utah] 31: 23 pp., ill. New genera and species of 
American lithobiid centipeds. [Bull. Univ. of Utah] 31: 23 
pp. Three new centipeds of the genus Cryptops. [13] 33: 
41-43. Chamberlin & Ivie. Spiders collected by L. W. 
Saylor and others, mostly in California. [Bull. Univ. 
Utah] 31: 49 pp., ill. Gerhard, W. J. The mite and tick 
menace. [Field Mus. News] 12: p. 4, ill. Hixson, H. A 
suicide host. [39] 24: 34. Lundblad, O. Die Hydracarin- 
enfauna Sudbrasiliens und Paraguays. [Kongl. Sv. Vet. 
Akad. Handlingar] 19: 183 pp., ill. 'de Mello-Leitao, C- 
Las Aranas. [Univ. Nac. de la Plata] 2: 99-198, ill. Rad- 
ford, C. D. Notes on some new species of parasitic mites. 
[116] 33: 306-315, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Banks, N. 

Some new and interesting Neuroptera in the American 
Museum of Natural History. [40] No. 1143: 5 pp. Bern- 
er, L. Ovoviviparous mayflies in Florida. [39] 24: 32-34. 
Holway, R. T. Tube-building habits of the eastern sub- 
terranean termite. [12] 34: 389-394, ill. Ide, F. P. May- 
flies of two tropical genera, Lachlania and Campsurus, from 
Canada with descriptions. [4] 73: 153-156. (*). MacLeod 
& Craufurd-Benson. Observations on natural populations 
of the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis. [116] 33: 
278-299, ill. Nutman, S. R. Function of the ventral tube 
in Onychiurus armatus (Collembola). [31] 148: 168-169. 

ORTHOPTERA. Breland, O. P. Notes on the biolojrv 
of Stagmomantis Carolina (Mantid.). [19] 36: 170-177. 
Flock, R. A. Biological control of the brown-banded 
roach. [19] 36: 178-181. Hebard, M. The group Ptero- 
phyllae as found in the United States (Tettigoniid.). [1] 
67: 197-219. ill. de Mello-Leitao, C. Dos nuevas especies 
de Cephalocoema (Proscop.). [Notas Mus. de la Plata] 6: 
141-145. Rehn, J. A. G. On new and previously known 
species of Pneumoridae. [1] 67: 137-159, ill. "Tuck & 
Smith. Identification of the eggs of midwestern grasshop- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 263 

pers by the chorionic sculpturing-. [Kansas Agric. Exp. 
Sta.] Tech. Bull. No. 48: 39 pp., ill. Urquhart, F. A.The 
species of Nemobius in Ontario. [Can. Field Nat.] 55: 80- 
82. (k). Watson, J. R. Migrations and food preferences 
of the lubberly locust. [39J 24: 40-42. Zeuner, F. E.- 
The classification of the Decticinae hitherto included in 
Platycleis or Metrioptera. [36] 91: 50 pp., ill. (*). 

HEMIPTERA. China, W. E. Genotype fixations in 
Hemiptera Heteroptera. [107] 10: 130. Doering, K. C.- 
A revision of two genera of North American Cercopidae. 
[103] 14: 102-108, cont.- (k). Drake, C. J. Three new 
American Tingitidae. [55] 17: 139-141. Gorham, R. P.- 
An early record of aphid flight. [4] 73: 136. Islas, F.- 
Desarrollo y caracteres morfologicos de Triatoma picturata. 
[112] 12: 311-326, ill. Pelaez,' D. Estudios sobre Mem- 
bracidos. [112] 12: 327-344, ill. [Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. 
Nat.] 2: 51-67, ill. Sailer, R. I. A new species of Thyreo- 
corine from Mexico. [103] 14: 90-91, ill. de la Torre- 
Bueno, J. R. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of 
America North of Mexico. [70] 21: 41-122. (k). Usinger, 
R. L. The genus Oechalia (Pentatomidae) [37] 11: 59-93, 
ill. A remarkable immigrant Leptopodid in California. 
[19] 36: 164-165. Wood/S. F. Notes on the distribution 
and habits of reduviid vectors of Chagas' disease in the 
southwest United States. (Reduviid.). [55] 17: 115-118. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Barber, G. W. Observations on the 
egg and newly hatched larva of the corn ear worm on corn 
silk. [12] 34: 451-456. Bell, E. L. New species of neotrop- 
ical Hesperidae. [40] No. 1125: 10 pp.. ill. Burdick, W. N. 

A new race of Parnassius smintheus from the Olvmpic 
Mountains of Washington [4] 73: 117-118, ill. Clark, A. 
H. Notes on the American representatives of the butter- 
fly genus Argynnis. [91] 31: 381-384. Clarke, J. F. G.- 
The preparation of slides of the genitalia of Lepidoptera. 
[19] 36: 149-161, ill. Comstock & Dammers. Ctenucha 
bninnea on Santa Rosa Island. [38] 40: 11-12, ill. Dethier, 
V. G. (See under Anatomy.) Evans, W. H. The resting 
positions of butterflies. [107] 16: 33. Franclemont, L G. 

The pulverulenta group of the genus Pseudanarta (Phal- 
aenid.). [4| 73: 132-136. ill. Freeman, T. N. New species 
of Canadian Lepidoptera. [4| 73: 123-127, ill. Griffin & 
Griffin-Gillen. The terminology used by Jacob TTubncr. 

[107] 16: 49-54. Hall, A. Catalogue of" the Lepidoptera 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

rhopalocera of British Guiana. [Brit. Guiana Dept. Agric.] 
Ent. Bull. No. 3: 88 pp., ill. Hoffmann, C. C. Lepidop- 
teros nuevos de Mexico. [112] 12: 231-235, ill. Catalogo 
de los Lepidopteros mexicanos. |112] 12: 237-294. Hovan- 
itz, W. (See under General.) Kiihn, A. (See under An- 
atomy.) Marsh, F. L. A few life history details of Samia 
cecropia within the southwestern limits of Chicago. [84] 
22: 331, ill. Martin & Houser. Numbers of Heliothis arm- 
igera and two other moths captured at light traps. [12] 34: 
555-559, ill. Richards, A. G., Jr. The genus Arugisa in 
the United States, with the description of a new species 
(Phalaenid.). [40] No. 1114: 4 pp., ill. Tilden & Mansfield. 
Some observations and captures of California lepidop- 
tera. [55] 17: 113-114, cont. Vazquez, L. Estudio mono- 
grafico de las Psychidae de Mexico. [112] 12: 295-310, ill. 
(*). 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. New or little-known Tip- 
ulidae Neotropical species. [75] 8: 105-132, ill. Ayroza- 
Galvao & Coutinho. Contribuicao ao estudo dos Fleboto- 
mos df) estado de Sao Paulo, Phlebotomus sallesi no. sp. 
(Psichodid.). [Arq. Hig. e Saude Publ.] 5: 15-27, ill Bates, 
M. (See under General.) Bigharn, J. T. Hippelates (eye 
gnat) investigations in the southeastern states. [12] 34: 
439-444. Bohart, G. E. A review of the genus Physoceph- 
ala of the western United States. (Conopid.) [55] 17: 141- 
144. Coutinho, J. O. Observances sobre algumas especies 
de flebotomus com a descricao do Macho de Phlebotomus 
lloydi-Antunes, 1937. [Arq. 'Hig. e Saude Publ.] 5: 31-41, 
ill. Curran, C. H. Some new species of Mallophora ( Asil- 
idae). [6] 49: 269-284. New American Syrphidae. [62] 78: 
243-304. (k). New neotropical Tachinidae. [40] No. 1113: 
5 pp. (k). Harmston & Knowlton. New species of Her- 
costomus from western North America (Dolichopodid). 
[4] 73: 127-132, ill. New western Dolichopodidae. [103] 
14: 92-97, ill. Hull, F. M. Some new species of Syrphi- 
dae. [19] 36: 166-168. Mallis & Pence. The Pacific' drain 
fly in homes. [12] 34: 586, ill. Philip, C. B. Notes on ne- 
arctic Tabaninae, Part II. Tabanus and Hybomitra. [4] 73: 
142-153. Richards, A. G., Jr. Differentiation between 
toxic and suffocating effects of petroleum oils on larvae of 
the house mosquito (Culex pipiens). [1] 67: 161-196. ill 
da Silva Ramos & Unti. Notas snbrc os anofelinos de Sao 
Vicente e suas imeda^oes. [Arq. Hig. e Saude Publ.] 5: 53- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 265 

58, ill. Simmons & Dove. Breeding places of the stable- 
fly or "Dog- Fly" Stomoxys calcitrans in northwestern 
Florida. [12] 34: 457-462. Snyder, F. M. Contribution to 
a revision of neotropical Mydaeini. [40J No. 1134: 22 pp. 
(k*). Vargas, L. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis willardi 
n. var. (Culicid.). [Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. Nat.] 2: 47-49. 
Simulium lane-portoi n. n. y lista de simulidos mexicanos 
[Rev. Inst. Salubrid. y Enferm. Trop.] 2: 115-122. Apli- 
cacion taxonomica de tin metodo estadistico. [Rev. Inst. 
Salubrid. y Enferm. Trop.] 2: 123-128, ill. Webber, R. T. 
Synopsis of the Tachinid flies of the genus Tachinomyia, 
with descriptions of new species. [50] 90: 287-303. (k). 

COLEOPTERA. Baker, W. C. Type of wood pre- 
ferred by Coleoptera commonly found in decadent parts of 
living elm trees. [12] 34: 475-476. Balthasar, V. Eine 
reihe von neuen coprophagen Scarabaeiden. [2] 37: 84-93. 
Banninger, M. Bestimmungstabelle der sudamerikanisch- 
en formen des subg. Taeniolobus (Carab.). [2] 37: 65-78. 
Barr, W. F. New distributional records of Paratyndaris 
(Buprestid.). [19] 36: 168-169. Bianchi, F. A. Remark- 
able longevity of a Pyrophorus larva. [37] 11: 38-39. 
Blackwelder, R. E. A monograph of the genus Trigonurus 
(Staphylinid.). [40] No. 1124: 13 pp. Bryson, H. R. The 
occurrence in Kansas of the sugar-cane rootstock weevil, 
Anacentrinus deplantus (Curculionid.). [103] 14: 84-90, ill. 
Calhoun, P. W. Topping cotton in early fall as a possible 
means of reducing the spring boll weevil population in the 
northwestern part of the Florida Sea Island Cotton Belt. 
[39] 24: 35-40. Chamberlin & Seaton. Proportion of the 
sexes in June beetles in Wisconsin. [12] 34: 467. Fender, 
D. Notes on Cantharis (Cantharid.). |55] 17: 126-129, ill. 
Heikertinger & Csiki. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 166. 
Chrysomelidae: Halticinae. 336 pp. Hinton, H. E. A mon- 
ographic revision of the Mexican water beetles of the fam- 
ily Elmidae. [71] 42: 217-396, ill. A synopsis of the Ameri- 
can specie of Austrolimnius (Elmidae). [8] 77: 156-163, 
ill. (k*s). Kleine, R. Genera Insectorum. Fasc. 207. 
Coleoptera Fam. Brenthidae. 197 pp., ill. Lane, M. C. 
Three new Elateridae from the Pacific northwest. [55] 17: 
133-139, ill. Leech, H. B. Descriptions of two new species 
of water beetles of the genus Hydroporus from California. 
(Dytiscid.). [55] 17: 129-132. ill. Malkin, B. Triachus 
vacuus. [19] 36: 183. Additions to New Jersey State List 



266 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

of Coleoptera. [6] 49: 285-291. Pieltain, C. B. Estudio de 
un Trechus alpino nuevo del Nevado de Toluca, Mexico. 
[Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. Nat.] 2: 39-46, ill. Pierce, W. 
D. A Strepsipterous parasite of a leaf hopper, with de- 
scriptions of related species from the same host genus. 
[38] 40: 1-10, ill. (*). Pinckney & Stitt. Tests of species 
and varieties of vetch for resistance to the vetch bruchid. 
[U. S. Dept. Agric.] Circ. No. 617: 5 pp. Reinhard, H. J. 
-The life history of Phyllophaga tristis and allied forms. 
[12] 34: 526-532. Sayldr, L. W. Five new Guatemalan 
scarab beetles of the genus Phyllophaga. [91] 31: 384-388. 
Schenkling, S. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 170. Index 
generalis. 502 pp. Schenkling & Marshall. Coleopterorum 
Catalogus Pars. 168. Curculionidae: Addenda. 14 pp. 
Thomas, C. A. The Elateridae of Pennsylvania. [6] 49: 
233-263. Timofeeff-Ressovsky, H. A. See under Anat. 
Oct.) Voss, E. Coleopterotum Catalogus. Pars 167. Cur- 
culionidae: Rhynchitinae II, Allocoryninae, Pterocolinae. 
57-130 pp. White, B. E. A new Nodonota with a key to 
the United States species (Chrysomelid.). [19] 36: 162-164. 
Williams, R. W. Notes on the bionomics of the milkweed 
beetle Tetraopes tetrophthalmus. [14] 73: 137-139. Young, 
F. N. Bidessus rogersi, new water beetle from Florida. 
[39] 24: 29-31, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Banks, N. A partition of our 
Cryptochilus, with some new Psammocharidae. [4] 73 : 
119-122, ill. Bequaert, J. Pseudodynerus, a neotropical 
complex of Eumenine wasps (Vespid.). [40] No. 1106: 10 
pp.. ill. (k*). Blanchard, E. E. Una especie nueva de 
Apanteles Parasito de Melittia bergi. [Notas Mus. de la 
Plata] 6: 153-155. ill. Bugbee, E. E. A new species of the 
Eurytoma rhois complex from the seeds of Schmaltzia tri- 
lobata (Eurytomid.) [103] 14: 98-102, ill. Gahan, A. B.- 
A revision of the chalcid-flies of the genus Monodontomerus 
in the United States National Museum. [50] 90: 461-482. 
Hetrick, L. A. Life history studies of Neodiprion ameri- 
canum. [12] 34: 373-377, ill' Lafleur, L. J. Civil disturb- 
ances in ant communities. [6] 49: 225-231. Michener, C. D. 
A synopsis of the genus Trachusa with notes on the nest- 
ing habits of T. perdita. (Megachilid.). [55] 17: 119-125. 
Niblett, M. Notes on the Cynipid genera Cynips, Bior- 
hiza and Megaptera. [9] 74: 153-157. Pate, V/S. L. Two 
new species of sphecoid wasps from Trinidad. [Notulae 
Naturae] No. 91 : 8 pp. Richards, O. W. The classifica- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 267 

tion of the genus Mischocyttarus (Vespid.). [107] 10: 124- 
130. (k*). Weber, N. A. Notes on the effect of drouth up- 
on the nesting habits of ants. [4] 73: 140-141. 



GENERIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE DOLICHOPODIDAE (Diptera), 
BASED ON A STUDY OF THE MOUTH PARTS, by Sister MARY 
BERTHA CREGAN, R. S. M., Illinois Biological Monographs, 
Vol. XVIII, No. 1. The University of Illinois Press. Urbana, 
Illinois, 1941. Pp. 37, 30 plates ', 193 figs. $1.00 In her 
paper of the above title the author has proposed a generic 
arrangement of the American Dolichopodidae. Object of the 
study was, to quote, '"To ascertain if the groupings of the 
American genera on the basis of mouthparts would conform 
to those of Langhoffer." Mouthpart structure was the basis 
upon which Langhoffer established a generic arrangement in 
the Old World Dolichopodidae. In addition to her own con- 
clusions, the author gives a very "meaty" summarization of 
studies and observations made by earlier entomologists on the 
food habits, characteristics and habitats of this family. Four 
distinct types of mouthparts were found to occur among the 
thirty-two genera studied. They have been designated by 
Sister Cregan as: (1) the labralate type; (2) the epipharyn- 
geal two-prong type; (3) the epipharyngeal four-prong type; 
and (4) the epipharyngeal plate type. The 193 freehand draw- 
ings illustrate both complete mouth units and individual struc- 
tures in the various genera studied. Commonly used entomo- 
logical terms are employed throughout. Mouthparts were pre- 
pared for study by being run through the potassium hydroxide, 
water, alcohol, xylol and glycerine series. The four main types 
are further divided, on the basis of structural characteristics 
in the epipharyngeal armature and pseudotrachea, into twelve 
groups of genera, which, as the author states, "may be con- 
sidered as subfamilies although not so named here." The 
author has ascribed real importance to trophi structure as a 
means for generic classification, whereas, with the exception of 
Langhoffer, other systematists of the Dolichopodidae appar- 
ently gave little consideration to such structures. The phylo- 
genetic arrangement of genera into subfamilies as proposed" by 
Sister Cregan does not, in several instances, agree with the 
earlier system of Langhoffer, which likewise was based upon 
tnouthpart structure, nor with those of Aldrich, Becker and 
Lundbeck, which were based upon external characters. In 
passing it should be noted, however, that in respect to many 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

genera the earlier classifications do not agree among them- 
selves. Regardless of the value which different investigators 
may attach to Sister Cregan's classification, her paper should 
pro've to he a valuable reference for anyone contemplating a 
comprehensive study of Diptera mouthparts. FRED C. HARMS- 
TON. 



OBITUARY 

Postamtmann i: R. M. P. RIEDEL died on March 27, 1941, 
following a long illness, at Frankfurt am Oder, Germany. He 
was horn on February 19, 1870, and was thus in his 72nd 
year. Riedel was a distinguished student of the Diptera, par- 
ticularly of the Tipulidae, having published numerous papers 
on the Australian, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical and west- 
ern Palaearctic faunas. He is survived by his widow, Mar- 
garete Weidefeld Riedel, and a daughter, Gertrud Riedel 
Kloeckner. The words "Postamtmann i. R." preceding the 
name refer to his being a retired officer of the German Postal 
Service. C. P. ALEXANDER. 



Science for July 4, 1941, announced the death of ALEX- 
ANDRE ARSENE GIRAULT in the hospital at Brisbane, Queens- 
land, Australia, on May 2. He was born at Annapolis, Mary- 
land, January 9, 1884, received the B.S. degree from Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute in 1903, was a special field agent of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1904-07, and was connected 
with the office of the State Entomologist of Illinois, 1908-11. 
He contributed many articles to the NEWS from 1900 to 1918, 
especially in 1913-1918. Many of these dealt with the parasitic 
Hymenoptera, especially the Chalcioidea, but there were many 
observations on the life histories and biology of various insects. 
Two of his early papers were bibliographies of entomological 
glossaries (1905). A series of ten Standards of the number 
of eggs laid by insects, being averages obtained by actual count 
of the combined eggs from 20 depositions or masses, ran from 
1901 to 1914; references to volume and page numbers will be 
found in volume 25, page 296. Another series of three dealt 
with the number of eggs laid by spiders (1911-1914, vols. 22, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 269 

24, 25). 

A note in the NEWS for October, 1911 (page 373) an- 
nounces his appointment as entomologist of the Department of 
Agriculture of Queensland, and his papers from October of 
that year to January, 1915, are from Brisbane or from Xelson 
(Cairns). That of February, 1915, was sent from Washing- 
ton, but in 1916, he removed to Glenndale, Maryland, where 
he was when the last of his NEWS papers (1918) appeared. 
Subsequently he returned to Australia. P. P. CALVERT. 

Prof. CHARLES BRANCH WILSON died on August 18, 1941, 
according to Science for August 29. He was born at Exeter, 
Maine, October 20, 1861, and received the degrees of A.B. 
(1881) and A.M. (1883) from Colby College and Ph.D. 
(1910) from Johns Hopkins University. He was head of the 
department of Science at the Massachusetts State Teachers 
College at Westfield, 1897-1932, since which time he was 
emeritus lecturer there. American Men of Science, from 
which we have taken many of these data, gives a fairly long 
list of the groups of animals he studied, many of them in 
connection with the United States Bureau of Fisheries. The 
only insects mentioned are water beetles and dragonflies. His 
papers on the latter deal with those of the Mississippi Valley 
(the Mississippi River from St. Paul to Cairo, Illinois, the 
Ohio from Cairo to Paducah, Kentucky, and the Tennessee 
from Paducah to Riverton, Alabama: Proc. U. S. N. M. 36, 
1909), the Cumberland Valley in Kentucky and Tennessee 
(Proc. U. S. N. M. 43, 1912) and Jamaica (Johns Hopkins 
Univ. Circ., Feb., 1911). A more extensive paper, abounding 
in ecological and developmental data, is that on dragonflies and 
damselflies in relation to pondfish culture with a list of those 
found near Fairport, Iowa (Bull. Bur. Fisheries 36, 1920). 
Tliis was reviewed and criticised by Prof J. G. Needham in 
the NEWS for January, 1921 (pp. 30-31). A later paper on 
the macroplankton of Lake Erie (Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 
14, 1929) contains a very brief reference to insects. 

No papers by Wilson are listed in the bibliographies in 



270 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '41 

Leng's Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America north of 
Mexico, or in the four supplements thereto. 

My personal acquaintance with Prof. Wilson was limited to 
an impromptu dinner of odonatologists at the Harvard Club, 
Boston, December 28, 1922, arranged by the late Dr. R. 
Heber Howe, in connection with the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science meeting. I omitted to make a 
record of all those who were present. P. P. CALVERT. 



Prof. ELLISON ADGER SMYTH, Jr., died on August 19, ac- 
cording to a note in Science for August 29. From biograph- 
ical notices in IVho's Who in America and in American Men 
of Science (fuller in the former), we learn that he was born 
in Summerton, South Carolina, October 26, 1863, received the 
A. B. (1884) and the A. M. (1887) from Princeton and the 
honorary LL.D., from the University of Alabama in 1906. 
He was adjunct professor of biology at the University of 
South Carolina, 1889-91 and professor of biology at the Vir- 
ginia Polytechnic Institute at, Blacksburg, 1891-1925, when 
he retired. A. A. Girault, whose death we also announce in 
this issue, must have come in contact with him there. We re- 
call Prof. Smyth as a not infrequent visitor to the late Dr. 
Henry Skinner, at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia, in the eighteen nineties and the early nineteen hundreds, 
drawn by a common interest in the Lepidoptera. He con- 
tributed eighteen papers and notes to the volumes of the 
NEWS for 1895, 1899-1904, 1907, 1908, 1912, and 1916. They 
are concerned with the butterflies, sphingids, Catocalae and Dy- 
nastes tityus of Montgomery County, Virginia, within which 
Blacksburg lies, butterflies and Allorliina of South Carolina, 
life histories of sphingids and descriptions of two new species 
from Mexico, a sphinx, Pliilampclus clisa, and a Morpho 
(1/ioosa}. In the NEWS for May, 1908, he figured and briefly 
described "Two Freaks : Papilib ajax and Eudamus tityrus." 
Nearly twenty years later, the latter was "christened" Eparc/y- 
rcits iityrus aberration smythi by R. C. Williams, Jr. (Trans- 
actions, American Entomological Society 53: 262. 1927). 

P. P. CALVERT. 



EXCHANGES 

This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 
not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 



These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and, only when necessary those at the top (being 
longest in) are discontinued. 



Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Air. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lyciclac and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Correio 1043, Buenos Aires, 
Rep. Argentina. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
Benito, Texas. 

Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
of Michigan Platysamia Columbia, that will emerge June, 1941. W. 
S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Michigan. 

Wanted Specimens of the genus Trox from North America. Will 
exchange or determine for duplicate material. Mark Robinson, 231 
Cherry St., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Lepidpptera From the South, including P. palamedes. T. halesus 
and E. jncunda to exchange for fauna from other localities. H. W. 
Eustis, Woodbine Rd., Lakemont, Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder Colorado. 

Arctic Lepidoptera especially Noctuidae Wanted to hear from 
collectors who desire the Arctic Species. Have large collection. 
R. J. Fitch. Lloydminster Saskatchewan, Canada. 



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AN 1 2 1942 




v ^ T,,. ^" , \^ 

^o/NULjyus 

Subscriptions for 1942 are now due 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

DECEMBER, 1941 ^ ^ 

Vo\. Lll No. 10 



CONTENTS 

Williams Notes on the Bionomics of Ataxia hubbardi Fisher in Illinois 

(Coleop.: Cerairbycidae) . ... ... 271 

Darlington The Insect Collection of Thaddeus W. Harris (1795- 

1856) .... 273 

Knight A Migratory Flight of Phoebis agarithe Bd. (Lepid.: Pieridae) 274 

Prof. Funkhouser on a Collecting Trip 275 

Forbes What is Pseudomechanitis? (Lepid.: Nymphalidae) . . . 276 

Rau Migrating Butterflies, Libythea bachmanii larvata Stkr., in 

Texas. (Lepid.: Nymphalidae) . 
Hull Some New Species of Syrphidae from Florida, Cuba and Brazil 

(Diptera). . 

Knull A New Texas Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). . 283 

Yellow Fever 2fe4 

Ahrens Dragonflies New to the Mount Desert Island Region, Maine 

(Odonata) 285 

Abbott Why Does Gyrinus Circle? (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae) . 

Leech The Dates of Publication of Two Articles on Coleoptera by 

John L. Leconte, Issued in 1845 290 

Current Entomological Literature 29- 

Title page to Volume Lll. Index to Volume Lll. . . . 301 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LII DECEMBER 1941 No 10 

Notes on the Bionomics of Ataxia hubbardi Fisher 
in Illinois (Coleop. : Cerambycidae).* 

By R. W. WILLIAMS, University of Illinois. f 

Ataxia hubbardi seems to have reached Illinois but recently. 
Through correspondence, the United States National Museum 
informs me this species had not previously been found as far 
north and east as Illinois. Moreover the Illinois Natural His- 
tory Survey has no collection records of its occurrence in this 
State. Because Fisher (1924) lists its range as Arizona, 
Texas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and Kansas, and I found it only 
in plants growing along an east-west railroad, it quite prob- 
ably came here via railroad traffic from the west. 

In the locality of Urbana, Illinois, the larvae and pupae de- 
velop in the petioles of the large basal leaves of Prairie Dock, 
Silphium tcrcbinthinaccum Jacq. The first adult was found 
within the petiole of a leaf on June 4, 1940. Although fully 
developed in hardness and color it had not started to make an 
exit hole. Another section of petiole was found on the same 
day in which a circular hole had been gnawed, and through 
which the adult had apparently escaped. Later many more 
such stems were found. 

Near the point where the leaf blade joins the petiole of 
Silphium, small circular holes about 1.5 mm. in diameter were 
found. These holes appeared to be too regular and too small 
to have been made by the adult beetle. It would seem, there- 
fore, that the eggs were deposited upon, rather than in the 
host stalk, and the larvae upon hatching bored into the petiole. 
This is the procedure of the closely related species Ataxia 
crypt a (Say) (Morgan 1907). 

* Contribution No. 217 from the Entomological Laboratories <>l tin- 
University of Illinois, 
f Now at Cornell University. 

271 



272 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

Assuming the eggs are deposited on the stems, the larvae, 
upon hatching, bore into them just below the epidermis and 
turning towards the base eat downward for an inch or more. 
They then turn back and eat upwards about the same distance 
past their entrance holes. The larvae traverse back and forth 
several times over a period of several days or possibly several 
weeks. The epidermis of the petioles turns black in these 
regions. As they become larger the larvae leave the sub-epi- 
dermal region and burrow into the pith at the center of the 
stalk. Here they bore up the mid-rib of the leaf to a point 
near its tip, a distance of about twelve to fifteen inches. After 
turning around they come down the mid-rib to a point several 
inches below the base of the leaf blade. The passage in the 
mid-rib is filled with frass. 

At various distances below the leaf blade the mature larvae 
girdle the petioles from within. The fallen leaves may be 
noted lying on the ground about the third week in September. 
Although all the leaves of this Rosin weed die in the fall and 
are strewn about over the ground, it is very easy to recognize 
those which are infested. The factor by which they can be 
recognized at a distance is the break in the mid-rib at about 
the middle of the leaf blade. Although all the leaves have a 
tendency to curl, only the infested stalks break at this point. 
This break does not appear until after the leaves have begun 
to dry out. The second recognition mark is the presence of 
the small circular hole near the base of the leaf blade through 
which the larva entered the stalk. The smooth girdled end of 
the stalk, plugged with frass, is a third recognition mark. Al- 
though the larvae are not always found in this section of 
the stalk above the girdle, which bears the blade, the basal 
portion of the petiole can usually be found within a radius of a 
few inches from the leaf blade. Rarely was more than one 
larva found within a stalk and never more than two. When 
two were present, one was in the section of petiole above the 
girdle while the other was in the lower section. The girdled 
end is plugged up with frass so that a closed chamber results 
in which the larvae overwinter. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Several pupae were found on May 28. These emerged as 
adults on June 8, indicating that the length of the pupal stage 
is at least twelve days, perhaps nearer to fourteen. The last 
pupa was found on June 19. This was the only individual 
found in the stem of Indian Hemp, Apocynum cannabinum L. 

SUMMARY. 

1. There is one generation a year in the locality of Urbana, 
Illinois. 

2. The newly transformed adults remain two or three 
days within the stalks of the basal leaves of Silphium tere- 
binthinaceum before emerging, and began to appear during 
the first week in June. 

3. The egg is apparently laid upon the outer surface of 
the petioles. 

4. Upon hatching the larvae presumably bore into the pith, 
where they feed at first just under the epidermis, then in the 
pith the entire length of the stalk. 

5. The mature larvae form the overwintering stage in this 
area of the insect's distribution. 

6. Pupation begins during the last week in May and the 
pupal stage has a duration of about fourteen days. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

FISHER, W. S. 1924. A New Species of Ataxia from the 
United States. Canadian Ent., Vol. 56, No. 10, pp. 253-254. 

MORGAN, A. C. 1907. The Cotton Stalk Borer (Ataxia 
crypto- Say}. U. S. Dept. of Agr. Division of Ent. Bull., 63, 
Part 7, pp. 63-66. 

The Insect Collection of Thaddeus W. Harris (1795-1856) 

Was transferred (as a deposit) from the New England 
Museum of Natural History to the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in April, 1941, and placed in the Leconte-Fall Room, 
lo^cther with Harris's notebook and certain M. S. lists and 
data. This is probably the oldest existing general collection of 
North American insects. Many specimens are broken or 
damaged by old Dermesticl work (some Orthoptera were com- 
pletely destroyed long ago), but the bulk of the material is in 
fair condition considering its age. There was no damage during 
the transfer to the M. C. Z. The collection contains types of 
probably at least 200 insects, including numerous Coleoptera, 
described by Say, Harris, and others. P. J. DAKI.I NCTON, JR. 
in Annual Kept, of the Director of the M. C. Z. at Hurxar 1 
College for 1940-41, pp. 16-17. 1941. 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

A Migratory Flight of Phoebis agarithe Bd. (Lepid.: 

Pieridae). 

By KENNETH L. KNIGHT, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Two extensive migratory flights of this species were ob- 
served* in June, 1940, in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. 
Specimens captured from one of these flights were identified 
by Mr. W. D. Field of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine as Pliocbis agarithe ina.vinia Neum. The white 
female specimens were further designated as the form albarithc 
Brown. Brown 1 reports this subspecies and form as occur- 
ring in the region bordering the Gulf of Mexico from Florida 
to Southern Mexico with possible extensions into the isthmus 
of Central America. There are no migration records in the 
literature for this species. 

The flight from which the specimens were captured was 
observed on the morning of June 23rd in a lime orchard at 
Hacienda Vista Hermosa, two or three miles southwest of 
Villa Santiago near the slopes of the Sierra Madre Oriental 
range. The flight was first noticed at about 9:00 A. M. and 
was progressing from east to west. The sky was cloudless, 
and there was a slight breeze blowing from the east. The 
butterflies were traveling at various heights up to about one 
hundred feet above the ground. There was a w r ide belt of them 
flying through the grove and up over the ridge at the western 
end of the valley. 

Twenty-two specimens were captured from this flight. Four- 
teen of this number were the white female form and the 
remaining eight were males of the orange subspecies, a sex 
ratio of 64 per cent females to 36 per cent males. There were 
a few cloudless yellows in the ranks, but none of them were 
captured. 

*Entomologist, The Third Hoogstraal Mexican Biological Expedi- 
tion, June-September, 1940. 

1 Brown, F. Martin, 1929. A revision of the genus Phoebis (Lepid.) 
Amcr. Mus. Nov. 368. 32 pp. 37 figs, 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 275 

Since the path of the flight was so near the ground, many of 
the butterflies would turn aside a moment to the flowers, but 
then almost immediately return to the migrating stream. A 
few Pierids could be seen flying near the ground in directions 
other than that of the main flight. The flight lasted for about 
three hours. It stopped with the advent of noon and the drop- 
ping away of the breeze. All but two of the specimens cap- 
tured were quite perfect. 

The other flight was observed at 11:00 on the morning of 
June 22nd at Las Adjuntas, a tiny settlement about fifteen 
miles southwest of Villa Santiago in the mountains. No 
specimens were captured, but there were white, orange and 
yellow Pierids in the flight. They were in about the same 
ratio of abundance to one another as in the first flight described. 
This fact, coupled with the nearness of the locality and the 
similarity of conditions, would tend to indicate that the same 
species occurred here as in the other migration. 

At 1 1 :00 when the flight was first noticed, the butterflies 
were going along with a steady, swift flight in a northwesterly 
direction and were apparently riding the strong breeze blowing 
from the southeast, for when the breeze died away at noon, 
the flight stopped. In twelve minutes, six hundred butterflies 
were counted as they passed a point directly overhead, an 
average of fifty per minute. The lowest butterflies were just 
clearing the pine trees and were probably thirty feet high. 
From that elevation, there were butterflies traveling as high as 
one could see, which was at least a thousand feet, for the high 
sun illuminated their white or yellow wings in brilliant con- 
trast to the cloudless blue sky. The butterflies were traveling 
at such different levels that counting was very difficul.t Xone 
of them ever faltered to come to earth, and there were no 
Pierids flying at ground level. 

*-*.*-* - 

Prof. Funkhouser on a Collecting Trip. 

The undersigned is leaving on a collecting trip in South 
America, Central America and Mexico and will not return until 
July 1, 1942. After that date the address will be as usual. 
W. D. FUNKHOUSER, University of Kentucky, Lexington, 
Kentucky. 



276 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

What is Pseudomechanitis? (Lepid: Nymphalidae). 

By WM. T. M, FORBES, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

In Fox's generic revision of the Ithomiinae 1 , the only nomi- 
nal genus not recognized is Psciidomechanitis Rober. The 
original figure is so vague, being apparently from a pencil 
sketch or wash drawing rather than from the butterfly itself, 
and the description is so incomplete in many important points, 
that any identification must be considered not quite certain 
until the type is examined. 

But we have a male specimen, collected at R. Aguacatal, 
West Colombia, that comes from near enough to the type 
locality, and which in pattern fits as closely to the original 
figure as any real butterfly might be expected to. It is deter- 
mined by Fassl as Ceratinia dionaea limpida, a form described 
from the Cauca Valley, and fits well enough also to that de- 
scription. It is a true Ceratinia,, both superficially and in geni- 
talia, and so far as I can see differs only in minor pattern 
features from the well known C. mergclana, which the Fassl 
collection contains in series from Muzo, East Colombia. The 
true C. dionaea is quite distinct, and much more heavily scaled. 
I therefore propose the following disposal of Pscudomechan- 
itis paradoxa Rober. 

CERATINIA auct., Hiibner in part (syn. Psc-udomcchanit-is 
Rober). 

MERGELANA Hew. 2 

1 Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Ixvi, 205, 1940. 

" Fox indicates that so far as it is based on Jones' figure, the name 
of P. H. Lycastc Fabr. belongs to this species, and is specifically based 
on a very dark female of the megalopolis race. Since the name of 
lycastc has been universally used for more than half a century for a 
member of the iphianassa group of Itlnnnia, and generally for /. 
panamensis, I prefer to keep to an unambiguous name. The leading 
references are: Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii (1) 161, 1793; Holland, Moth 
Book (1931 Ed.) pi. 72, fig. 2, publishing Jones' figure from the ins. 
plate of his "Icones", the "fig. pict." of Fabricius; Fox, Ent. 'News 1, 
141, 1939, with discussion and fuller references. Fabricius' type from 
the Drury via the Milne collection is presumably in the British Museum, 
but has not been examined in modern times ; Butler silently assumes it 
is identical with the Jones figure. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

M. MERGELANA (East Colombia). 

M. LIMPIDA Hsch. (Cauca Valley). 

.M. PARADOX A Robcr (West Colombia). 

,While by strict interpretation of the code under the type 
fixation clause, Ccratinia would not be available in this place, 
it was in fact available when it came in use, under the then 
current elimination codes and practices, and should certainly 
be kept in the sense of more than fifty years unchallenged use, 
as a conservandum even if we accept the validity of the ex 
post facto features of the present code. 



Migrating Butterflies, Libythea bachmanii larvata Stkr., 
in Texas. (Lepid. : Nymphalidae). 

On a Texas highway in the hot Rio Grande valley, as we 
drove south from Edinburg to McAllen on July 2, 1940, we 
encountered hundreds of thousands of snout butterflies (iden- 
tified by Mr. H. I. O'Byrne as Libythea bachmanii larvata} as 
they crossed the road in migratory flight. They flew 3 to 6 
feet above ground. They did not come in a continuous cloud, 
but in either droves or streams which we cut through inter- 
mittently. While most of the droves passed over the highway 
eastward, a few of them moved in the opposite direction. 
These swarms appeared every mile or two, with frequent 
stragglers between. All that were examined had frayed wings. 
Those in flight did not go around our car, but flew over the 
top or through the open windows. Likewise they persistently 
went over the roof of a garage toward the southwest, instead 
of going around it, for an hour while we watched them. 

As a digression from their mass flight in a bee-line against 
the wind, occasionally two or three or half a dozen would 
whirl and flutter playfully around each other in a small circle, 
as if in courtship, and gently drift back with the wind, forget- 
ting for the moment the serious business of going somewhere. 

This is not the first record of the migration of the snout 
butterfly, for Mr. C. B. Williams states in the National Geo- 
graphic Magazine (May 1937, p. 571) that Libythea bachmanii 
has been seen several times in enormous migrations in Texas, 
usually in August and September. One of these flights was 
said to extend over a front of 250 miles, and one and a 
quarter million butterflies passed per minute on the whole front. 



278 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

"These flights are usually moving toward the east or south- 
east, but nothing is known of their origin or destination." 
Again he says (Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 31 : 236, 1938), "Of the 
recorded flights in Texas, all except two were to the S. E. 
quarter, the two exceptions heing toward the north."- PHIL 
RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 



Some New Species of Syrphidae from Florida, Cuba 

and Brazil (Diptera). 

By FRANK M. HULL, University of Mississippi. 

In this paper I present the description of four new Syrphid 
flies. Types are in the author's collection. 

Volucella florida n. sp. 

Closely related to picta Wied., it is much larger, the pre- 
scutellar spot is double, the middle wing blotch is larger and 
longer, with a clear sinus ; the pteropleural pile is yellow, the 
basi tarsi are orange-red instead of yellow. The pale spots of 
the venter are much smaller and do not reach the lateral 
margins. There is much black pile in the posterior corners of 
the third segment, almost none in picta. 

$ . Length 9.5 mm. Head : vertex shining black with black 
pile, behind which on the occiput are a few silvery hairs. The 
ocular pile is dense, long and very dark brown. The front and 
face are light cream-yellow with pale yellow pile ; the latter 
has a median, black, brown-bordered stripe running down to 
the epistoma where it connects with a similar and wider cheek 
stripe from eye to epistoma. The posterior part of the cheeks 
and lower occiput are dark brown. The antennae are elongate, 
the first two joints light brown, the third joint dark, greyish- 
brown but little less wide at apex than at base. The arista is 
pale yellow with fifteen black rays above. 

Thorax : mesonotum shining black, the notapleurae, humeri, 
a pair of rounded spots just before the scutellum, a short sub- 
lateral vittae behind the transverse suture and the extreme 
lateral margin behind the suture as well as a large spot on the 
upper part of the mesopleurae and the propleurae are light 
yellow. The pile of the dorsum is light yellow in front and 
again just before the scutellum and narrowly along the sides 
and over the post calli, but is broadly black over the posterior 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 279 

part of the mesonotum ; this pile is quite long and thick. There 
is a conspicuous tuft of long, light, shining yellow pile on the 
mesopleurae, some on the pteropleurae, upper part of sterno- 
pleurae and the propleurae. The scutellum is light trans- 
lucent clayish-yellow ; the long, erect pile of the basal half 
is light yellow ; the equally long dense pile of the posterior 
half and margin is black. 

Abdomen : broad and round, considerably wider than the 
thorax. The first segment is shining black with pale pile except 
on the narrow posterior margin in the middle where pile is 
black. The second segment has the entire posterior half form- 
ing a slight arcuate black fascia with short, erect black pile. In 
the middle on the basal part of the segment is a wide, diffuse, 
brownish-black area broadly connected with the posterior part. 
This leaves the lateral anterior corners extensively light yellow 
and pale yellowish pilose and due to the subtriangular arrange- 
ment of the middle basal blackish spot the yellow extends 
medially and more narrowly than at the sides. Third segment 
similar to the second in every respect ; the posterior black 
fascia on either side of the median, black, triangular vittae 
bulges slightly forward and this anterior extension is low and 
broadly rounded. The pile on this segment, as in the preceding 
one, is black over the black areas but also over the median or 
postero-median extension of the yellow color but elsewhere is 
yellow. The fourth segment is entirely shining black with 
wholly erect, long, pale yellow pile ; the posterior half of the 
segment is transversely concave from side to side, the hypopy- 
gial pile is entirely black. 

Legs : all of the femora and tibiae except the narrow apices 
of the one and the apices of the other, dark, shining, mahogany- 
brown ; the pile of the tibiae is wholly black or very dark 
brown and on the femora chiefly black, except that there is 
some yellow pile on the posterior surface basally of all the 
femora, and the entire dorsal surface and ventral surface 
basally of the hind femora has long yellow pile. The first two 
joints of all the tarsi are light orange, the middle tarsi is more 
yellowish and their pile golden ; the apical tarsal joints black 
with dark colored pile. 

\Yings : hyaline, marked with brown as follows : a brown 
cloud at the base of the third longitudinal vein, another over 
the anterior cross vein, another at the end of the auxiliary 
vein, and just beyond it a small brown spot which widens out 
to occupy all of the distal portion of the marginal cell and 



280 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

widens still more posteriorly to occupy the posterior adjacent 
section of the submarginal cell and to border both sides of the 
third longitudinal vein to its termination and to border more 
narrowly all of the subapical cross vein. The small cross 
vein is also bordered on either side. The marginal cell is 
closed and slightly bulbous. 

Holotypc : one male, St. Augustine, FLORIDA, March. 
Volucella pictoides n. sp. 

Related to picta Wied. Characterized by the wholly black 
hind femora, black facial stripe and dark brown antennae. 

9 . Length 7 mm. Head : the front and face are light 
yellow, each with a prominent median black stripe. The 
cheeks are shining black, the pile of face and front yellowish- 
white. The black frontal stripe is black, pilose. Antennae 
elongate and dark brown ; the dorsal surface of the yellowish 
arista with fifteen rays. Eyes with dense, short, dark brown 
pile. 

Thorax : mesonotum shining black, the notopleurae, most 
of the mesopleurae, the propletirae and a geminate spot before 
the scutellum pale cream-yellow. There is a short, yellowish, 
sublateral vitta above the base of each wing. Scutellum pale, 
yellow and translucent, with dense, black pile on all of the 
dorsum except the basal corners. 

Abdomen : broad, globular and inflated. The first segment 
is brown upon a linear posterior fascia restricted to the middle 
of the segment and this brown area extends down upon the 
second segment to cover somewhat more than the basal half 
of the second segment. Elsewhere these segments are pale 
yellow. The posterior fourth of the second segment in the 
middle and in each posterior corner is shining black but this 
fascia is broadly extended to twice its thickness on either side 
of the middle. Third segment with a wide posterior fascia, a 
broad median vitta and the basal corners black, the remainder 
yellow. Fourth segment, except for a narrow, linear, basal, 
sublateral fascia, entirely shining black. The black fascia of 
the second segment and the black vitta of the third segment, 
except for a narrow median extension of white pile, are all 
black, pilose; otherwise all of the remaining black area has 
erect white pile and the yellow areas have whitish pile except 
for a small encroachment of black pile on either side of the 
median vitta of the third segment. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 281 

Legs : all of the femora and tibiae, including the whole of 
the hind femora, except their narrow apices and bases respec- 
tively, shining black. First two joints of all of the tarsi yellow, 
the remaining ones almost black. Pile of hind femora, except 
ventrally near the apex, long and white. Pile of remaining 
femora largely, and of all the tibiae, black. 

Wings : patterned with brownish markings, somewhat sim- 
ilar to other members of the group, the apical third brown with 
a darker spot at the end of the marginal cell, a sinus before it 
and after it, another inside of the subapical cross vein and the 
apical portion of the stigma somewhat clearer. There is a 
brown spot at the origin of the third vein, another covering the 
small cross vein, another beginning at the costal and crossing 
the sub-costal cell at the end of the costal cell ; it continues to 
cross the marginal cell to occupy a portion of this cell. 

Holotype: one female, Havana, CUBA, F. M. Hull, August 
1937, on herbage. 
Planes grisea n. sp. 

Related to chrysopressa Hull, but distinguished by the opaque 
black third abdominal segment with its widely separated basal 
spots, and by the absence of the thick, flat, yellow abdominal 
pile. 

$ . Length 8.5 mm. Head: front shining coppery with con- 
siderable, almost white, pubescence along the eye margins. 
The lower portion of the face is obscurely yellowish-white in 
ground color. The face is everywhere yellowish-white pub- 
escent. The frontal pile is white ; that of vertex partly black. 
Antennae dark brown, the third joint a little over twice as 
long as wide, reddish-brown basally. 

Thorax : ground color brassy-black on which are four, quite 
faint and obscure purplish vittae. There is a pair of well de- 
veloped stripes of brassy-yellow pile ; continuous with these is 
a transverse stripe of such pile along the suture, which stripe 
emits on either side a sublateral and posteromesonotal stripe of 
the same pile. There is considerable pale pile in front of the 
scutellum and on the pleurae, but elsewhere the pile is black. 
The scutellum is brassy-black, transversely striped with a cop- 
pery reflection and has a pair of scarcely differentiated short 
hairs on the margin. 

Abdomen: black, feebly shining, strongly striated. Second 
segment dark brownish-black, nearly opaque with a pair of 
light, somewhat obscure, yellowish-brown hemicircles on either 



282 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

side, which do not reach the margin, widely separated in the 
middle. Third segment similar, with similar spots, that prac- 
tically reach the margin. Fourth segment deep shining golden 
or brassy-black; pilose in the middle of basal half; with sub- 
erect brassy pile everywhere. 

Legs: posterior femora shining black, the first two pairs 
blackish-brown on apical half, lighter brown basally and brown- 
ish-yellow narrowly at apex. All of the tibiae dark brownish- 
black, narrowly pale yellow at base, the middle pair perhaps 
lighter brown. Hind tarsi dark brown. First two joints of 
other tarsi pale yellow. Middle joint brown, the last joints 
black. 

Wings : tinged with pale brown, the stigma sepia. 

Holotype: one male, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL. Nov., 1938, (J. 
Lane, collector). 
Planes Valeria n. sp. 

Related distantly to vagans Wied., this species is characterized 
by the subpetiolate abdomen, basally fused spots of third seg- 
ment, pale anterior tarsi and tibia, yellowish scutellar margin 
etc. 

$ . Length 9 mm. Head : front shining black, the narrow 
margin with pale yellow pubescence. The lower half of the 
face is broadly pale yellow. The whole of the face is covered 
with pale yellow pubescence. Frontal and vertical pile yellow. 
First two joints of antennae black, the third joint less than 
twice as long as wide, brownish-black in color, reddish ven- 
trally near the base. 

Thorax : mesonotum with four greenish vittae, the outer 
pair broader and interrupted at the suture, and broadly mar- 
gined everywhere with a brassy color that tends to become 
coppery. Mesonotal pile brassy-yellow on the anterior half and 
forming a widely divergent stripe on the posterior two-thirds 
which loses itself among short black pile. The mesonotal pile 
just before the scutellum is broadly brassy. Pleural and scu- 
tellar pile wholly pale ; scutellum with a pair of slender pale 
bristles; scutellar color dark sepia with a brassy tinge. The 
margin narrowly brownish-yellow. 

Abdomen : first segment greenish-black becoming light 
brown in the middle. Second dark, opaque sepia ; the base 
narrowly and the narrow margins are light brown, leaving a 
pair of elongate, posteriolaterally pointed, pale yellow spots, 



Hi, '41 ] ENTOMOLOCH Ai. NEWS 283 

which do not reach the margin. Third segment similar in 
general color, the large pair of pale spots confluent narrowly 
at the base of the segment, pointed posteriorly and directed 
diagonally out towards the margin which they reach in almost 
their full length; the extreme basal corner is left dark brown. 
Fourth segment wholly shining greenish-black ; it is black pilose 
mediobasally, elsewhere pale golden appressed pilose. 

Legs : femora shining blackish ; their apices and all of front 
and middle tibiae are light brownish-yellow. All of fore and 
middle tarsi except last one or two joints are pale yellow. Re- 
mainder of hind tibiae dark brown ; their apex has a sharp 
spur. 

Wings : pale brownish-grey ; the stigma brown. 

Holotypc : one male, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL, November. 1940. 
(J. Lane collector). 



A New Texas Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). 

By JOSEF N. KNULL, The Ohio State University. 

Agrilus limpiae n. sp. 

$ . Resembling A. obsoletoguttatus Gory in size and mark- 
ings, only pubescent areas much more prominent, each elytron 
with five spots, also sides of pronotum and ventral surface on 
sides containing white pubescence, front green, rest of insect 
olivaceous brown. 

Head convex, with slight depression on vertex, surface finely 
granulose, finely rugose on occiput, pubescent ; antennae ex- 
tending nearly to hind angles of pronotum, serrate from the 
fourth joint. 

Pronotum wider than long, much narrower at base than at 
apex ; sides broadly rounded in front, obliquely narrowed to 
base ; when viewed from the side, marginal and submarginal 
carinae are narrowly separated in front and joined back of 
middle; anterior margin strongly sinuate, median lobe prom- 
inent; basal margin emarginate at middle of each elytron, 
median lobe deeply emarginate ; disk convex with two median 
depressions, also oblique depression each side, prehumeral 
carinae sharp; surface finely transversely rugose, fine punc- 
tures between rugae. Scutellum transversely carinate. 

Elytra wirier than base of pronotum ; sides subparallel at 
base, constricted at middle, obliquely narrowed, apices rounded, 
serrulate ; disk flattened, each elytron with vague costa, basal 



284 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

depressions prominent, sutural margin elevated posteriorly; 
surface imbricate. 

Abdomen beneath finely densely punctate, first segment 
slightly flattened at middle, rugose, suture between first two 
segments not indicated at sides ; pygidium carinate, carina not 
projecting. Prosternum granulose, densely pubescent ; pros- 
ternal lobe deeply emarginate. Tibiae slender, first and second 
pairs mucronate on inside at apex. Posterior tarsi same length 
as tibiae ; tarsal claws similar on first two pairs of legs, pos- 
terior claws with inner tooth broader, inner teeth not turned 
inward. 

Length 6.5 mm.; width 1.8 mm. 

9 . Differs from the male by having the front olivaceous, 
antennae shorter, posterior tarsi shorter than tibiae, tibiae not 
mucronate and lack of pubescence on prosternum. 

Type male, allotypc and paratypes collected from the foliage 
of soapberry (Sapindus drummondi Hook. & Arn.) in the 
Davis Mountains, TEXAS, July 2, 1940; paratypes from the 
same locality ranging in dates from June 1 to July 12, D. J. 
and J. N. Knull collectors. Type, allotype and paratypes in 
writer's collection, paratypes in collections of The Ohio State 
University and Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 

According to Fisher's key* this species would run to A. 
obsolctoguttatus Gory. It can be separated by being more 
olivaceous, pubescence more prominent, male posterior tarsi of 
about same length as tibiae and by the structure of the male 
genitalia. The lateral lobe of the aedeagus is serrate on outer 
margin near apex, otherwise this organ is similar to that of 
A. obsolctoguttatus Gory. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. C. A. Frost, who kindly com- 
pared specimens with the type series of A. intcrruptus Lee. 

Yellow Fever. 

Attention now centers on jungle yellow fever which is the 
same disease as urban yellow fever but with this distinguishing 
epidemiological characteristic, that in its special forest environ- 
ment it is not transmitted by A. cgyptl. Risk of yellow fever 
epidemics will remain as long as jungle yellow fever persists. 
A complete extermination of the disease now seems remote if 
not impossible. - - Annual Report 1940, International Health 
Division, The Rockefeller Foundation, pp. 12-13. (1941). 

* W. S. Fisher, U. S. National Mus. Bui. 145, pp. 1-347, 1928. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

Dragonflies New to the Mount Desert Island Region, 

Maine (Odonata). 

By Ranger-Naturalist CARSTEN AHRENS, Acadia 
National Park, Maine. 

In ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS for May, 1891, D. J. Bullock 
published brief notes on 8 species of dragonflies collected on 
Mt. Desert Island, Maine. In the same publication, October, 
1894, Dr. P. P. Calvert listed 5 species collected by Bullock 
in this same region. Then in 1938, William Proctor, D. Sc., 
published the Insect Fauna, Part VI of the Biological Survey 
of the Mount Desert Region. In this volume is an annotated 
list of 54 species of dragonflies taken over a period of years 
(1927-1938). The three lists mentioned above include 55 
species. 

During the months of July and August of 1940 and 1941, 
the writer was a ranger-naturalist in the Acadia National Park, 
which is located on Mount Desert Island, Maine. During this 
period and for this fegion he raised the number of species from 
55 to 80. Of the 25 species that are new records for the 
Mount Desert Region, 2 seem to be new records for the state 
of Maine. They are Acschna sitchcnsis Hagen and Sympe- 
tniin danac Sulzer. 

The writer wishes to thank Park-naturalist Maurice Sullivan 
of the Acadia National Park for his encouragement and help- 
fulness ; to express again his appreciation to Mrs. Leonora K. 
Gloyd for going over the collection to check his identifications ; 
to thank Dr. Donald Borror for literature. He also wishes to 
express his appreciation and admiration to Mrs. Ahrens who in 
two short seasons became an expert collector, and who never 
complained even when entomological paraphernalia covered 
every flat surface in the apartment. 

ANISOPTERA. 

1. HAGENIUS BREVISTYLUS Selys. Fairly common along 
Echo Lake and Jordan Pond, July 29-Aug. 14. Observed 
occasionally at the outlets of lakes, 1940, 1941. 

DROMOGOMPHUS SPINOSUS Selys. A pair taken along 
Pond on Aug. 28, 1940. Several observed squatting on 



_?X(> ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

the sand and rocks along or near the shore during late Aug. 
1941. 

3. LANTHUS ALBISTYLUS Hagen. Four males captured 
along the little stream that flows into boggy New Mill Meadow, 
July 16- Aug. 18. They fly close to the water, alighting fre- 
quently on the rocks that break the surface, 1940, 1941. 

4. L. PARVULUS Selys. One male, Jordon Pond, July 19, 
1940; one male at the beaver dam on Norway Drive, Aug. 7, 
1940. 

5. EPIAESCHNA HERDS Fabricus. One female taken while 
she was ovipositing along a heavily shaded part of Squid Creek, 
July 8, 1940. 

6. AESCHNA SITCHENSIS Hagen. Two males captured on 
the bog at Sea Wall, Aug. 14, 1940. These insects vvere ob- 
served at the very edge of the bog, distant from the pools of 
standing water. 

7. AE. EREMITA Scudder. Fairly common in diverse habi- 
tats during late July and early Aug., 1940, 1941. 

8. MACROMIA ILLINOIENSIS Walsh. Observed this species 
on a number of occasions during both summers as it patrolled 
the shady carriage roads. One male netted July 3, 1941. 

9. SOMATOCHLORA TENEBROSA Say. Collected this insect 
now and then along shady streams during Aug., 1940, 1941. 

10. S. MINOR Calvert. Two females were collected while 
they were ovipositing along a tiny stream that flows into Aunt 
Betty Pond, Aug. 14, 1940. 

11. S. WALSHI Scudder. One male taken in the wide 
marshy area of lower Northeast Creek, July 21, 1941 ; one male, 
Schoodic Peninsula, July 29, 1941. 

12. S. FORCIPATA Scudder. One female, Echo Lake, July 
3, 1940. 

13. S. WILLIAMSONI E. M. Walker. One male, lower 
Northeast Creek, July 21, 1941. 

14. S. KENNEDYI E. M. Walker. One male, Echo Lake, 
July 3, 1941. 

15. CELITHEMIS MARTHA Williamson. This species was 
less common than was C. disci, but it was found in its company 



Hi. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 287 

around all the lakes during early and middle Aug., 1940. It 
was nut observed during the summer of 1941, although C. 
clisa was common. 

16. LADONA JULIA Uhler. Fairly common about the pools 
of standing water at the bog at Sea Wall during the first two 
weeks of Aug., 1940, 1941. 

17. LIBELLULA PULCHELLA Drury. Common at Sargent 
Pond and at the beaver dam on Norway Drive during Aug., 
1940, 1941. 

18. SYMPETRUM DANAE Sulzer. Four males were netted in 
a tide swamp behind a sea wall on Great Duck Island, Aug. 3, 
1940. 

19. S. SEMICINCTUM Say. Fairly common in the New Mill 
Meadow during middle Aug., 1940, 1941. They are usually in 
the company of Nannothevnis bclla Uhler. 

20. S. DECISUM Hagen. Found almost everywhere during 
July and Aug., 1940, 1941. 

21. PANTALA FLAVESCENS Fabricus. Observed frequently 
during Aug. in Bar Harbor, 1940, 1941. 

ZYGOPTERA. 

22. LESTES EURINUS Say. Taken occasionally at the bog at 
Sea Wall during the first two weeks of Aug., 1940, 1941. 

23. L. RECTANGULARIS Say. Netted frequently during the 
latter part of July and early Aug., 1940, 1941. 

24. ENALLAGMA VESPERUM Calvert. Three males collected 
at Aunt Betty Pond, Aug. 7, 1940. 

25. E. ASPERSUM Hagen. Fairly common during the first 
week in Aug., 1940, 1941. 



Why Does Gyrinus Circle? (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). 

By CYRIL E. ABBOTT, Harding College, Searcy, Arkansas. 

Several years ago a friend of mine attempted to determine 
the origin and function of the circular locomotion of the Gyr- 
inidae. He finally decided that the beetles were not compelled 
to behave in that manner, and that the motion is "instinc- 

, j 

tive . 



288 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

Now, the definition of behavior as instinctive really explains 
nothing, excepting that we have no adequate explanation. And 
so, after reading the paper by Brown and Hatch (1929) it 
occurred to me that circling might possibly be the result of 
visual responses. But when rather complex apparatus for 
testing such responses gave absolutely no positive results, the 
problem appeared, for a time, insoluble. 

In the meantime I obtained and read a copy of the mono- 
graph on chordotonal organs by Eggers (1928). Eggers suc- 
ceeded in demonstrating experimentally that the Gyrinidae 
avoid collision with solid objects through the perception of 
vibrations of the water's surface, and that the sense organs 
concerned are located in the second segment of each antenna. 
This recalled the familiar observation that when a small moth 
or other similar insect falls upon the water in the vicinity of 
a number of "whirligig" beetles, the latter soon surround it 
and tear it to pieces. For the Gyrinidae are predatory in both 
the larval and adult stages. 

The foregoing observations suggested the experiments de- 
scribed below. From the moveable arm of an electric vibrator 
having a frequency of 60/sec. an iron ball weighing about 25 
gms. was suspended on a 20 B & S guage wire about two feet 
in length. A large aquarium tank was so arranged that the 
weight hung about four inches below the surface of the water. 
About thirty specimens of Gyritms (sp?) were then placed in 
the tank, and a screen so arranged that their movements could 
be observed without subjecting them to visual stimuli. Using 
this apparatus the following experiments were performed : 

1. The beetles were observed for some time with the vi- 
brator motionless. Under such circumstances the beetles circled 
aimlessly all over the exposed water's surface. 

2. The vibrator was set in motion. Immediately, the beetles 
nearest the wire turned toward it, swam up to it, and made 
grasping movements with the prothoracic legs. And although 
the vibration of the wire flung each insect a distance of a 
centimeter or two, the beetle immediately repeated its orienting 



Hi, '41 ] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

and grasping movements. These "attempts", in the case of 
single specimens, were repeated at intervals of about two 
seconds. 

3. The vibrator was stopped. The beetles at once began to 
wander all about the tank ; if anything, they avoided the wire. 

4. With the aid of a pair of fine forceps antennae were 
removed from fifteen beetles ; these alone were replaced in the 
tank. When the vibrator was started the beetles paid no more 
attention to it than when it was motionless ; that is, they wan- 
dered aimlessly all over the tank. One or two made a feeble 
and occasional attempt to seize the wire, but subsequent ex- 
amination indicated that two or three specimens had parts of 
the antennae still attached. 

The experiments described were repeated many times, under 
various circumstances : always the results were the same as 
there indicated. Normal beetles also oriented to tuning forks 
with vibration rates of 256/sec., 320/sec., and 384/sec., when 
each of these was touched to the surface of the water. Under 
no circumstances did any of the beetles respond to air vibra- 
tions alone, although efforts were made to induce such a re- 
sponse. Needless to say, beetles with amputated antennae 
did not respond to the forks under any circumstances. 

Of further interest is the fact that Gyrinus made no ori- 
enting movements toward the vibrating object when and if 
that object was more than three or four centimeters from the 
insect. 

Now the activities of the Gyrinidae in the adult stage are 
chiefly confined to the surface of the water, where they feed, 
as has been observed, upon hapless winged insects falling 
thereon, and which, through their struggles, set up a vibration 
of that surface; by means of such vibrations Gyrinus reaches 
its prey. But evidently the perception of such minute and 
rapid vibrations is effective only within a very limited area 
around the source of the vibration. By circling, Gyrinus 
greatly increases the area of surface which it covers in a given 
time, and hence, naturally increases its chances of encounter- 
ing vibrations set up on the surface of the water. 



290 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [ Dec., '41 

In short, the circling beetle is literally "feeling for prey". 
And the organs upon which it depends for the discovery are 
the antennae. 

LITERATURE CITED. 

EGGERS, F. 1928. Die stiftfuhrenden Sinnesorgane Berlin 
(Borntraeger) (Cf. pp. 342-343). 

BROWN, C. R. and M. H. HATCH. 1929. Orientation and 
fright reactions of whirligig beetles. Jour. Compar. Psychol., 
9: 159-189. 



The Dates of Publication of Two Articles on Coleo- 
ptera by John L. Leconte, Issued in 1845. 

By HUGH B. LEECH 1 , Vernon, British Columbia. 

In examining the literature on one of Leconte's species, it 
was found that the original description was cited variously as 
of 1844, 1845, 1846 and 1847. Since beetles belonging to four 
families- date from the same article, the following notes may 
be of interest. 

The two papers in question are Leconte's "Descriptions of 
some new species of coleopterous insects inhabiting the United 
States", in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural 
History, Volume I, page 201 ; and his "Descriptions of some 
new and interesting insects, inhabiting the United States", in 
the Boston Journal of Natural History, Volume V, No. 2, 
pages 203-209. Although having a different title, the first 
paper is in fact merely an abstract of the second, giving the 
preliminary diagnoses of the species, but not the fuller descrip- 
tions and references. The second article is accompanied by a 
fine plate (No. 18) illustrating the species, and opens with a 
diatribe against American entomologists who sent their new 
species to Europe for description. 

The title page of Volume I of the Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History is dated 1844. However, at the 
bottom of page 201 there is a printer's signature: 

1 Contribution No. 2080, Division of Entomology, Science Service, 
Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario. 

~ Cicindelidae : Cicindcla audnbonii Leconte. Carabidae : Calosoma 
triste Lee., C. lepidnm Lee., Scaritcs patntclis Lee., S. affinis Lee., 51 
ephialtcs Lee., S. intcrmcdius Lee. Dytiscidae : Dytiscits marginicollis 
Lee. Cerambycidae : Lamia bcllii Lee. ( = Plectrodera scalator Fab.). 



lii. '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 291 

"Proceedings B.S.N.H. 22 March, 1845," which indicates 
that the volume was not published in 1844. On page 200 there 
is a paper by Richard Soule, Jr., "giving an account of experi- 
ments on the juice of Cornstalk, made Sept. and Oct. 1844"; 
it seems unlikely that the volume was published between that 
time and the end of the year. Fortunately the Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia contain rec- 
ords of accessions to the Academy's Library; the second half 
of Volume I of the Boston Proceedings (page 129 to end), 
was noticed at the stated meeting on September 2, 1845. As 
the previous stated meeting was on August 19, 1845, we have 
a fairly good indication of the time when these pages were 
mailed. 

The title page to Volume V of the Boston Journal of Natural 
History is dated 1847. In the minutes of the meeting of the 
Boston Society of Natural History on October 15, 1845, the 
following statement occurs : "Dr. Gould announced that a new 
number of the Journal, being the second this year, was ready 
for distribution". This gives us the approximate date of pub- 
lication. Referring again to the Proceedings of The Philadel- 
phia Academy, we find that in the minutes of the stated meet- 
ing on December 16, 1845, Volume 5, No. 2 (really a Part) of 
the Boston Journal of Natural History is listed among the 
donations to the library. In the minutes of a meeting on May 
6, 1845, Volume 5, No. 1 is listed as received. 

Thus it appears that the Lecontean species of beetles de- 
scribed in these papers must all be cited as of 1845, the actual 
date of publication of the abridged paper being not long before 
September 2. It is unfortunate that the second paper did not 
appear first, since it contains the full descriptions and their 
accompanying illustrations ; however, we do know that it was 
published between October 15 and December 16, 1845. 

Acknowledgment. It is a pleasure to mention the cordial 
help of Dr. Richard Dow, of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. He searched through the older journals not available 
to me, and provided information from which the above notes 
on dates of publication were made. 



292 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY L. S. MACKEY, R. G. SCHMIEDER, 
A. G. RICHARDS, JR. and JOHN W. H. REHN. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Anon. Dr. Frederic Wallace Edwards 
(1888-1940). [105] 12: 415-416. Banks, N Report on en- 
tomology. [Ann. Rep. Dir. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 1940-41: 13- 
16. Barton, D. R. Attorney for the insects. [Natural 
History] 48: 181-185. ill. Bondar, G. Notas entomologicas 
da Baja. [105] 12: 268-303, ill. Brown, R. W. Concern- 
ing- the antiquity of social insects. [5] 48: 105-110. Bruch, 
C. Walter Horn (1871-1939) Semblanza cle una vida fe- 
cuncla. [104] 11: 45-48, photo. Carpenter, F. M. Report 
on fossil insects. [Ann. Rep. Dir. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 1940- 
41 : 33. Carter, W. Insects and the spread of plant di- 
seases. [An. Rep. Smiths. Inst.] 1940. 329-342, ill. Cocker- 
ell, T. D. A. Observations on plants and insects in north- 
western Baja Californa, Mexico, with descriptions of new 
bees. [Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist.] 9: 339-352. Davis, 
W. T. Charles William Leng. [Pro. Staten Island Inst. 
Arts & Sci.] 9: 75-80, ill. Natural History records frojm 
the meetings of the Staten Island Nature Club. [Pro. 
Staten Island Inst. Arts & Sci.] 9: 97-112. Fester, G. A- 
Colorantes de insectos. [106] 132: 100-103. Graham, S. A. 
-Royal Norton Chapman. 1889-1939. [7] 34: 521-524, ill. 
Hayward, K. J. Departamento de Entomologia. [Rev. Tud. 
& Agric. Tucuman] 31: 50-58. Howell, T. Some aquatic 
insects from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 
[Jour. Tenn. Acad. Sci.] 16: 406-407. Imms, A. D. The 
pricklv-ipear problem in Australia. [Nature] 148: 303-305. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 293 

ill. MacLagan, D. S. Sunspots and insect outbreaks an 
epidemiological study. [Pro. Univ. Durham Philo. Soc.] 10: 
173-199, ill. Soraci, F. A. Important nursery insects of 
New Jersey. [N. J. Dept. Agric.] Circ. 326:" 72 pp., ill. 
Stunkard, H. W. In Memoriam, Adolpho Lutz. [Jour. 
Parasit.] 27: 469-471. Vargas, L. Aplicacion taxonomica 
de un metodo estadistico. | Kev. Inst. Salubridad y Enferr 
Trop.] 2: 123-128, ill. Wolcott, G. N. A supplement to 
"Insectae Borinquenses". [Jour. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico] 
25: 33-158. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Caspar!, E. The 
morphology and development of the wing pattern of Lepi- 
doptera. [O. Rev. Biol.] 16: 249-273, ill. Eder, R. Die 
kutikulare Transpiration der Insekten und ihre Abhangig- 
keit vom Aufbau des Integumentes. [Zool. Jahrb., Abt. 
allg. Zool.] 60: 203-240. ill. Evans, T. C. Sequence of 
roentgen ray effects on the development of the grasshopper 
egg. I. [Phys. Zool.] 14: 163-173. ill. Ford, E/B. Studies 
on the chemistry of pigments in the Lepidoptera, with ref- 
erence to their bearing on systematics. The Anthoxan- 
thins. [107] 16: 65-90. Gosswald, K. Uber den Einfluss 
von verschiedener Temperatur und Luftfeuchtigkeit auf die 
Lebensausserungen der Ameisen. II. Uber den Feuchtig- 
keitssinn okologisch verschiedener Ameisenarten und seine 
Beziehung zu Biotop, Wohn-uncl Lebensweise. [94] 154: 
247-344, ill. Hall, H. F. A note on terminology regarding 
intersexes. [J. Hered.] 32: 309, 314. Hanstrom, B. In- 
kretorische organe, sinnes-organe und nervensystem des 
kopfes einiger niederer insektenordnungen. [Kungl. Sven- 
ska Yetenskapsakad. Handlingar] 18: 266 pp., ill. Hard- 
man & Craig. A physiological basis for the differential 
resistance of the two races of red scale to HCN. [68] 94: 
187. Harpster, H. T. An investigation of the gaseous 
plastron as a respiratorv mechanism in Helichus striatus 
Leconte (Dryopidae). [Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc.] 60: 329- 
358, ill. Jeschikov, J. Die Dottermenge im Ei und die 
Tvpen der postembryonalen Entwicklung bei den Insekten. 
[34] 134: 71-87, ill. Mazek-Fialla, K, '-Die Korpcrtnnpe- 
ratur poikilothermer Tiere in Abhangrififkeit vom Kleink- 
lima. [94] : 154: 170-246. ill. Prebble, M. L. The cliapnn-e 
and related phenomena in Gilpinia polvt< mm. [Can. Tour. 
Res.] 19 (Sec. D) : 295-346, ill. Rifenburgh, S. A. Cer- 
tain genetic effects of short-wave ultra-violet rndiation on 
Drosophila melanogaster. [Lloydia] 4: 65-76. Roberts, H. 



294 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

R. A comparative study of the sub-families of the Acridi- 
dae primarily on the basis of their phallic structures. [Pro. 
Acad.'Nat. Sci. Phila.j 93: 201-246, ill. Yeager & Mun- 
son. Histochemical detection of glycogen in blood cells of 
the southern army-worm ( Prodenia eridania) and in other 
tissues, especially midgut epithelium. [47] 63: 257-294, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Chamberlin, R. 
V. On a collection of Myriopods from Venezuela. [95] 
54: 137-142. (*). Chamberlin & Ivie. North American 
Agelenidae of the genera Agelenopsis, Calilena, Ritalena 
and Tortolena. [7] 34: 585-628, ill. Davis, G. E Orni- 
thodoros parkeri : observations on the biology of this tick. 
[Jour. Parasit.] 27: 425-433. Gertsch, W. J Report on 
some arachnids from Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone. 
[40] No. 1146: 14 pp., ill. New American spiders of the 
family Clubionidae. I and II. [40] Nos. 1147 and 1148: 20 
pp., ill., 18 pp., ill. Jones, S. E. Influence of temperature 
and humidity on the life history of the spider Agelena 
naevia. [7] 34: 557-571, ill. Kaston, B. J. JMastophora 
cornigera a spider new to New England. [Conn. State Ent. 
40th Rep.] Bull. 445: 379-380. Katz & Chapman. A col- 
lection of Ohio ticks and their hosts. [Jour. Parasit.] 27: 
467-468. Lundblad, O. Neue Wassermilben [28] 62: 97- 
121. Weitere neue Wassermilben aus Brasilen und Para- 
guay. [28] 62: 122-126. Mclvor, B. C. A new species of 
Ornithodoros tick from Nevada. (Acarina). [Jour. Parasit.] 
27: 435-436, ill. Semans, F. M. Black widow spider (La- 
trodectus mactans) distribution in Ohio. [43] 41 : 380. 
Seyler, P. J. The generic and specific status of four Ohio 
spiders of the genus Agelenopsis. [Ohio Jour. Sci.] 41 : 51- 
69, ill. Stone, P. C. The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus 
sanguineus in the role of a household pest in the northern 
United States. [Proc. Mo. Acad. Sci.] 6: 75-77. Travis, 
B. V. Examinations of wikl animals for the cattle tick 
Boophilus annulatus microplus in Florida. [J. Parasit.] 27: 
465-467. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Banks, N.- 
Three new species of Myrmeleonidae. [5] 48: 101-104. Dias 
dos Santos, N. Uma nova especie do "Libellulidae" do 
q-enero "Zenithoptera" Selys, 1882. (Odonata). [Rev. Bra- 
sil. Biol.] 1: 207-213. ill. "Goodrich, A. L. The external 
anatomy of the pupal abdomen in Dicosmoecus atripes. 
[103] 14: 134-143, ill. Hood, J. D. A century of new 
American Thysanoptera. [105] \2: 139-243, ill. (s). Kals- 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 295 

hoven, L. G. E. Groundplans of Termite Nests. [Ent. 
Med. Ned.-Indie.] 7: 30-34, ill. Kennedy, C. H Periles- 
tinae in Ecuador and Peru: revisional notes and descrip- 
tions. (Lestidae). [7] 34: 658-688, ill. (*k). May, E. The 
behavior of the intestinal protozoa of termites at the time 
of the last ecclysis. [Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc.j 60: 281-292, ill. 
Moulton, D. Thysanoptera from Minas Gerais, Brazil. 
[105] 12: 314-322. (*). Needham, J. G. Life history 
studies on Progomphus and its nearest allies (Aeschnid.). 
[1] 67: 221-245, ill. A note concerning aggregations of 
Ululodes villosa. [5] 48: 112. Setty, L. R. The biology 
and morphology of the adult hanging-fly (Mecoptera). 
[Proc. Mo. Acad. Sci.] 6: 74-75. Sofner, L. Zur Entwick- 
lungsbiologie und Oekologie der einheimischen Psocopter- 
enarten Ectopsocus meridionalis (Ribaga) 1904 und Ectop- 
socus briggsi McLachlan 1899. [Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Syst.] 
74: 323-360, ill. Spieth, H. T. Taxonomic studies on the 
Ephemeroptera. [119] 26: 233-280, ill. Werneck, F. L- 
De um estranho parasito do Gao. (Mallophaga). [Rev. 
Brasil. Biol.] 1 : 47-55, ill. Os Malofagos do boi e do cavalo. 
[Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 195-199, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Callan, H. G. A trisomic grasshop- 
per. [J. Hered.J 32: 296-298, ill. Cousin, G. Sur la de- 
termination de coefficients d'hybridation par une methode 
graphique. Estimation quantitative de la transmission des 
caracteres specifiques de Gryllus campestris et Gr. bima- 
culatus a leurs hybrides reciproques C 9 B $ et B 9 c $ . 
[77] 134: 16-19, ill. Crumb, Eide & Bonn. The European 
earwig. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. 766: 76 pp., ill. 
Daguerre, J. B. El genero Schistocerca en la Republica 
Argentina. [104] 10: 327-337, ill. Dooley, T. P. The in- 
fluence of colchicine upon the germ cells of insects (Or- 
thoptera) with special reference to the mitochondria and 
dictyosomes. [Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc.] 60: 105-119. ill. 
Hollande, A.-Ch. Solenosomes et chondriome de la cel- 
lule intestinale du criquet egyptien (Orthacanthacris aegy- 
ptia). Processus d'assimilation et coloration vitale. [77] 
134: 242-245, ill. Isely, F. B. Researches concerning 
Texas Tettigoniidae. [Ecol. Monogr.] 11: 457-475, ill. 
Jacobson & Farstad. Some observations on differential 
feeding on maturing wheat varieties by grasshoppers. |4] 
73: 158-159. MacLeod, G. F. Effects of infra red irradi- 
ation on the American cockroach. [12] 34: 728-729. Need- 
ham, J. G. Life history studies on Progomphus and its 



296 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

nearest allies. [1] 67: 221-245, ill. Strohecker, H. F. Two 
new species of Orthoptera from Texas. [7] 34: 539-542, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Boyden, B. L. Eradication of the Par- 
latoria date scale in the United States. General informa- 
tion on the scale. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] Misc. Publ. No. 
433: 18-24, ill. Carter, W. Peregrinus maiclis and the 
transmission of corn mosaic. [7J 34: 551-556. Christensen, 
J. R. Un nuevo enemigo de los Manzanos en la Argen- 
tina, Typhlocyba froggatti. [104] 10: 298-303, ill. de 
Carlo, J. A. I) Description de dos especies nuevas del 
genero Limnocoris Stal.-Il) Nuevas consideraciones sobre 
Cryphocricus daguerrei y Cryphocricus rufus de Carlo. 
(Hemiptera-Naucoridae). [104J 11: 37-41, ill. DeLong, 
D. M. A new genus (Knullana) and two new species of 
leafhoppers (Cicadellid.) from Mexico. [Ohio Jour. Sci.J 
41 : 86-88, ill. Doering, K. C. A revision of two genera of 
North American Cercopidae. [103] 14: 109-134. (*k). 
Drake & Harris. A new Velia from Trinidad. [105] 12: 
338-339. Ekblom, T. Untersuchungen iiber den Flugel- 
dimorphismus bei Gerris asper L. [51] 21: 49-64, ill. 
Evans, J. W. -The inter relationships of certain jassoid 
genera. [5] 48: 113-121, ill. Gorham, R. P. Aphid flights 
observed in New Brunswick. [4] 73: 157-158. Hixson, E. 
-The host relation of the cotton flea hopper. [Iowa State 
Coll. Jour. Sci.] 16: 66-68. Jacobi, A. Die Zikadenfauna 
der Kleinen Sundainseln. [Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Syst.] 74: 
277-322, ill. Lent, H. "Latrocimex spectans" n. gen., n. 
sp. parasite de morcegos no Brasil (Cimicidae). [Rev. 
Brasil. Biol.] 1: 41-46, ill. Merti, C. Contribucion al es- 
tudio de Mantispa decorata. (Cor.) [104] 10: 304-307, ill. 
Biologia de Athaumastus haematicus. [104] 10: 308-312, ill. 
Neiva & Lent. Sinopse dos Triatomideos. [105] 12: 61-92, 
ill. Richter, L. Contribucion al conocimiento de los Mem- 
bracidae de Colombia. [Caldasia] 1941: 67-74, ill. Smith, 
C. F. (see Hymenoptera). Tuthill, L. D. Monograph of 
the Psyllinae and Triozinae (Psyllid.) in America north of 
Mexico. [Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci.] 16: 145. Usinger, 
R. L. Two new species of Aradidae from Baltic amber. 
[5] 48: 95-100, ill. Watkins, T. C. Clover leafhopper 
(Aceratagallia sanguinolenta). [Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. 
Sta.j Bull. 758: 24 pp., ill. Wilson, F. H. The slender lice 
of american pigeons and doves with descriptions of two 
new species. [Jour. Parasit.] 27: 259-264, ill. 



lii, '41 J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 297 

LEPIDOPTERA. Babers, F. H. The buffer capacity of 
the blood of the sixth-instar southern armyworm (Prodenia 
eridama). [47 'J 63: 183-190, ill. JBourquin, F. Metamorfosis 
de Magalopyge albicollis Walker 1910 (Megalopygyd) [104J 
1 1 : 22-30, ill. Brues, C. T. Photographic evidence on the 
visibility of the color patterns in buttterflies to the human 
and insect eye. [Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci.] 74: 281- 
285, ill. Caspari, E. (See Anatomy & Physiology.) De- 
thier, V. G. Metamorphoses of Cuban Nymphalidae and 
Lycaenidae. [5] 48: 70-78, ill. Filho, J. O. Contribuicao 
ao conhecimento do genero "Eacles" Hubner, 1819 (Adelo- 
cephalid.). [Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 129-143, ill. Nova es- 
pecie do genero "Eacles" Hubner, 1819 (Adelocephalid.). 
[Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 103-109, ill. Hayward, K. J. Hes- 
perioidea Argentina XI. [104] 10: 279-297, ill. (*). Plantas 
Alimenticias de Hesperidos Argentines. [104] 11: 31-36. 
Jarvis, F. V. L. The nature of hibernation in Lepidoptera. 
[Pro. & Trans. So. Lond. Ent. & Nat. Hist. Soc.] 1941-42: 
10 pp., ill. Kohler, P. Lepidopteros raros y nuevos para 
la Republica Argentina. [104] 10: 316-320. Lustig, E. F.- 
Nautical butterflies. [Chicago Nat.] 4: 85, 95. McDun- 
nough, J. Some apparently undescribed Coleophoridae 
from the Ottawa region. [4] 73: 160-164, ill. Oncocnemis 
riparia and its races. [4] 73: 171-174, ill. (*). Nikitin, J. V. 
-Effect of fermenting molasses on the fecundity of the 
cutworm, Feltia segetum. [Bull. Plant Protection, Lenin- 
grad] 1941 (1) : 36-41. Rubtsov, J. A. Effect of tempera- 
ture and humidity on the development of the eggs and 
larvae of the boll worm. [Bull. Plant Protection, Lenin- 
grad] 1941 (1): 9-19. Tirelli, M. The karyoplasmic ratio 
in the embryos of monovoltine and bivoltine races of the 
silkworm, Bombyx mori. [Phys. Zool.] 14: 70-77, ill. Tra- 
vassos & May. Urn novo "Adelocephalidae" Burmeister, 
1878. [Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 117-120, ill. Wahlgren, E- 
Fjarilar och blommor. [28] 62: 49-87. Williams, J. L.- 
The internal genitalia of Yucca moths, and their connection 
with the alimentary canal. [Jour. Morph.] 69: 217-223, ill. 

DIPTERA. Adams, C. F. A preliminary list of mus- 
coid flics in Missouri. [Proc. Mo. Acad. Sci.] 6: 73-74. 
Alexander, C. P. 'Records and descriptions of Tipuli<!.i<' 
from tropical America. [105] 12: 322-337, ill. (*). Records 
and descriptions of North American crane-flics. [119] 26: 
281-319, ill. ('*). Balch, R. E. European spruce sawfly. 
[Canadian Nat.] 3: 139. ill. Bohart, R. M.- A revision of 
the Strepsiptera with special reference to the species of 



298 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

North America. [67] 7: 91-159, ill. Borgmeier, T. Atta- 
myia sinonimo de Myrmosicarius (Phorid.). [105] 12:415. 
Crampton, G. C. The terminal abdominal structures of male 
Diptera. [5] 48: 79-94, ill. Dreyer, W. A. A simple lab- 
oratory method for Drosophila genetics in general zoology. 
[Ward's Nat. Sci. Bull.] 15: 3-4. Durand, Hollaender & 
Houlahan. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the abdom- 
inal wall of Drosophila melanogaster. [Jour. Hered.] 32: 
51-56, ill. Edwards, F. W. Mycetophilidae collected by 
the expedition to Matto Grosso of the Brazilian Zoological 
Club, in July 1939. [105] 12: 303-314, ill. (*). Fairchild, 
G. B. Notes on Tabanidae from Panama. [7] 34: 629-646, 
ill. (*k). A new Acanthocera (Tabanidae) from Central 
America. [7] 34: 647-648, ill. Fisk, F. W. Deinocerites 
spanius at Brownsville, Texas, with notes on its biology 
and a description of the larva. [7] 34: 543-550, ill. Hull, 
F. M. New American syrphid flies. [40] No. 1151: 3 pp. 
Some undescribed syrphid flies from the neotropical region. 
[91] 31: 432-440. ('*). Knutson, H. The occurrence of 
larvae of the -stable fly, Muscina stabulans (Zett.), in living 
nymphs of the grasshopper, Xanthippus corallipes panther- 
inus (Sc.). [Jour. Parasit.] 27: 90-91. Malloch, J. R. The 
American genus Paracantha (Trypetidae). [105] 12: 32- 
42, ill. (k*). Manis, H. C. -Bionomics and morphology of 
the black onion fly, Tritoxa flexa (Ortalid.). [Iowa State 
Coll. Jour. Sci.] 16: 96-98. de Meijere, J. C. H. Die 
Larven der Agromyzinen. [101] 84: 13-30, ill. Middlekauf, 
W. W. Some biological observations of the adults of 
apple maggot and cherry fruitflies. [12] 34: 621-624. Roze- 
boom, Fox & Laird. Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator D. 
&. K., found naturally infected with Plasmodium. [68] 94: 
114. Shaw, F. R. Some new species of the genus Sciara 
from Canada. [4] 73: 174-175, ill. New Sciarinae from 
Oklahoma and New Mexico. [119] 26: 320-324, ill. (*). 
de Souza Lopes, H/ Sobre o aparelho genital feminine 
dos "Sarcophagidae" e sua importancia na classificacao. 
[Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 215-221, ill. Spencer, W. P. Eco- 
logical factors and Drosophila speciation [Ohio Jour. Sci.] 
41 : 190-200. Teixeira de Freitas & de Souza Lopes.- 
Sobre uma nova especie Brasileira do genero "Condylos- 
tvlus" (Dolichopid.). [Rev. Brasil. Biol.] 1: 27-3a ill. 
Townsend, C. H. T. New fly parasites of Diatraea in Sao 
Paulo. [105] 12: 339-341. Vargas, L. Anopheles gabal- 
doni n. sp. del Est. de Tabasco, Mexico (Culicid.). [Rev. 



Hi, '41] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 299 

Mecl. Mexico] 21 : 385-394, ill. Detalles morfologicos poco 
o nada conocidos de Anopheles Mexicanos. [CienciaJ 2: 
66-69, ill. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) rozeboomi nueva especie 
(Culicid.). [Gac. Mecl. Mexico] 71: 393-395. Simulium 
lane portoi n. n. (Simul. y lista de simulidos mexicanos. 
[Rev. Inst. Salubridad y Inferm. Trop.] 2: 115-122. Ano- 
pheles pseudopunctipennis willardi n. var. (Culicidae). 
[Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. Nat.] 2: 47-49. Nota sobre el 
papel que se atribuye a los Chloropidae en la Transmision 
de Enfermedades. [Rev. Medicina Mexico] 21: 306-310. 
Wigan, L. G. Polygenic variability in wild Drosophila 
melanogaster. [31] 148: 373-374, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Bondar, G. Notas entomologicas du 
Baja. VII. [105] 11: 268-303, ill. (*). Chen, S. H. At- 
tempt at a new classification of the leaf beetles. [Sinensia] 
11: 451-481, ill. Notes on Chinese Eumolpidae [Sinensia] 
11: 483-528. (k*). Darlington, P. J. Report on Coleop- 
tera. [Ann. Rep. Dir. Mus. Comp. Zool.] 1940-41: 16-18. 
Harpster, H. T. An investigation of the gaseous plastron 
as a respiratory mechanism in Helichus striatus. [Trans. 
Amer. Micro. Soc.] 60: 329-358, ill. Heifer, J. R. A revi- 
sion of the genus Buprestis of North America north of 
Mexico (Buprestid.) [70] 21 : 123-198, ill. Hustache, A.- 
Nouveaux Curculionides du Bresil. [105] 12: 131-139. 
Kempers, K. J. W. Larven van kortschildkwers ( Staphy- 
linidae). [101] 84: 31-43, ill. (k). Knull, J. N. Nine new 
Coleoptera (Plastocerid., Buprestid. & Cerambycid.). [43] 
41: 381-388, ill. Lincoln & Palm. Biology and ecology of 
the alfalfa snout beetle. [Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta.] 
Mem. 236: 45 pp., ill. Malkin, B. Additions to the Staten 
Island List of Coleoptera. [Pro. Staten Island Inst. Arts & 
Sci.] 9: 91-96. Pic, M. Coleopteres nouveaux de 1' Ameri- 
que Meridionale. [104] 10: 313-315. (*). Sauer, H. F. G.- 
Importancia, distribuiqao, hospedeiros e inimigos naturais 
de podador de algodoeiro Chalcodermus bondari (Cure.). 
[105 1 12: 42-45. Scheerpeltz, O. - Aus der Praxis des 
Kafersammlers. XXXVI. Planung. Einrichtung und Auf- 
stellung einer dem Studium der Systematik und zoogeo- 
graphischer Fragen dienenden Sammlung. [79] 26: 1-14. 
White, W. H. The Mexican bean beetle. [An. Rep. 
Smiths. Inst.] 1940: 343-356, ill. Yuill, J. S. Cold hardi- 
ness of two species of bark beetles in California forest^ 
[12] 34: 702-709, ill. 



300 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Dec., '41 

HYMENOPTERA. Atherton, G. Do bees see in the 
dark? Minnesota. 1941. 8 pp. Blanchard, E. E. Nuevos 
parasites del Bicho de Cesto Oeceticus kirbyi, Guild. [104] 
11: 1-21, ill. Brown, R. W. Concerning the antiquity of 
social insects. [5] 48: 105-110. Cockerell, T. D. A. Ob- 
servations on plants and insects in northwestern Baja 
California, Mexico, with descriptions of new bees. [Trans. 
San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist.] 9: 339-352, ill. Clausen, C. P. 

-The habits of the Eucharidae. [5] 48: 57-69. Donis- 
thorpe, H. Synonymical notes, etc., on Formicidae. [8] 
77: 237-240. Gemignani, E. V. Una nueva especie del 
genero Trypoxylon. (Specoidea). [Rev. Ent. Soc. Argen- 
tina] 11: 42-44, ill. Headley, A. E. A study of nest and 
nesting habits of the ant Lasius niger subsp. alienus var. 
americanus. [7] 34: 649-657, ill. Lovell, H. B. Ecology 
of Kentucky flowers : The fifth stamen of Pentstemon can- 
escens. [Ann. Kentucky ?Jat. Hist.] 1: 15-21, ill. Notes on 
the habits of Xylocopa virginica. [Kentucky Acad. Sci. 
Trans.] 8: 38-39. Mickel, C. E. Monograph of the South 
American mutillid genus Hoplocrates (Mutillid.). [105] 
12: 341-414. (k*). Mitchell, R. T. The alimentary tract of 
Vespula maculifrons Buy (Vespid.). [Ohio Jour. Sci.] 41 : 29- 
38, ill. Pate, V. S. L. A review of the genus Entomocrabro 
(Sphecid.). [105] 12: 45-61. (k*s). Rau, P. The swarm- 
ing of Polistes wasps in temperate regions. [7] 34: 580-584. 
Smith, C. F. A new species of hymenopterous parasite of 
the pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi). [7] 34: 537-538. Snipes 
& Vanetti. Experiencias sobre o combate a formiga sauva, 
Atta sexdens (Formicid.) [105] 12: 1-32, ill. Sparks, S. D. 

-Surface anatomy of ants. [7] 34: 572-579, ill. Stahel & 
Geijskes. Weitere untersuchungen uber nestbau und gar- 
tenpilz von Atta cephalotes und Atta sexdens (Formicid.). 
[105] 12: 243-268, ill. Takeuchi, K. A Systematic study 
of the suborder Symphyta of the Japanese Empire (IV). 
[Tenthredo] 3: 230-274, ill. (k). Takeuchi & Tokunaga. 

Morphological study of head and mouthparts of a re- 
markable Saw-fly, Nipponorhynchus mirabilis Takenchi. 
[Tenthredo] 3: 275-291, ill. Walley, G. S. Some new and 
little known Canadian Ichneumonidae. [4] 73: 164-170. 
Weber, N. A. The rediscovery of the queen of Eciton 
coecum (Formicid.). [119] 26: 325-329, ill. The biology of 
the fungus-growing ants. The Barro Colorado Island, 
Canal Zone, species. [105] 12: 93-130, ill. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Insect Pests of Farm, Garden 
and Orchard. By L. M. Peairs. New York. 1941. 549 pp., 
ill. 



EXCHANQES 

This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 
not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 



These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and, only when necessary those at the top (being 
ongest in) are discontinued. 



Insects from Northern Korea. I will collect insects for specialists 
in certain groups upon their request; very rich fauna; rates reason- 
able. Address: Mr. Alexander M. Yankovsky, Shuotsu-Ompo, 
Korea, Japan. 

Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersej'. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Correio 1043, Buenos Aires, 
Rep. Argentina. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
Benito, Texas. 

Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
of Michigan Platysamia Columbia, that will emerge June, 1941. W. 
S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Michigan. 

Wanted Specimens of the genus Trox from North America. Will 
exchange or determine for duplicate material. Mark Robinson, 231 
Cherry St., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes, T. halesus 
and E. jucunda to exchange for fauna from other localities. H. W. 
Eustis, Woodbine Rd., Lakemont, Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted Egg cases of preying mantids. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum. Bou1d<-r Colorado. 

Arctic Lepidoptera especially Noctuidae Wanted to hear from 
collectors who desire the Arctic Species. Have lart'r collection. 
R. J. Fitch. Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada. 



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NINETEENTH AND THE PARKWAY, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA 



INDEX TO VOLUME Lll. 



(*Indicates new genera, species, names, etc.) 
ABBOTT, C. E. Modification of the behavior of dragonfly 

nymphs with excised Labia 47 

Why does Gyrinus circle ? 287 

AHRENS, C. Dragonflies new to the Mount Desert Island 

Region, Maine 285 

ALEXANDER, C. P. Undescribed species of craneflies from 

the eastern United States and Canada 192 

Obituary : M. P. Riedel 268 

ANON. Henry Clinton Fall Memorial Publication Fund.. 108 

War damage to Entomology 109 

The Malaria-carrying Anopheles gambiae 125 

Obituary : Dr. Hugo Kahl 150 

Obituary : Dr. Lee Abram Strong 187 

Tabanidae of Panama 232 

BALDUF, W. V. Take offs by prey-laden wasps 91 

BEARD, R. L. WALLACE, P. P. Prothetely in Scolytus 

multistriatus 242 

BELL, E. L. Two new species of Hesperiidae from North 

America 163 

On Lerodea telata and tyrtaeus 183 

BEQUAERT, J. A new race of Vespula squamosa from 

Michoacan, Mexico 249 

BLAISDELL, F. E., SR. A new species of Coniontis from 

Nevada 131 

BLAKE, C. H. Ants preying on termites 38 

CADBURY, J. W. Current Entomological Literature : 56, 
86, 110, 139, 173, 206, 233. 
Review: The Louse, an account of the lice which infest 

man, their medical importance and control 88 

CALVERT, A. S. Cardinal feeding on a mantid 85 

CALVERT, P. P. Obituary : Katherine Mayo 29 

Obituary : F. W. Edwards 30 

Obituary : Otto Emil Plath 30 

301 



302 INDEX 

Obituary : Grace Adelbert Sandhouse 30 

Obituary : John Pattillo Turner 30 

Obituary : Charles William Woodworth 30 

Obituary : Samuel Henshaw 90, 241 

Obituary : Charles William Leng 90 

Obituary : Levi W. Mengel 90 

Obituary : Charles Wardell Stiles 90 

Obituary: Prof. Myron Harmon Swenk 240 

Obituary : Alexandre Arsene Girault 268 

Obituary : Charles Branch Wilson 269 

Obituary : Prof. Ellison Adger Smyth, Jr 270 

Review : Plant galls and gall makers 117 

Review : The embryology of insects and myriapods .... 148 

Review: How to make an insect collection 154 

Review : Insects and their stories 210 

Review: Atlas of the scale insects of North America. . 238 

CHAMBERLIN, R. V. Seven new millipeds from Mexico. . 250 

CLARK, A. H. The genus Colias in North America. .185, 220 
CRESSON, E. T., JR. New genera and species of North 

American Ephydridae 35 

Review: Insect pests of farm, garden and orchard. . . . 259 
CRESSON, (see Meiners, E. P. & Cresson, E. T., Jr.) 

DAHL, R. G. The Leng types of Cicindelidae 169, 188 

DARLINGTON, P. J., JR. The Insect Collection of Thaddeus 

W. Harris (1795-1856) 273 

DENNING, D. G. Descriptions of three new species of 

Mexican Chimarrha 83 

FISHER, E. G. Notes on Costa Rican Mycetophilidae. ... 8 

A "Zippered" sweeping net 226 

Current Entomological Literature: 19. 

FORBES, W. T. M. The early genera of Ithomiinae 1 

Does he stridulate ? 79 

Line-elements in butterfly patterns 151 

What is Pseudomechanitis ? 276 

Fox, I. A new Opisodasys from Idaho 45 



INDEX 303 

FRANCLEMONT, J. G. Notes on Cuculliinae 201 

FREEMAN, H. A. A new species of Amblyscirtes from 
Texas 50 

FRIENDS OF L. W. M. Obituary: Dr. Levi W. Mengel. . 178 

FUNKHOUSER, W. D. "Prof. Funkhouser on a Collecting 
Trip" 275 

GILLESPIE, J. Some unusual dragonfly records from New 
Jersey 225 

HARMSTON, F. C. Review : Generic relationships of the 
Dolichopodidae, based on a study of the mouth parts. . 267 

HAYES, W. P. A bibliography of keys for the identifica- 
tion of immature insects, Part II. Odonata 52, 66, 93 

HULL, F. M. Some new syrphid flies from North and 

South America 157 

Some new species of Syrphidae from Florida, Cuba and 
Brazil 278 

IRWIN, W. H. A preliminary list of the Culicidae of 
Michigan 101 

JAMES, M. T. Notes on the nearctic Geosarginae 105 

JOHNSON, P. H. Some of the Eumolpinae and Chrysome- 
linae of South Dakota 9 

JONES, D. T. Further notes on the snail-collecting Aphis- 
lion larva 39 

J. S. W. Review : Insect pests of stored grain and grain 
products, identification, habits and methods of control . . 239 

KNIGHT, K. L. A migratory flight of Phoebis agarithe. . 274 

KNOWLTON, G. F. Western Aphid notes 136 

KNULL, J. N. Two new Texas Buprestidae 98 

A new Texas Agrilus 283 

LA RIVERS, I. Additions to the list of Nevada dragon - 
fllies 126, 155 

LEECH, H. B. The dates of publication of two articles on 
Coleoptera by John L. LeConte, issued in 1845 290 

LIST, G. M. Obituary: Clarence Preston Gillette . 120 



304 INDEX 

MACKEY, L. S. Current Entomological Literature: 19, 
56, 86, 110, 139, 173, 206, 233, 260, 292. 

MEINERS. E. P. Obituary: Hermann Schwarz 118 

Obituary : George W. Bock 119 

Obituary : August Knetzger 119 

MEINERS, E. P. & CRESSON, E. T., JR. Obituary : Charles 
L. Heink 119 

MOOREFIELD, H. H. Addenda to the Odonata of Maryland 133 

O'BYRNE, H. I. The hibernation in Missouri of Zerene 

caesonia and Euptoieta claudia 181 

PATE, V. S. L. Current Entomological Literature: 19, 
56, 86, 110, 139, 173, 206, 233. 

On two species of Diploplectron from Texas 4 

A synonymical note on Crabro (Blepharipus) davidsoni 34 
On a new subgenus of Pemphilidine wasps from Cuba. 121 

PYLE, R. W. Triungulins of a rhipiphorid beetle borne by 
Elis quinquecincta 74 

RAU, P. A population study of a bumblebee colony, 

Bombus americanorum 70 

Cockroaches : The forerunners of termites 256 

Migrating butterflies, Libythea bachmanii larvata in 
Texas 277 

REHN, J. W. H. Current Entomological Literature: 292. 

RICHARDS, A. G., JR. Current Entomological Literature: 292. 
A stenogamic autogenous strain of Culex pipiens in 
North America 211 

ROBINSON, M. A new species of Trox from Texas 134 

Notes on some rare Scarabaeidae with the description of 
one new species 227 

Ross, H. H. Review: The Francis Walker types of 
Trichoptera in the British Museum 177 

SCHMIEDER, R. G. Current Entomological Literature: 
233, 292. 
Review : Entomophagous insects 116 

SMITH, F. A note on noctuid larvae found in ant's nests 109 

WAGNER, W. H., JR. District of Columbia butterfly 
notes 196, 245 



INDEX 305 

WALLACE, (see Beard, R. L. & Wallace, P. P.) 

WESTFALL, M. J. Notes on Florida Odonata 15, 31 

WILLIAMS, J. L. The relations of the spermatophore to 

the female reproductive ducts in lepidoptera 61 

WILLIAMS, R. C. A list of butterflies which may be found 

within 50 miles of Philadelphia 217 

Review : Butterflies 239 

WILLIAMS, R. W. Notes on bionomics of Ataxia hubbardi 

in Illinois 271 



306 



INDEX 



GENERAL SUBJECTS 

Bird (Cardinal) feeding on a 

mantid 85 

Bird nests, beetles in 227 

Collection in the British Mu- 
seum of Natural History 
Damage to Entomological.. 14 
Collection of Thaddeus W. 

Harris 273 

Current Entomological Litera- 
ture: 19, 56, 86, 110, 139, 
173, 206, 233, 260, 292. 
Dates of publication of two 
articles on Coleoptera by 
John L. Leconte, issued in 

1845 290 

Insect collection, how to make 154 
Immature insects, Bibliography 

of keys 52, 66, 93 

Insect Hosts 74, 91, 109 

Insect parasites 71 

Malaria-carrying Anopheles 

gambiae 125 

Plant Hosts 271 

Prey of ants 38 

Snail-collecting Aphis-lion larva 39 

Sweeping net, Zippered 226 

War damage to entomology.. 109 

OBITUARY NOTICES 

Bock, George W 119 

Edwards, F. W 30 

Gillette, Clarence Preston 120 

Girault, A. A 268 

Heink, Charles L 119 

Henshaw, Samuel 90, 241 

Kahl, H 150 

Knetzger, August 119 

Leng, Charles William 90 

Mayo, Katherine 29 

Mengel, Levi. W 90, 178 

Plath, O. E 30 

Riedel, M. P 268 

Sandhouse, G. A 30 



Schwarz, Hermann 118 

Smyth, E. A., Jr 270 

Stiles, Charles Wardell 90 

Strong, Lee Abram 187 

Swenk, Prof. Myron Harmon 240 

Turner, J. P 30 

Wilson, C. B 269 

Woodworth, C. W 30 

PERSONALS 

Fall, Henry Clinton, Memorial 
Publication Fund 108 

Funkhouser (Prof.) on collec- 
ting trip 275 

Scott, Hugh 138 

REVIEWS 

Betten & Mosely: The Fran- 
cis Walker types of Trich- 
optera in the British Museum 177 

Buxton : The Louse, an ac- 
count of the lice which infest 
man, their medical impor- 
tance and control 88 

Clausen : Entomophagous in- 
sects 116 

Cotton: Insect pests of stored 
grain and grain products, 
identification, habits and 
methods of control 239 

Cregan : Generic relationships 
of the Dolichopodidae, based 
on a study of the mouth 
parts 267 

Felt: Plant galls and gall 
makers 117 

Ferris : Atlas of the scale 
insects of North America . . 238 

Hoogstraal, Martinson & Mohr : 
Insects and their stories.... 210 

Johannsen & Butt : The em- 
bryology of insects and my- 
riapods 148 

Macy & Shepard: Butterflies 239 

Peairs : Insect pests of farm, 
garden and orchard 259 



INDEX 



307 



GEOGRAPHICAL 
DISTRIBUTION 

Alabama : Neur 40 

Arizona: Col. 189; Lepid.... 164 
California: Col. 9, 172, 191; 

Dipt. 35; Lepid 167 

Canada : Col. 170. 

Central America : Dipt. 8, 

121, 158, 278; Lepid 183 

Colorado: Col. 170, 189. 

Connecticut: Dipt 163 

District of Columbia : Lepid. 

185, 196, 245 

Florida: Col. 170; Dipt. 278; 

Lepid. 167; Odon 15,31 

Idaho : Siphon 45 

Illinois:: Col 171, 271 

Indiana : Neur 39 

Louisiana : Col 171 

Maine: Dipt. 37, 194; Odon. 285 

Maryland : Odon 133 

Massachusetts: Col. 231; 

Dipt 163 

Mexico : Hym. 249 ; Lepid. 

164, 274; Neur 82 

Michigan : Dipt 37 

Minnesota : Dipt 193 

Missouri : Lepid 181 

Montana: Col 188 

Nevada: Col. 131, Odon. 126, 

155. 

Newfoundland: Col 188 

New Jersey : Col. 229 ; 

Dipt 163 

New Mexico : Lepid 165 

New York: Col. 172; Lepid. 

204. 

North Carolina : Neur 40 

Ohio: Dipt. 106; Hym. 91; 

Neur 40 

Oregon: Col 188 

Pennsylvania : Col. 229 ; Dipt. 

211; Orth. 85. 



South America Dipt. 161, 278; 

Lepid. 183 

South Dakota : Eumolpinae 

and Chrysomelinae 9 

Tennessee : Dipt 196 

Texas : Col. 98, 134, 190, 283 ; 

Hym. 4; Lepid. 50, 164, 277. 
Virginia: Col 229 

COLEOPTERA 

Acmacodera 98 

acqualis, Trox 230 

Agrilns, Texas 283 

Aphodius 231 

Ataxia, Bionomics 271 

Beetles in birds nests 227 

bellissinm, Cicindela 188 

botvditchi, Cicindela 190 

Buprestidae, Texas 98 

Chrysomelinae of South Dakota 9 

Cicindela 169, 188 

Cicindelidae, Types of 169 

Cinura 99 

Colaspidea 9 

confnsum, Tribolhim 242 

Coniontis from Nevada 131 

crypto, Ataxia 271 

Epilachna 242 

Eumolpinae of South Dakota. 9 

Fidia 9 

flavipennis, Macrosiagon 78 

floridana, Tclmcha 170 

fuliginosus*, Trox 134 

yillcspicnsis*, Acmacodera . . 98 

Gyrimts circle, Why does 287 

harrisi, Cicindela 190 

hcntziana, Cicindela 191 

Horia 76 

horiconensis, Cicindela 172 

hubbardi, Ataxia 271 

intcrmcdins. Omits 169 

knansii, Cicindela 191 

larivcrsi*, Coniontis 131 

laticollis, Trox 231 

limpiae*, Agrilns 283 



308 



INDEX 



longnlus, Melanotus 242 

ludoviciana, Cicindela 171 

Macrosiagon 78 

maculata, Horia 76 

manitoba, Cicindela 170 

man-it obensis, Aphodius 231 

marie o pa, Cicindela 189 

Melanotus 242 

minor, Cicindela 171 

monachiis, Trox 134 

multistriatus, Scolytus 242 

nigerrima, Cicindela 170 

novatcrrae, Cicindela 188 

oblongus, Aphodius 232 

obsolctoguttatus, Agrilns 284 

Omus 169 

oslari, Cicindela 189 

Phaedon 9 

Phyllophaga 232 

postrema, Phyllophaga 232 

Prasocuris 9 

Rhipiphorid beetle Triungulins 74 

Rhipiphorns 76 

roburdla*, Cinura 99 

robusta, Cicindela 190 

Scarabaeidae, Notes on and 

description of 227 

Scolytus, Prothetely in 242 

sierra, Cicindela 172 

simi, Trox 229 

solidaginis, Rhipiphorus 76 

strialus, Trox 231 

suberosus, Trox 228 

Tetracha 170 

transversa, Cicindela 171 

Tribolium 242 

Trox 134, 227 

tuolumnae, Cicindela 191 

tytus*, Trox 228 

varivestris, Epilachna 242 

vestalia, Cicindt la 188 

viticida, Fidia 9 

DIPTERA 

analis, Leia , 8 



Anopheles 125 

Baccha 161 

beameri*, Merosargus 107 

bergi*, Hydrellia 37 

browcriana* , Limonia 193 

caerulijrons, Merosargus 107 

California*, Helaeomyia 35 

Ceplialochrysa 106 

Chloromyia 106 

Chrysochroma 106 

chrysoprcssa*, Planes 158 

Clasiopella 36 

clavis, Macrosargns 107 

costariccnsis*, Lcia 8 

Crane flies from eastern United 
States and Canada, Undes- 

cribed 192 

Culcx pipiens, Stenogamic 

autogenous strain 211 
Culicidae of Michigan, Pre- 
liminary list 101 

cnprescens*, Planes 159 

Dicranoptycha 195 

Discocerina 35 

Dolichopesa 192 

Ephydridae, North American 35 

flavipcs*, Discocerina 35 

florida*, Volucella 278 

formosa, Chloromyia 107 

gambiae, Anopheles 125 

Geosarginae, Nearctic 105 

Gcosargus 106 

grisea*, Planes 281 

Helaeomyia* 35 

Hydrellia 37 

johnsoni*, Hydrellia 37 

johnsoni*, Mixogaster 162 

Leia (see Bolctina) 

Limonia 193 

luccn-s, Gcosargus 107 

Macrosargus 107 

melanofnis*, Ptecticus trivitta- 

tus 106 

Merosargus 107 

mctatarsata, Clasiopella 36 



INDEX 



309 



Microchrysa 106 

Mimapsilopa* 36 

Mixogaster 162 

molcstus, Culex 215 

Mycetophilidae, Costa Rican . . 8 

Nothomyia 105 

picta, Volucella 278 

pictipcnnis, Platyura 8 

pictoides*, Volucella 280 

pipiens, Culex 211 

Planes 158 281 

Platyura 8 

polita, Dolichopeza 193 

polita, Microchrysa 107 

pratti*, Dolichopeza 192 

Proceroplatiis (see Platyura) 

Ptecticus 105 

Sargus 107 

sepia*, Baccha 161 

Syrphid flies from North and 

South America 157 

Syrphidae from Florida, Cuba 

and Brazil 278 

Tabanidae of Panama 232 

temtessa*, Dicranoptycha .... 195 

tricolor, Sargus 107 

Valeria*, Planes 282 

vittata*, Platyura 8 

Volucella 278 

HEMIPTERA 

Aphid notes, Western 136 

Aphis 136 

linnci, Tibicen 92 

tctradymia* , Aphis 136 

Tibicen 92 

HYMENOPTERA 

americanorum, Bombus 70 

Ants preying on termites 38 

Bembex 78 

Blepharipus 34 

Bombus 70 

Bumblebee colony, Population 

study 70 



Crabro 34 

Crossocerus (see Blepharipus) 

cyanauges*, Ectemnius 123 

davidsoni, Crabro 34 

Diploplectron from Texas ... 4 

Ectemnius 123 

Elis 74 

Formica 109 

Harpalu~s 71 

herbivagus, Harpalus 71 

kantsi*, Diploplectron 6 

Merospis* 121 

michoacana*, Vespula 249 

obscuripcs, Formica rufa .... 109 

parkeri, Blepharipus 34 

Pemphilidine wasps from Cuba 121 

Psithyrus 71 

quinquecincta, Elis 74 

speciosus, Sphecius 91 

spinolae, Bembex 78 

sqnamosa, Vespula 249 

variabilis, Psithyrus 71 

Vespula from Michoacan, 

Mexico 249 

vierecki*, Diploplectron 4 

Wasps, Prey-laden 19 

LEPIDOPTERA 

acrisione, Athcsis 3 

agarithc, Phocbis 274 

Amblyscirtes from Texas .... 50 

americalis, Epizeuxis 109 

Antigonus 165 

apcllus, Hesperia 183 

Aprotopus 2 

arpa, Atrytone 168 

astyoche, Pierella 153 

Athesis 1 

Atrytone 167 

bchrii, C alias 224 

belli*, Amblyscirtes 50 

bcrryi*, Atrytone 167 

bimaculata, Atrytone 168 

Butterflies found within 50 

miles of Philadelphia 217 



310 



INDEX 



Butterfly notes, District o f 

Columbia 196, 245 

Butterfly patterns, Line-ele- 
ments in 151 

cacsonia, Zcrene 181 

Callimormus 184 

celia, Amblyscirtcs 51 

Ceratinia 276 

ccromatica, Pyrcferra 204 

chrysotheme, C alias 224 

citrombra*, Pyrcferra 203 

claudia, Euptoieta 181 

Colias in North America. 186, 223 

conspicua, Atrytonc 168 

Crino (see Mniotypc} 

Cuculliinae, Notes 201 

ditcta, Mniotypc, Hadcna .... 201 

egina, Melinaca 1 

elides, Callimormus 184 

Epizeuxis , 109 

eriphylc, Colias 223 

Euptoieta, Hibernation in 

Missouri 181 

eury theme, Colias 186 

evansi*, Antigonus 165 

gracfiana, Scopelosoma 202 

guatrmalana, Colias 223 

hccla, Colias 224 

Hcsperia 183 

Hesperidae from North America 163 
hesperidago, Pyrcferra, 

Hoporina 202 

Hirsutis 1 

indirecta, Xanthia 202 

Ithomiinae, Genera 1 

kootenai, Colias 223 

larvata, Libythca 277 

Lerodea 183 

Libythca bachmanii larvata 

migrating 277 

limpida, Ceratinia 276 

machaonidcs, Papilio 154 

marmorca, Tamphana 79 

maxima, Phocbis 274 

mcadii, Colias 224 



Megistias 184 

Melinaca 1 

mcrgelana, Ceratinia 276 

Mctaxaglaca 202 

Mniotype* 201 

moffatiana, Scopelosoma 202 

Olyras 3 

Papilio 154 

parado.va, Ceratinia 276 

pcttiti, Pyrcferra 204 

philodicc, Colias 186 

Phocbis agarithe, Migratory 

flight 274 

Pierella 153 

Prcpona 153 

Pscctraglaca 202 

Pscudomechanitis (see Ceratinia} 
pulverulenta, Antigonus, Leu- 

cochitonea, Systasca 164 

Pyrcferra 202 

Reproductive ducts (Female) 

in lepidoptera 61 

rumina, Thais 154 

Scopclosotna 202 

Sericaglaca* 201 

signata, Scricaglaea, Orthosia 201 

sommcri, Crino 201 

Spermatophore and female 

reproductive ducts 61 

tacniatus, Tagiadcs 164 

Tagiadcs 164 

Tamphana, 79 

telata, Lerodea, Cobalus, Hes- 

pcria 183 

telata, Magistias 184 

Tcllcrvo 2 

Thais 154 

Thyridia 1 

Tithorca 1 

tyrtacus, Lerodea, Hcsperia... 183 

Velamysta 4 

ivcrdandi, Colias 224 

Xanthia 202 

zampa, Hcsperia 164 

Zcrene, Hibernation in Missouri 181 



INDEX 



311 



ODONATA 

Celithemis 225 

Bibliography of keys for iden- 
tification of immature O. 52, 

66, 93. 
Dragonflies new to the Mount 

Desert Island Region 285 

Dragonfly nymphs, Behavior of 47 
Dragonfly records, New Jersey 225 

Florida Odonata, Notes 15, 31 

Nevada drangonflies, Additions 

to list 126, 155 

Odonata of Maryland, Addenda 

to 133 

verna, Celithemis 225 

ORTHOPTERA 

americana., Periplaneta 256 

anstralasiae, Periplaneta 256 

Blatta 256 

Blattclla 257 

Cockroaches forerunners of 

Termites 256 

Cryptocercus 257 

gcrmanica, Blattclla 257 

orientalis, Blatta 256 

Panchlora 257 

Paratcnodcra 85 

Parcoblatta 257 

Pennsylvania, Parcoblatta . . . 257 

Periplaneta 256 

punctulatus, Cryptocercus 257 

sinensis, Paratcnodcra 85 

virginica, Parcoblatta 257 

viridis, Panchlora 257 

SMALLER ORDERS 

Aphis-lion larva, snail-collecting 39 



betteni*, Chimarrha 82 

Ch'nnarrha, Mexican 82 

darzviniensis, Mastotcrmes . . . 258 

enoplus, Opisodasys 45 

Hcmerobius 39 

jcllisoni*, Opisodasys 46 

kccni. Opisodasys 45 

Mastotcrmes 258 

Nodita 39 

Opisodasys from Idaho 45 

pscndarctomys, Opisodasys ... 45 

pylaca*, Ch'nnarrha 84 

ridlcyi*, Chimarrha 83 

robustits, Opisodasys 45 

spatiosns (see robustus) 

Termites, Ants preying on 38 

Termites, Cockroaches the fore- 
runners 256 

vcsperalis, Opisodasys 45 

virginica, Nodita 39 

NON-HEXAPODA 

Cleidogona 250 

Eurelu-s 255 

hoogstralli*, Mcssicobohis .... 254 

leonicus*, Orthoporus 252 

Messicobolns 254 

michoacana*, Cleidogona 251 

Millipeds from Mexico 250 

nigrior*, Spirobolus 253 

nucva*, Cleidogona 250 

Orthoporus 252 

potosianits*, Rhinocricus 252 

Rhinocricus 252 

Spirobolus 253 

tancitarus*, Eurclus 255 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOLUME LIII, 1942 



PHILIP P. CALVERT, PH. D., EDITOR 

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L. S. MACKEY A. G. RICHARDS, JR., PH. D. J. W. H. REHN 



PUBLISHED BY 
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THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

LOGAN SQDARK 

1942 



The several numbers of the NEWS for 1942 were mailed at the Post 
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No. 1 January January 23, 1942 

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Subscriptions for 1942 are now due 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

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JANUARY, 1942 



- 
Vol. NoVT 









CONTENTS 

Lafleur Wooden-Walled Ant Nests (Hymen.: Formicidae) 1 

Sabrosky Types vs. Types 

Chamberlin A New American Centiped of the Genus Scutigera 

(Chilopoda : Scutigeridae) 10 

Satterthwait -- Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Affecting Chufa 

(Cyperus esculentus) 11 

White A New Genus and Species of Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae) from 

Southwestern United States 16 

Obituary Prof. James Troop 21 

Barber and Pepper The Corn Lanternfly in New Jersey (Homopt. : 

Fulgoridae) 22 

Schoof Sponge Rubber : Its Use in Shipping Containers 22 

Ceballos and Cordoba Institute Espanol de Entomologia 23 

Gaul Livia marginata Patch Attended by Ants (Homoptera: Chermidae ; 

Hymen. : Formicidae) 24 

Beall On the Relationship between the Moth Camptylochila americalis 

Gn. and Formica rufa obscuripes Forel (Lcpid. : Noctuidae ; 

Hymen. : Formicidae ) 24 

List of Titles of Publications (unnumbered) 

Current Entomological Literature 25 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LIII JANUARY, 1942 No 1 

Wooden- Walled Ant Nests (Hymen.: Formicidae). 

By LAURENCE J. LAFLEUR, New York City. 

The author has developed a type of formicary which has 
several advantages over types hitherto described, and which is 
suitable for temporary or permanent nests and for both large 
and small species of ants. It differs from older-type nests 
principally in the use of plywood in its construction. 

One difficulty in the construction of formicaries is to have 
the glass cover fit snugly on top of the walls so that the ants 
do not escape through the crevices. This consideration be- 
comes paramount when dealing with very small species, which 
manage to squeeze themselves into surprisingly small inter- 
stices in their efforts to escape or explore. The simplest 
method of producing a perfect fit is that developed by Sant- 
schi and described by Wheeler, where plaster of Paris is poured 
along the lines where walls and partitions are to be on a pane 
of glass used as a base, and quickly covered with another piece 
of glass whose under surface has been oiled. As the upper 
pane is pressed down, the plaster spreads into an even contact 
between the two panes, forming walls of regular height but 
irregular width, and with uneven vertical surfaces. It is de- 
sirable to place between the panes small pieces of glass or other 
material which will hold the panes at the proper distance apart. 

The Santschi nest has the advantages of quick and easy pro- 
duction and of cheapness, and is reliable for the temporary 
housing of small ants, but it has several defects. First, it is 
available only for the smaller ants, as the panes are not usu- 
ally more than an eighth of an inch apart and often less. 
Second, the method of manufacture gives highly irregular 
vertical surfaces, and, in places at least, very thick walls. In a 

1 









2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

small nest, as this type necessarily is, these are not only un- 
aesthetic but constitute an important waste of space. Third, 
if the plaster is quite liquid, the walls will be impossibly thick: 
if the plaster has considerable body when poured, it dries 
quickly and there is no time to make either a large nest or ex- 
tensive subdivisions. Fourth, plaster cracks readily, and any 
attempt to alter the nest after the plaster starts to set is 
apt to end disastrously. Fifth, ants need a great deal of mois- 
ture, and if kept wet a small piece of plaster will disintegrate. 
Finally, plaster is a dirty material to work with, for the ants 
as well as for the myrmecologist, and there are serious diffi- 
culties in providing the ants with water uncontaminated with 
plaster. In consequence, the author prefers some other type 
of nest for all but the smallest ants, and even in their case 
considers some modification desirable. 

A second way to attain fit is by the use of compressible 
materials for the walls. The Fielde nest and Wheeler's modi- 
fication, where towelling is used, is the best example of this 
type of construction. It is a satisfactory nest for large ants- 
even elegant in some respects but it is difficult and expen- 
sive to make, and unsuitable for medium and small species, 
since the latter can make their way through the interstices. 
Even large ants may escape if the towelling, sponge, cotton, 
or similar material is not perfectly fitted and of even thickness : 
even a slight imperfection may be fatal, since a glass top is 
not sufficiently heavy to do much leveling of irregularities. 
Finally, this type of nest gets dirty quickly, and entails con- 
siderable trouble in replacing the towelling. 

The simplest and most suitable way of ensuring a good fit 
is to use a material which is commercially available in accurate 
thicknesses, and the author has had much success with ply- 
wood, although doubtless a plastic will eventually find its way 
onto the market that will be still better. A good quality of 
plywood is reasonably warp-proof, perfectly even in thickness, 
and easily cut with a jig-saw into any arrangement of outside 
walls and partitions of any desired complexity. These walls 
and partitions are made in one single piece, and a variety of 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

wall-sets may be stacked together in very little space while 
awaiting service. Such nests are satisfactory for all large 
species, most medium-sized, and some small ; depending in 
part on the size of the nest and quality of the plywood, and 
partly on the species itself. Only experience will show which 
species need special treatment, for size alone is not a reliable 
guide: Nylanderia vividula, for example, though only half the 
length of Tetramorium guineensis, will not go through cracks 
sufficient to allow the larger species to squeeze through. Where 
the fit of glass to plywood is not accurate enough for a given 
species, the glass may be sealed to the wood by the use of wax 
or some similar material. In this case, of course openings must 
be provided in the walls for the introduction of food and water. 

Wall-sets are made in a few standard sizes, so that all wall- 
sets and glass panes are interchangeable. The author has made 
them in three sizes, about 8 by 12, 6 by 8, and 4 by 6 inches; 
and in three thicknesses, one-eighth, one-quarter, and three- 
eighths of an inch. For permanent nests it is desirable to 
select a thickness such that the ants in the nest can touch the 
glass cover above them ; in this way they combine sufficient 
room with the attainment of a feeling of security in the ants 
which they seem to have when they recognize that they are 
covered: for field work the one-quarter thickness is prefer- 
able, since it is sufficiently thick to take any ant as a temporary 
measure, and not inconveniently thick for the smaller species. 
For temporary nests it is sufficient to place a suitable wall-set 
upon a glass or plywood base, and cover with glass. For perm- 
anent nests the wall-set is glued, nailed, or screwed to the base. 

Except when the formicary is to be used on the stage of a 
compound microscope, the author prefers a wooden base; 
partly because it permits the use of nails and screws, partly 
because it gives a good footing to the ants when used without 
further covering, and partly because it permits the sinking of 
water and food containers into the base. Three-eighths inch 
plywood is used for the base, no matter what the wall-thickness 
may be. Either a glass or a plywood base may be covered 
with paper before being used, the color of the paper being 



4 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

chosen so as to provide a contrasting background for both the 
adult ants and the young of whatever species is to be kept in 
the nest, but the use of paper is rarely advantageous if the 
wooden base is used. 

When one-quarter or three-eighth inch walls are used, they 
may be nailed in position or preferably screwed from the base 
side. The advantage in the use of screws is that they aid in 
preventing warping, and that they may readily be removed for 
the interchange of wall-sets or the replacement of the paper; 
which, in this case, is a single sheet inserted between the base 
and wall-set and held in place by the screws joining the two 
latter. With the one-eighth inch wall-set, or when the one- 
quarter is to be used for field work where very small ants may 
be collected, the formicary should be put together with glue 
instead of screws or nails, since the latter distort the upper 
surface of the wall-set sufficiently to permit very small ants 
to escape. A glue must be selected, such as casein for example, 
which will not soften when wet and which does not make use 
of an ether or acetone base, which, in the confined space of the 
formicary, gives off vapors sufficient to kill the ants, even after 
drying for as long as six months. Glue is necessary for the 
one-eighth inch nests, and it is also perfectly suitable for the 
larger ones. 

Except when special arrangements are made, access to the 
interior of the nest is obtained by sliding the glass cover so 
that one edge or corner is exposed. Consequently, food and 
water receptacles should be located in the corners when pos- 
sible, and otherwise along the sides. Metal or other water- 
tight receptacles may be used, or a receptacle may be hollowed 
out in the wooden base and waterproofed with wax or varnish. 
In any case it is preferable that the container be sunk into the 
wooden base of the nest. Chiseling out a section of the ply- 
wood is a very simple operation, and food and water are thus 
kept sanitarily isolated, and where they are not so apt to spill 
over onto adjoining parts of the nest. Furthermore, this op- 
eration enables more water to be kept in the nest, so that it 
need not be renewed too often. The water container is made 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 5 

fairly large, say two inches in diameter for an eight by twelve 
nest, and an eighth to a quarter of an inch in depth. It is 
sunk to be flush with the base, and is filled with cotton which 
is kept thoroughly wet. For very small nests smaller containers 
must be used, and they have to be filled more often once a 
day or even twice a day instead of twice a week, depending 
upon atmospheric conditions. Food containers are similar to 
the water containers, except that they are much smaller, and 
may even be omitted altogether. There may be one or two in 
a nest, and they should be located some distance from the 
water container when possible. For a fully developed nest, 
the food and water may be at opposite corners, but in an in- 
cipient one, both must be near the section used by the queen. 
Opening the nest to renew the food and water supply be- 
comes a more difficult problem as the number of workers in 
the nest increases, and with species that become alarmed 
easily or are of persistently exploratory habits. In these cases, 
Janet's device may be borrowed, and the glass cover perforated 
with conveniently placed holes, each with its individual cover: 
or a larger pane with one hole may be prepared and slid into 
place over any part of any nest where access is desired. A 
second method has been devised for the nests of the General 
Biological Supply House, where pipettes or medicine droppers 
are inserted in holes in the wall. This ingenious device per- 
mits the water to be replenished from the dropper, which need 
not be itself removed more than once a week. Adaptations of 
this device to nests with walls of lesser height are possible. 
The third method is to use a porous material for some part of 
the nest. Janet used a heavy porous base, which was quite 
suitable even if somewhat cumbrous. Water was kept in a 
reservoir in one end, and the whole block remained moist. I 
have used a modification of this method by carrying a few 
fibres of cotton through a hole in the wall, which was then 
sealed with wax around the cotton. The cotton is allowed 
barely to protrude on the outside, and by touching water to 
this protruding part, all the cotton inside the nest may be kept 
as wet as is desired. The sole objection to this method is that 



6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

it permits more evaporation from the exposed surface, and 
hence requires more frequent replenishment of the water, than 
do nests where all the moisture is protected on the inside. In 
all other ways, however, this method is the simplest and the 
best; and it is the only one suitable for nests to which the 
cover is sealed. Of course it is necessary that the wood be 
waterproofed wherever it may come in contact with the cotton. 

The use of plywood for walls enables the partitions to be 
made thinner and more complex than in any type of nest previ- 
ously described, and there is a real advantage in the use of 
complex subdivisions in a nest. In their natural nests, ants 
may have a few large halls, but always have a complex system 
of small chambers and connecting galleries ; and while ants 
readily adjust themselves to abnormal conditions, normal cir- 
cumstances should be preserved as far as is consistent with 
easy observation and care and with the particular experiment 
being conducted. Furthermore, complexity is useful in ex- 
periments and observations on many aspects of ant life and 
psychology, such as orientation within the nest, communication, 
and parasitism. 

A few special adaptations of the nest may be mentioned. An 
inner cubicle, a sanctum sanctorum, is almost always selected 
by the queen for her own residence, and in larger nests it may 
be just as well to provide one. If the sides of the nests are 
made perfectly straight, the entrances of two nests may be 
placed together and communication between the nests is se- 
cured without further elaboration. A slip of paper between 
the nests then allows the communication to be shut off at will : 
this is particularly useful when experimental set-ups are de- 
vised where entrances and exits are to be controlled. If it is 
desired to allow the ants access to the world, but to prevent 
their migration, holes may be bored in the walls large enough 
for the workers but too small for the queen : a similar device 
will permit observations of the parasitism of Solcnopsis on 
larger species. In experiments on affiliation, cloth or wire par- 
titions may be used within the nest. It is also possible to ar- 
range interior galleries which can be closed from the outside. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 7 

It is frequently convenient, especially with smaller nests, not 
to make very small panes, bases, and wall-sets, but to make a 
single wall-set serve for two nests. When working with queens 
alone, twelve or more compartments may be constructed in one 
piece, and this form of construction, with a sealed cover, will 
also be found very appropriate for field use. 

And finally, the question of cost may be considered. While 
cheapness may not be the primary merit in an article of re- 
search, it is not negligible either, and the type of nest described 
in this article is cheaper than the Santschi nest, incomparably 
cheaper than any other type. At present prices, forty cents 
for glass and thirty for wood is sufficient to make four of the 
largest nests. Sixteen of the smallest can be built for sixty- 
five cents. The cost of glue or nails, and of varnish or wax, 
is negligible ; and the only tools to which access is necessary 
are a jig-saw and chisel. With any sort of a work-shop avail- 
able, dozens of these nests may be turned out in an afternoon. 



Types vs. Typas.* 

By CURTIS W. SABROSKY, Michigan State College, 
East Lansing, Mich. 

The appearance in recent years of two compendia of the 
terminology of types 1 has called attention to the apparent com- 
plexity of this subject in the biological sciences. An excellent 
critique by Williams 2 pointed out the desirability of greater 
simplicity in referring to type material. Beyond this, a few 
further comments may be in order. 

The large number of recorded terms (233 entries by Friz- 
zell ; 108 by Fernald, who included only terms applicable to 

* Journal Article No. 563 (n. s.) from the Michigan Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. 

'Frizzell, Amer. Midland Nat., 14: 637-668, 1933; Fernald, Annals 
Ent. Soc. Amer., 32: 689-702, 1939. 

'Williams, Annals Ent. Soc. Amer., 33: 621-624, 1940. 



8 ENTOMOLOGICAL, NEWS [Jan., '42 

individual specimens) is unnecessarily deceiving to the casual 
observer. Both lists contain many names (a) whose useful- 
ness is confined to botany, ecology, genetics and general 
zoology, (b) whose special application in paleontology may 
perhaps be defended on the grounds of the particular condition 
of their type material, or (c) whose meaning is obviously the 
same (e. g., combinations like alloparatype, paraallotype and, 
parallotype, and endings of type, typ, and typus). Elim- 
inating expressions in the above categories, there remain 
comparatively few terms which appear essential to the taxo- 
nomic zoologist for the accurate recording of the basic material 
for each species. 

The introduction of the question of priority into the matter 
of terminology appears to be an undue complication. Termi- 
nology is language, and language is preeminently a matter of 
usage and not of priority. If equally understandable, the more 
euphonious and the more widely disseminated word may be 
expected to prevail over the less so, even though the latter 
have chronological priority. The principle of priority in 
generic and specific nomenclature is quite another matter, being 
a considered plan for stability in the binominal surnames of 
organisms. 

In particular, there appears to be no need for going far 
afield in establishing priority in terms. Why replace the simple 
word homotype with the more awkward homoeotype, merely 
because the former is preoccupied elsewhere in biology? In- 
deed, the fact that there is another use for homotype need not 
preclude its usefulness for specialists in taxonomy, any more 
than the use of genotype in genetics should cause taxonomists 
to abandon their long established term in favor of generotype. 

The published lists contain numerous examples of the extent 
to which the naming of original type material has been carried. 
Even more complicated are the various names revolving in the 
orbits of topotype and metatype. The possible combinations 
of these with the simple arrangement of holotype allotype 
paratype are numerous enough, without introducing further 
frills. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 9 

Lastly, one may question, with Williams, the value of pro- 
posing "type" names for soldier castes, worker castes, larvae, 
pupae, etc. After all, they can have no other scientific name 
than that of their species. There is already a type for the 
species (perhaps even a number of different kinds of "types"!). 
Adequate description and preservation of biological forms would 
seem to be sufficient without adding "type" names to the already 
overburdened terminology. 

In spite of criticisms, such compendia are extremely useful 
as reference works, like dictionaries, even though they contain 
many superfluous terms. As reference works, it is to be re- 
gretted that neither is perfection in itself, though others will 
thereby be stimulated to be alert for omissions and corrections. 
No attempt has been made to check the literature in detail, but 
it may be appropriate to record here a few items which do not 
appear in either list. 



1. Allotype The type of the female sex, even if the only 
known specimen. Knowlton and Rowe : Annals Ent. Soc. 
Amer., Vol. 27, p. 582, 583, 1934. 

2. Diatype The type of a genus substituted for a homonym. 
Lindsey: Annals Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. 18, p. 76, 1925. 

3. Gonotype All descendants of the type (and allotype) 
when these were bred. Sturtevant : Annals Ent. Soc. Amer., 
Vol. 9, p. 324, 1916. 

4. Met amor photype "A comprehensive term for the speci- 
men and its parts which serve as proof of an association of 
stages in the life cycle separated by a metamorphosis". M. J. 
Milne: Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., Vol. 46, p. 435, 1938. 

5. Paratopotype Used by Viereck : Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 
Vol. 11, p. 210, 211, 1909. (Antedates Alexander, 1916). 

6. Phototype Used by Pierce: Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., 
Vol. 8, p. 61, 1906 (1907). (Antedates Kellerman, 1912). 

7. Sexitype Probably refers to the holotype and allotype 
together, as for example, "sexitypes in my collection". Blais- 
dell : Bui. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 63, p. 58 et al. 1909. 



10 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

A New American Centiped of the Genus Scutigera 
(Chilopoda: Scutigeridae). 

By RALPH V. CHAMBERLIN, University of Utah. 

The centiped described below is the third species of the 
genus Scutigera to be recorded from the United States. The 
other two species are the familiar "house centiped", Scutigera 
coleoptrata (Linne), more commonly known in this country as 
Scutigera forceps (Rafinesque), and Scutigera lincesi (Wood), 
described many years ago from Texas. The new species, from 
Arizona, differs obviously from the other two in the uniform 
coloration of the body, longitudinal stripes, so conspicuous in 
them, being wholly absent from 6\ homa. 
Scutigera homa, new species. 

Dorsum a light ferruginous yellow without trace of stripes 
or other markings. Venter pale, in part nearly white of a 
slightly greenish tinge. Legs also pale, the proximal joints of 
a faint greenish tinge, entirely without annuli or other mark- 
ings. Antennae ferruginous yellow. 




Scutigera homa, new species. Gonopods of female, ventral view. 

First division of antennae consisting of 80 articles, of which 
all excepting those at ends are short and very short ; second 
division consisting of about 165 articles ; of a third division of 
which the apical portion is missing 20 articles remain. 

First division of tarsus of leg I composed of 14 articles, the 
second division of near 36. In the second legs the first tarsal 
division has 13 articles, the second 32. In the third legs the 
first division of tarsus has 24 articles, the second 17. In the 
fourth the numbers of articles are 11 and 28 respectively. In 
the fifth, 9-14 and 29. In the sixth, 8 and 25. In the seventh, 
9 and 27. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 11 

Stomata short, reaching caudal margin and projecting slightly 
into the caudal emargination. Caudal margin of last tergite 
emarginate. 

The gonopods of the female as shown in the accompanying 
figure. 

Length, 15 mm. 

Locality. ARIZONA: 22 miles southeast of Ajo. Holotype: 
One female taken by S. and D. Mulaik on Jan. 3, 1941, in the 
writer's collection. 



Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Affecting Chufa 

(Cyperus esculentus). 

By A. F. SATTERTHWAIT, 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

INTRODUCTION 1 . 

The present treatise on the weevils affecting chufa repre- 
sents work incidental to the investigation of the weevils of the 
genus Calendra (Sphcnophorus}, agriculturally known as bill- 
bugs. It is not the result of the study of insects from the 
standpoint of chufa as an agricultural crop. However, as the 
chufa is a common host plant of several species of billbugs and 
probably the preferred host plant of Calendra callosa (Oliv.), 
of C. venatus (Say), and of C. destructor (Chitt.), this plant 
has been subjected to careful scrutiny in the Mississippi Valley 
and some of the Eastern States. 

1 The writer wishes to thank W. H. Larrimer and others in the Bureau 
of Entomology of the United States Department of Agriculture for the 
many routine favors rendered at the time these studies were being made, 
especially in securing determinations of insects affecting chufa. He 
wishes to thank Francis Pennell, of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, Pa., for the helpful information that Cyperus escul- 
entus has a scaly underground root stock, upon which the root nut 
develops, and is thus readily distinguished from C. strigosus, which has 
neither root stock nor nut ; also the Missouri Botanical Garden, par- 
ticularly J. M. Greenman and John Kellog, and J. A. Drushel of New 
York University, for determining particular specimens. He wishes also 
to thank Margaret M. McDonough for able and sympathetic assistance 
in assembling data and Joe S. Wade for information concerning chufa 
insects from official records. 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

During 1931, calls for information concerning the control 
of insects affecting chufa were received from Henry Dietrich 
and J. P. Kislanko in the service of the State Plant Board of 
Mississippi; from Tom O'Neill, State entomologist, Atlanta, 
Georgia; and from J. M. Robinson, of the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute, Auburn, Alabama. 

BARINUS SQUAMOLINEATUS Casey. 

Immature forms of this small weevil were collected about 
Lafayette, Indiana, August 12, 1916, incidental to the investi- 
gation of corn billbugs. Three stumps of Cyperus esculent us 
were planted in each of a series of 5-inch flowerpots for the 
purpose of rearing the destructive billbug (Calcndra destruc- 
tor). On October 4, the contents of a cage were sifted and 
an adult weevil, Barinus squamolineatus Casey as determined 
by L. L. Buchanan, was found under circumstances indicating 
that it had developed in a galled flower stalk. It may be that 
this species causes the same galling excavation of the stem as 
is produced by Sibariops confusa. Two immature forms of 
B. squamolineatus were taken at Medaryville, Indiana, August 
16, 1916; one adult issued October 5 and another October 18, 
and both were determined by L. L. Buchanan. 

BARINUS CURTICOLLIS Casey 

A pupa of a little weevil was collected at the base of a chufa 
stalk at Morehouse, Missouri, September 23, 1918. The adult 
issued September 26, and was determined by L. L. Buchanan 
as Barinus curticollis Casey. 

This species was reared also from Cyperus erythrorhizos 
Muhl., collected at Tallapoosa, October 17, 1918, in the pupal 
stage, with parasite larvae in cocoons ; at Charleston, Sep- 
tember 6, in the adult stage, and with parasite cocoons ; and at 
Woodrow, August 20-21, 1919, all in Missouri. 
SIBARIOPS CONFUSA (Boh.) 

Eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of small weevils, Sibariops 
confusa (Boh.), were found rather commonly in chufa. The 
larvae developing in the flower stalks make the stalks bulge 
considerably at the base, as if the stems were galled. This 
appearance is conspicuous and readily enables one to find the 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 13 

infestation. Specimens proving to be this species were taken 
on October 30, 1915, in Cypcrus esculcntus at West Lafayette, 
Indiana, observed as pupae on November 2, and yielded adults 
November 18; a specimen was also found at West Lafayette, 
July 14, 1916, presumably as a larva, ultimately yielding an 
adult of S. confusa. 

The following collections were made in Missouri : At Annis- 
ton, September 8 and October 17, 1918, 3 adults in their larval 
excavations ; at Charleston, presumably adult when collected, 
August 8, 1917, 4 larvae and 2 pupae, of which 1 larva became 
adult by September 14, and 1 pupa by August 14; at Charles- 
ton, 4 males and 5 females which issued July 12, 1918, another 
male which issued by July 26, and another by July 31 ; at 
Gray Ridge, August 23, 1918, 1 adult, 1 pupa, and some larvae, 
of which one larva became a pupa by August 30 and an adult 
on September 15, and from another collection on the same day 
1 adult which issued by August 31 total, 4 males, 1 female; 
at Newburg, 6 adults which issued between September 20 and 
October 1, and 3 more adults which issued by October 8; at 
Ten Brook, 7 adults which issued by October 27, and 3 which 
issued by November 12; at Thayer, September 6, 1917, im- 
mature stages from which 1 female issued by September 27, 1 
male and 2 females by October 8, and 1 female by February 
20. All these were determined by L. L. Buchanan. 

BARILEPIS GRISEA (Lee.) 

Several larvae of the diminutive Barilcpis grisea (Lee.) 
were received in crowns of chufa collected by Elmo Ragsdale, 
County Agent, Brunswick, Georgia, on October 6, 1931, and 
sent the writer by Tom O'Neill, State entomologist, Atlanta. 
Specimens were collected by the writer, in company with Henry 
Dietrich, Mississippi State Plant Board inspector, in a cul- 
tivated field near Lucedale, Miss., December 12, 1931. 

There was no evidence of gall formation as a result of the 
work of any of these larvae. In each case the larva was in a 
hibernation cell in the crown of a chufa stalk. One of the 
Georgia larvae was placed in an individual cage on March 2. 
Pupation occurred between March 31 and April 4. The de- 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

scription of the pupa follows : 

Length 3.69 mm., width 1.75 mm., pronotal width 1.31 mm. 
Rostrum reaching almost across anterior tibiae. Head with a 
pair of large setae some distance from base of rostrum but 
fairly in line with rostral setae, and 2 fine setae on sides be- 
tween this pair of large setae and rostrum ; a pair of setae of 
intermediate size at base of rostrum, 2 pairs of small setae 
between this pair and antennal fossae, and another pair of 
small setae about half way between fossae and apex of rostrum. 
Apex of rostrum concave above ; antennal club touching fore 
femur. 

Apices of wings, elytra, hind femora, and hind tarsi forming 
an almost straight transverse line across pupa, femora extend- 
ing farthest caudad, tarsi next. Thoracic setae consisting of 4 
anterolateral pronotals, 4 postlateral pronotals, 6 mediopro- 
notals, 4 spiraculopronotals (above edge of disk near thoracic 
spiracle), 4 mesothoracic setae, and 4 metathoracic setae. 

Setal tubercles of seventh tergite large, those next median 
line much larger than corresponding pair of eighth tergite, 
with bases larger than bases of those of ninth tergite. The 
dominant seta on each side of the ninth tergite is actually a 
heavily chitinized spine at the apex of the large fleshy tubercle 
which bears a secondary small seta. By April 15, the com- 
pound eyes appeared brown, the rest of the pupa white ; by 
April 18, the compound eyes were black, the rest of the body 
white. 

By April 21, the adult had issued. It was determined by 
Mr. L. L. Buchanan to be Barilcpis grisea (Lee.). 

On February 29 a larva was segregated from the mass col- 
lection from Mississippi and placed in an individual cage. It 
pupated between April 18 and 21. A description of the pupa 
follows : 

$ . Length 3.63 mm., width 1.84 mm., pronotal width 1.39 
mm. Rostrum long, reaching well beyond fore tibiae. Setal 
arrangement on rostrum as in the Georgia specimen except 
that there are 3 pairs between basal setae and antennal fossae. 

Thoracic appendages forming a transverse line, as in the 
Georgia pupa. Thoracic setae arranged essentially as in the 
Georgia pupa. 

Caudal setae about 6 on the seventh tergite, 2 on the eighth, 
and about 6 on the ninth, 2 of the last being large, coarse, and 
fleshy. By May 2, the compound eyes were pale brown, defi- 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 15 

nitely darker by May 4, and black by May 5, when the tips 
of the mandibles were red. 

The adult issued between May 6 and 7, making the duration 
of the pupal stage between 15 and 19 days. 

In the adult stage the body is oblong, suboval, densely 
clothed with large scales above and beneath, the beak rather 
short and arcuate. The antennae are somewhat short, with a 
relatively large, short, and ovate 4-jointed club, which is as 
long as the preceding 6 joints of the funicle; the first funi- 
cular joint is barely as long as the next 4; the anterior coxae 
are separated by more than their own width; the prosternum 
is flat, unarmed in the male; the scutellum is quadrate, narrow, 
and nude. 

The specimen described had a length of 3 mm. and a width 
of 1.35 mm. Its general color above was piceous, with rufous 
legs, the scales being almost white. 

Two eggs were obtained July 20, 1932, from parents reared 
from larvae from the mass collection from Mississippi. A 
few eggs were laid later, but one of the first two eggs yielded 
an adult May 16, 1933. This egg was laid at the edge of the 
membranous part of the leaf sheaf. It was 0.67 mm. in length 
and 0.25 in width or thickness. A tuber was cut in halves, the 
egg placed in a niche in one, and the halves bound together 
with paper and laid in a 2-ounce tin cage with damp soil. It 
hatched by 7 :50 P. M., July 25, the time required for incuba- 
tion of eggs of this species probably being about 7 days. 

At the time of hatching the larva was about 1 mm. in length 
and its head width 0.9 mm. It was left in the tuber in which 
it hatched until August 6, when it was placed in a fresh tuber. 
Six hours later it was found that the larva was not feeding in 
the root nut, whereupon it was placed in a leaf-base cup in a 
growing chufa plant in a 25 by 100 mm. vial. This plant was 
growing from a tuber planted in a little soil in the box. Be- 
tween 3 and 4 hours later the larva fell from the leaf sheath 
to the soil and disappeared. On August 8, it was found inside 
a decapitated crown not showing at the surface of the soil at 
the time the larva was placed on the plant. At this time the 
larval head width was 0.25 mm. The larva was placed in a 9 
by 35 mm. vial containing a chufa tuber pared down to fit the 



16 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

vial. This little vial was then placed in the larger vial with the 
growing chufa plant. On August 10 and subsequently the 
larva was observed through the glass in its excavation in the 
tuber. On April 25, 1933, it was obviously in the prepupal 
stage and by April 29 it was a pupa. 

The duration of the larval stage was between 276 and 280 
days. As the adult issued May 16, the duration of the pupal 
stage was between 16 and 19 days. The period from oviposi- 
tion to the issuance of the adult covered between 299 and 304 

days. 

(To be continued.) 



A New Genus and Species of Coleoptera (Chryscme- 
lidae) from Southwestern United States. 

By BURDETTE E. WHITE, Merced, California. 

On a recent collecting trip into the desert region of Southern 
California, the writer discovered a tiny species of Chrysomeli- 
dae (Subfamily Galerucinae) apparently feeding on some part 
of the blossoms of a species of Rhus (Sumac). Having a 
certain familiarity with this coleopterous family, and not rec- 
ognizing one of our described species in this diminutive form, 
he directed considerable energy in its pursuit that resulted in 
the capture of twenty-eight specimens. Subsequent study 
proved this insect to represent a new species and a new genus, 
which in the opinion of the author, must constitute a new tribe 
Serraticollini and is tentatively placed preceding the tribe 
Luperini. During the course of study germane to this prob- 
lem, the writer found six specimens strikingly similar to the 
above beetles among some material received for identification 
from F. H. Parker of Globe, Arizona. Careful comparison 
of the California and Arizona specimens show that they are 
abundantly distinct. It would seem peculiar that two species of 
such an unique character should be unknown to science; how- 
ever, they are early season forms, probably depending on the 
blossoms of their host for their livelihood, a fact which may 
have contributed to their previous obscurity. 

The writer wishes to express his sincere appreciation for 



liii, '42] 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



17 



assistance received from Mr. J. J. du Bois of Turlock, Cali- 
fornia, Mr. F. H. Parker of Globe, Arizona, and Dr. E. Gorton 
Linsley of the University of California at Berkeley. 

SERRATICOLLIS new genus. 

Elongate, parallel, sparsely pubescent above and beneath. 
Head four-fifths as wide as greatest width of pronotum, eyes 
broadly oval, front not carinate between the antennal insertions ; 
antennae feebly clavate, attaining the basal third of elytra; 
segments subequal in length, 8th, 9th, and 10th segments per- 
ceptibly shorter; the ultimate segment a little longer, the apical 
five segments noticeably but not strongly tumescent, the apical 
segment fusiform. Pronotum slightly longer than wide in 







Fig. 1. Pronotum of ScrraticoUis rhois n. sp. (} ; Fig. 2, Mcsothoracic 
femur of S. rhois (c?) ; Fig. 3, same for S. parkcri, n. sp. ; Fig. 4, Pro- 
notum of S. rhois ($). 

male, quadrate or feebly transverse in female ; narrowest at 
base, gradually widening to apical third and then gradually 
narrowing to apex ; apical angles forming prominent, blunt 
denticles, basal angles with smaller acute teeth ; base margined, 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

a transverse impression near base producing a moderate trans- 
verse ridge between basal and ante-basal impressions ; lateral 
margins finely serrate ; apex rounded, anterior margin obscure ; 
in the male the apex is moderately, arcuately produced over the 
vertex of the head. Elytra elongate, parallel-sided; epipleura 
nearly vertical, reaching to apex ; surface coarsely punctate, 
the punctures arranged in closely approximate striae produc- 
ing relatively narrow intervals, the intervals with a row of 
minute setigerous punctures, the setae arranged in a row, one 
seta in width alternating with the primary striae. Anterior 
coxal cavities closed behind, coxae realtively widely separated 
by prosternum. Femora all subequally tumid, tibae curved and 
more slender near base, all tibae unarmed ; first and second 
tarsal segments subequal on all legs; claws appendiculate, 
divergent. 

Genotype : Scrraticollis rhols n. sp. 

To compare Serraticollis with any known North American 
genus would only lead to confusion. It apparently has no close 
relative in our fauna. In fact, it appears out of place in the 
subfamily Galerucinae and seems to be as closely related to 
Sagrinae and Orsodacninae. Later studies including all the 
Chrysomelid genera may result in changing the position of 
Serraticollis possibly to another subfamily; but the margined 
pronotum places it for the present in Galerucinae. In Brad- 
ley's "Key To The Genera Of N. A. Beetles", 1930, Serrati- 
collis would key out to the tribe Monoleptini on the basis 
of the closed anterior coxal cavities. Its affinities with this 
tribe, other than the coxal character, are extremely remote and 
the proposed new tribe would appear to be amply justified. 
The sexes are definitely dimorphic as regards the structure of 
the pronotum. 
Serraticollis rhois new species. 

Size small, elongate, parallel, ruf otestaceous ; antennae, legs, 
and sometimes pronotum slightly lighter; pronotum sparsely 
covered with coarse punctures at base, more densely punctate 
near apex, with a secondary system of fine, setigerous punc- 
tures. Average length, 2.25 mm. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

$ : Head rufotestaceous, darker on the vertex, sparsely 
punctate with small setigerous punctures, vertex strongly alu- 
taceous; antennal sockets approximate, separated by half the 
length of first antennal segment; a small, median, circular im- 
pression lies just above and between the sockets ; clypeus 
broadly rounded across apical margin. Antennae extending to 
basal third of elytra, moderately clavate, rather densely clothed 
with whitish setae except basal segment which is noticeably 
less setigerous. 

Pronotum coarsely sparsely punctate on disc, more densely 
so near apex, smaller setigerous punctures sparsely placed among 
the primary punctures, the setae moderately long, fine and 
closely appressed; ante-basal impression strongly developed; 
margin minutely serrate, the denticles each bearing a seta, the 
seta of the four angular denticles relatively long; the apical mar- 
gin of pronotum produced as a hood which does not contact the 
head beneath but forms a shallow cavity with the apex of pro- 
notum as a roof ; the side margins are subparallel with the 
greatest width at apical third. Scutellum flat, faintly alutaceous 
with a few minute setigerous punctures ; broadly rounded api- 
cally. 

Elytra elongate, parallel, rufotestaceous ; surface slightly de- 
pressed near basal fourth, humeri well developed ; surface with 
relatively coarse punctures arranged in ten well defined, even, 
closely placed striae and a short scutellar stria on each elytron, 
the seventh also short, not reaching near base ; the intervals 
with a single row of minute setigerous punctures, the setae 
whitish, long and directed caudad, forming even rows one seta 
wide, these rows alternating with the coarsely punctured striae. 

Body beneath fuscous, the prothorax and legs rufotestaceous, 
meso-thoracic, meta-thoracic, and abdominal sternites aluta- 
ceous, sparsely covered with minute setigerous punctures ; pro- 
sternum smooth and shining at least over apical half ; middle 
femora strongly, abruptly constricted on lower margin near 
base ; last ventral segment with a crescentiform genital orifice 
near apex. Length 2.35 mm. ; width, .9 mm. 

9 : Differs noticeably from male in structure of pronotum 
and genital orifice. The pronotum of female is not produced 
to form the hood as in male, but is subquadrate; the middle 
femora are not strongly constricted at base ; the last ventral seg- 
ment of the female is entire, feebly constricted approaching 
apex. Length, 2.75 mm.; width, 1.2 mm. 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

Holotypc male, allotype female, captured six miles west of 
Beaumont, Riverside County, CALIFORNIA (Main road from 
Riverside to Beaumont), IV-5-1941, from flowers of Rhus sp., 
by the author in whose collection they are deposited. Twenty- 
six paratypes (16$, 10<J) with same data are deposited as 
follows : One pair each in collections of The Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, C. A. Frost, California 
Academy of Sciences, and R. G. Dahl : one female each in the 
collections of Mr. J. J. du Bois, Mr. K. S. Hagen, Mr. W. F. 
Barr, Mr. Borys Malkin and Dr. \Y. J. Brown; the balance 
remain in the writer's collection. 

In the series of twenty-eight specimens there appears to be 
very little variation other than size and the normal sexual differ- 
ences. The structure of the pronotum, middle femora, and 
last ventral segment greatly facilitate sex determination. The 
types represent close to the maximum of size which ranges from 
2 mm. to 2.75 mm. The males average slightly larger than the 
females. This species is one of the smallest North American 
members of the Galerucinae known to the writer and can be 
easily identified from the generic and specific descriptions. 
Figures of the salient characters of this species as well as the 
following one are included to enhance speedy determination. 
Serraticollis parkeri new species. 

Size, form, and color of S. r.hois; pronotum less elongate and 
less arcuate in male, transverse in female ; middle femora of 
male evenly, gradually tapering to base ; elytral intervals not 
convex. Average length, 2 mm. 

$ : Head feebly punctate, vertex alutaceous, a few rela- 
tively long setae between upper limits of eyes ; antennae reach- 
ing near basal third of elytra, segments subequal in length, 
outer segments slightly tumesent to form a feeble club. 

Pronotum rufous, one-fourth longer than wide, widest at 
apical two-fifths ; surface sparsely punctate on disc, more 
densely and coarsely punctate at apex ; ante-basal, transverse 
impression well developed ; lateral margins finely serrate ; the 
apical angles produced to form a prominent, blunt denticle; 
apical margin feebly arcuate, finely margined ; surface sparsely, 
finely pubescent. 

Elytra rufotestaceous ; punctures moderate sized, striately 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 21 

arranged, the intervals flat with minute setigerous punctures, 
the setae directed caudad but obliquely so; apex truncate. 

Body beneath alutaceous and rufotestaceous in great part, 
the anterior and lateral surface of prothoracic sclerites smooth 
and paler rufous ; surface sparsely, finely punctate, finely 
pubescent; last ventral segment with crescentiform genital ori- 
fice near apex; legs rufous; the mesothoracic femora evenly, 
gradually constricted to base. Length, 2 mm. ; width, 0.8 mm. 

$ : Similar to male but with pronotum slightly wider than 
long; last ventral segment feebly constricted to apex, with 
genital orifice at apex. Length, 2 mm., width, 0.8 mm. 

Holotype male, allot ypc female, collected at Globe, ARIZONA, 
IV-25-1933, on Rhus, by Mr. F. H. Parker are in the author's 
collection. Four paratypes (3$, 1 9 ) with same data are in 
the collection of Mr. Parker in whose honor the species is 
named. 

There seems to be no appreciable variation among the six 
specimens at hand other than the normal sex differences. 

Parkeri superficially resembles rhois but is much more feebly 
sexually dimorphic. The greatest differences are present in 
the males. The differences in the structure of the pronotum 
(more strongly produced and arcuate apically in rhois} and 
the meso-thoracic femora (strongly constricted on lower edge 
near base in rhois} will readily separate the two species. How- 
ever, the elytral punctures are coarser in rhois which condition 
makes the intervals more convex than in parkeri. The elytral 
setae in the former are longer and parallel to striae where in 
the latter they are externally oblique to the striae. The females 
seem to be more coarsely sculptured and with pronotum a bit 
less transverse in rhois. Otherwise they are quite similar in 
the two forms. 

' i 

OBITUARY 

Prof. J. J. Davis contributes to Science for November 28, 
1941, an obituary notice of Prof. JAMES TROOP, emeritus profes- 
sor of entomology at Purdue University since 1920. Prof. 
Troop was born at Bennington, New York, March 14, 1853, 
and died at Urbana, Illinois, October 14, 1941. He became 
connected with Purdue in 1884, and was active in teaching and 
horticulture. 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

The Corn Lanternfly in New Jersey 
(Homopt. : Fulgoridae). 

Those who have observed serious outbreaks of the corn 
lanternfly (Pcregrinus maidis (Ashmead)) in the Southern 
States cannot but have been impressed by its capacity for very 
serious injury to growing corn, which may even result in com- 
plete destruction of a crop. An instance was observed by the 
senior author in the Lake Okeechobee region of Florida in 
February and March, 1937, when scarcely a usable ear of 
corn was harvested because of injury of the growing plants 
by this insect. Fortunately Peregrinus rarely invades the 
Northern States and, consequently, records of outbreaks in 
the North are of considerable interest. 

During the summer of 1939, this insect was present in New 
Jersey, where no previous records of its occurrence were known. 
Infestations were general and of light or medium severity 
during August and September. By late fall populations of 
considerable size were observed in late sweet corn. It was 
particularly abundant in a field of Golden Cross Bantam 
sweet corn at Rancocas, observed on September 17. As usual, 
it fed in colonies located largely in protected positions such as 
in the bud of younger plants and between the ear and the stalk 
or between the leaves and the stalk of older plants. At the 
mentioned date infestation was sufficient to cause the hands 
of one harvesting corn ears to become covered with honeydew. 
However, in no instance was the infestation sufficient to cause 
serious injury to the plants other than possibly slight stunting. 

In 1940, Peregrinus was observed only once, in a locality 
about 2 miles east of Old Bridge, New Jersey, attacking plants 
of late Golden Cross Bantam corn. 

It is of interest to note that the first recorded invasion of 
Peregrinus in New Jersey, in 1939, coincided with one of the 
most serious infestations by Laphygma frugiperda S. & A. so 
far recorded in corn in the Northeast. It seems probable that 
the circumstances that resulted in the unusual invasion of the 
latter insect were also those that resulted in the invasion by 
Peregrinus. G. W. BARBER, Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and BAILEY B. 
PEPPER, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. 



Sponge Rubber: Its Use in Shipping Containers. 

When shipping insects mounted on pins or on card points 
attached to pins, it is necessary to firmly fix each pin in the 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 23 

bottom board of the shipping container. Subsequent removal 
of the firmly imbedded pins is frequently difficult especially 
when the specimens are numerous and crowded. Forceps em- 
ployed in the operation must be attached at the base of the pin, 
and this placement is often hazardous with crowded specimens. 
Sponge rubber (the type used in kneeling pads) substituted for 
the usual pinning base has been found to eliminate these diffi- 
culties. Specimens firmly fastened in this material can be re- 
moved without the aid of forceps or if the latter are employed 
they can be attached on the upper portion of the pin. Danger 
of injury to any of the specimens is lessened, and at the same 
time the speed of transference is greatly increased. In all re- 
spects sponge rubber appears superior to other pinning media. 

In addition to its use in shipping containers, the material 
may also be employed in the temporary pinning of insects for 
study. In some instances insect boxes may be lined with sponge 
rubber. The ease with which insect pins may be inserted in or 
removed from the rubber makes it an excellent pinning base. 
It is durable; samples giving satisfactory results after four 
years of use. 

No claim for originality in this use of sponge rubber is 
made; the writer has found the material so satisfactory for use . 
in shipping containers that it was felt a note on the subject 
might possibly be of value to those concerned with specimen 
transportation. The rubber may be purchased at any general 
store at a nominal price. H. F. SCHOOF, N. C. State College, 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 



Institute Espanol de Entomologia. 

Herewith we have the honor to communicate to you the 
foundation of the Instituto Espanol de Entomologia in Madrid, 
which now contains the former Section of Entomology of the 
Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales with all the collections, 
library and publications that the Section mentioned formerly 
possessed. Please direct your correspondence and exchange 
of publication to the new Institute Palacio del Hipodromo, 
Madrid. The Institute hopes to continue the best relations 
with you as formerly for the advantage of both. THE DIREC- 
TOR, Gonzalo Ceballos y Fernandez de Cordoba. 
Madrid, May, 1941. 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

Livia marginata Patch attended by Ants (Homoptera: 
Chermidae; Hymen.: Formicidae). 

During the last week of August, 1939, in Lakeville, Con- 
necticut, I observed workers of the ant Formica pallide-fulva 
nitidivcntris var. fuscata Emory upon the stem of a tall species 
of goldenrod (Solidayo sp?). 

Upon closer examination, the ants proved to be attending 
nymphal Chermids, apparently in the final instar. These were 
to be found in herds on the under sides of the leaves, with a 
few individuals ranged along the stem. These young Chermids 
reached the imago stage (in a breeding cage) during the first 
week of September. They proved to be Livia marginata 
Patch. 

The nymphs evidently secreted large quantities of honey-dew 
as the gaster of the attendant ants was quite distended. 
ALBRO TILTON GAUL, Brooklyn, New York. 



On the Relationship between the Moth, Camptylochila 

americalis Gn. and Formica rufa obscuripes Forel 

(Lepid. : Noctuidae; Hymen.: Formicidae.). 

Recently, F. Smith (1941 Entomological News: 109) re- 
ported finding the lepidopterous larva, Camptylochila (Epi- 
zcuxis} americalis Gn. in the mounds of Formica rufa ob- 
scuripes Forel, and the writer is able to confirm this observation. 
The writer reported (1929 Proc. Entomological Soc. of British 
Columbia 26: 44-46) how he found the lepidopterous larvae 
which subsequently to that publication were identified for him. 
The writer is able, further, to add some information on the 
relation between C. americatis in the adult stage and the ants 
for he has frequently, at sundown, seen moths which were 
apparently of that species enter the mounds. The moths 
dropped freely to some entrance hole in the mound, closed 
their wings and walked in apparently without any attention 
from the ants. Similar tolerance on the part of the ants to 
moths, which were newly emerged, was not observed by F. 
Smith. GEOFFREY BEALL, Dominion Entomological Labora- 
tory, Chatham, Ontario. 



List of Titles of Publications Referred to by Numbers 
in Entomological Literature in Entomological News. 

1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annales Sci. Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Psyche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Archivos do Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo. 

15. Annales Academia Brasileira de Sciencias. Rio de Janeiro. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt-M. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulk-tin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollctino del Lab. di Zool. gen. e agraria della Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

27. Bollctino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. Genova. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. Archivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal. R. d. Janeiro. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

36. Trans. Royal Entomological Society, London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitates. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chilena de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

46. Zeitschrift fur Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington. D. C. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. Helsingfors. Helsingiors, Finland. 
Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 

53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

*>* Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

18. Fntomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomolosrique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 



61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 
t>4. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. E?cherich. Berlin. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

08. Science. New York. 

69. Physis. Revista Soc. Argentina Cien. Nat. Buenos Aires. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Mem. Institute Butantan. Sao Paulo, Brazil. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 
7 (| . Koleopterologische Rundschau. \Yien. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

87. Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaften, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbiicher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 
Q7. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

101. Tijdschril't voor entomologie. Nederland. Ent. Ver., Amsterdam. 

102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 
105. Revista de Entomologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

106. Anales Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. Buenos Aires. 

107. Proc., Royal Entomological Society, London. 

108. Revista, Col. Nac. Vicente Rocafuerte, Guayaquil. 

109. Arbeiten uber morpholog. und taxonom. ent. aus Berlin-Dahlem. 

110. Arbeiten ueber physiolog. u. angewandte ent. aus Berlin-Dahlern. 

111. Memorias do Institute Oswaldo Cruz. Rio de Janeiro. 

112. Anales del Institute de Biologia Mexico. 

114. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 

115. Memorias de la Soc. Cubana de Hist. Nat. Havana, Cuba. 

116. Pnrasitoloo-y. Ed. Keilin and Hinrlle. London. 

117. Microentomology, Stanford University. 

18. Ward's Ent. & Nat. Sci. Bull.. Rochester, N. Y. 

119. American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, Ind. 

120. The Great Basin Naturalist, Provo, Utah. 

121. Ciencia, Mexico City. 

122. Revista Musen de la Plata, Buenos Aires. 

123. Indian Journal of Entomology, New Delhi. 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 25 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Carter, W. Insects and the spread of 
plant diseases. [Smithson. Report 1940] Publ. 3619: 329-342, 
ill. Chermock & O'Brien. A new method of sectioning 
chitin. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 59-60. DeBach, P. and 
H. S. Smith. Are population oscillations inherent in the 
host-parasite relation. [84] 22: 363-369. DeLeon, D.- 
Notes on some forest insects found in Pinus occidentalis 
Swartz near Jarabacoa, Dominican Republic. [Carribean 
Forester] 3 : 42-45. Derickson, C. Study of climatic differ- 
ences for one degree of latitude in Pennsylvania. [Pro. 
Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 131-133, ill. Fantham, Porter & 
Richardson. Some microsporidia found in certain fishes 
and insects in eastern Canada. [116] 33: 186-208, ill. Hoyt, 
Fracker & Colcord. Lee Abram Strong. [10] 43: 156-166, 
ill. Raymond, P. E. Insects: the first aviators. [Prehis- 
toric Life] 1939: 200-208, ill. Salt, G. The effects of hosts 
upon their insect parasites. [Biol. Reviews] 16: 239-264, ill. 
Simpson, G. G. Range as a zoological character [Amer. 
Jour. Sci.] 239: 785-804. Soraci, F. A. Important nursery 
insects of New Jersey. [N. J. Dept. Agric.] Circ. 326: 72 pp.. 
ill. de Souza Lopes, H. Relacao do material entomologico 
capturado. [Ill] 35: 641-696, ill. Thompson, W. R. The 
war against insects. [Pro. Ry. Canadian Inst.] 6: 53-54. 
Travassos, L. Relatorio da terceira excursao a zona da 
Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil realizada em Fevere- 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

iro e Marco de 1940. [Ill] 35: 607-641, ill. Travassos & 
Teixeira de Freitas. Relatorio da excursao cientifica real- 
isada na zona da Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil em 
Julho de 1939. [11 1J 35: 525-556, ill. van der Veen, R.- 
Enkele schimmelvretende insecten. [De Trop. Nat.] 30: 
140-143, ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Brehme, Kath. S. 

Development of the minute phenotype in Drosophila me- 
lanogaster. A comparative study of the growth of three 
minute mutants. [42] 88: 135-160. Cameron, E. The 
biology and post-embryonic development of Opius ilicis n. 
sp., a parasite of the holly leaf miner (Phylomyza ilicis 
Curt.) [116] 33: 8-39, ill. Creighton, M. & Robertson, W. 
R. B. Genetic studies on Chorthippus longicornis. [J. 
Hered.] 32: 339-341, ill. Gushing, J. E. An experiment on 
olfactory conditioning in Drosophila guttifera. [Pro. Nat. 
Acad. Sci.] 27: 496-499. Deoras, P. J. Structure of Hemi- 
merus deceptus Rehn var ovatus ; an external parasite of 
Cricetomys gambiense. [116] 33: 172-185, ill. Dobzhansky, 
T. Speciation as a stage in evolutionary divergence. [Biol. 
Symposia] 2: 113-122. Fisher, R. C. Studies of the biology 
of the death-watch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum de G. 
IV. The effect of type and extent of fungal decay in timber 
upon the rate of development of the insect. [Ann. Appl. 
Biol.] 28: 244-260. Frings, H. The loci of olfactory end- 
organs in the blowfly, Cynomyia cadaverina Des. [42] 88: 
65-93. Haddow, A. J. The influence of nutrition on egg- 
production and longevity in unmated female body-lice 
(Pediculus humanus corporis : Anoplura). [116] 33: 40-46, 
ill. Hadorn, E. Hormale . uncl genetische voraussetz- 
ungen der metamorphose. [Rev. Suisse De Zool.] 48: 495- 
509. Harnly, M. H. Flight capacity in relation to pheno- 
typic and genotypic variations in the wing's of Drosophila 
melanogaster [42] 88: 263-275. Fraenkel, G., J. A. Reid 
and M. Blewett. The sterol requirements of the larva of the 
beetle, Dermestes vulpinus Fabr. [Biochem. Jour.] 35: 712- 
720. Hinton & Atwood. Terminal adhesions of salivary 
gland chromosomes in Drosophila. [Pro. Nat. Acad. Sci.] 
27: 491-496. Kalmus, H. Physiology and ecology of cuticle 
colour in insects. [31] 148: 428-431. Leeson/H. S. The 
effect of temperature upon the hatching of the eggs of Pedi- 
culus humanus corporis. [116] 33: 243-249. Matthey, R. 
La cytologie de la parthenogenese chez Sago pedo. [Rev. 
Suisse De Zool.] 48: 523-524. Olenov, J. M. The muta- 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 27 

tional process in Drosophila under avitaminous B-2 condi- 
tions. [90] 75: 580-595. Painter, T. S. The structure of 
salivary gland chromosomes. [Biol. Symposia] 1 : 215-230, 
ill. Park, Gregg & Lutherman. Studies in population 
physiology. X. Interspecific competition in populations of 
granary beetles. [Phys. Zool.] 14: 395-430, ill. Paul, Trask, 
Bishop, Melnick & Casey. The detection of poliomyelitis 
virus in flies. [68] 94: 395-396. Pearl, R.; T. Park and J. R. 
Miner.- Experimental studies on the duration of life. XVI. 
Life tables for the flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval 
[90] 75: 5-19. Pepper, Donaldson & Hastings. Buffering 
capacity and composition of the blood serum and regurgi- 
tated digestive juices of the Mormon Cricket (Anabrus 
simplex Hald.). [Phys. Zool.] 14: 470-475. Seiler & 
Schaffer. Der chromosomenzyklus einer diploid partheno- 
genetischen Solenobia triquetrella. [Rev. Suisse De Zool.] 
48: 537-540. Smith, K. M. Some notes on the relationship 
of plant viruses with vector and non-vector insects. [116] 
33: 110-116, ill. Spencer, W. P. Levels of divergence in 
Drosophila speciation. [Biol. Symposia] 2: 99-111. Tyler, 
A. Artificial parthenogenesis. [Biol. Reviews] 16: 291-336, 
ill. Vargas & Beltan. Culex quinquefasciatus, a new vec- 
tor of Plasmodium gallinaceum. [68] 94: 389-390. Wiggles- 
worth, V. B. The sensory physiology of the human louse 
Pediculus humanus corporis de Geer. [116] 33: 67-109, ill. 
Williams, J. L. The internal genitalia of the evergreen 
bagworm and the relation of the female genital ducts to the 
alimentary canal. [Pro. Penna Acad. Sci.] 15: 53-58, ill. 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Bingham, M. L. 

A note on the bionomics of Ixodes ricinus L. [116] 33: 
316-319. Chamberlin, R. V. New Chilopods from Mexico. 
[55] 17: 184-188. deMello-Leitao, C. Alguns Opilioes 
novos da Colombia. [An. Acad. Brasileira Cien.] 13: 165- 
171, ill. Lundblad, O. Die Hydracarinenfauna Sudbras- 
iliens mid Paraguays. [Kungl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handlinger] 
19: 183 pp., ill. Matheson, R. A new species of tick, Orni- 
thodores anduzei (Argasidae). [Bol. Ent. Venezolana] 1: 
3-5. Mathew, A. P. A study of the courting habits of 
AI yrmarachne plataleoides a spider mimic of the Indian red- 
ant Oecophylla smaragdina. [Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.] 
42: 171-180. Radford, C. D. Notes on some new species of 
parasitic mites. IV. [116] 33: 306-315, ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Adamson, 
A. M. Laboratory technique for the study of living ter- 



28 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

mites. [84] 22: 411-414. Auguston, G. F. Three new fleas. 
[38] 40: 101-107, ill. (k). Buxton, P. A. On the occur- 
rence of the crab-louse. (Phthirus pubis : Anoplura) in the 
hair of the head. [116] : 33: 117-118. Studies on populations 
of head lice. (Pediculus humanus capitis). IV. The composi- 
tions of populations. [116] 33: 224-242, ill. Gloyd, L. K.- 
Gomphus subapicalis, a synonym of Gomphus lentulus. 
[Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci.] 6: 127-129. The identity of three 
geographically misplaced species of Odonata. [Bull. Chi- 
cago Acad. Sci.] 6: 130-132. Macleod, J. & Crauford-Ben- 
son, H. J. Observations on natural populations of the body 
louse, Pediculus humanus corporis de G. [116] 33: 278- 
299, ill. Walker, E. M. List of the Odonata of Ontario 
with distributional and seasonal data. [Trans. Ry. Canadian 
Inst.] 23: 201-265, ill. Will, H. C. Archilestes grandis 
from Tamazunchale, Mexico. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 
44-45. 

ORTHOPTERA. Allred, B. W. -- Grasshoppers and 
their effect on sagebrush on the Little Powder River in 
Wyoming and Montana. [84] 22: 387-392, ill. Painter, R. 
H. The grasshopper seed grain mortgages of 1876 in Mani- 
toba. [4] 73 : 194. Paul, L. C. Intersexuality in Camnula 
pellucida. [4] 73: 195-196, ill. Rehn, J. A. G. Notes on 
and records and descriptions of Oriental bird-locusts (Acri- 
didae) [1] 67: 247-270, ill. Urguhart, F. A. The species 
of Nemobius (Orthoptera, Ensifera) in Ontario. [Canad. 
Field Nat.] 55: 80-82, ill. (k). 

HEMIPTERA. -da Costa Lima, A. Sobre as especies 
de Spiniger (Reduviid.). [Ill] 35: 1-123, ill. (k*s). Essig, 
E. O. A new species of Myzus from Humboldt County, 
California. (Aphidid.). [55] 17: 182-184, ill. Goncalves, C. 
R. Observacoes sobre Pseudococcus comstocki atacando 
citrus na baixada fluminense. [Rodriguesia] No. 13: 179- 
198, ill. Biologia de uma "Pseudiastata" depredadora de 
"Pseudococcus brevipes." (Diastatid.). [Physis] 17: 103- 
112, ill. Knight, H. H. The plant bugs, or Miridae, of 
Illinois. [82] 22: 234 pp., ill. Neiva & Lent. Estudios 
sobre Triatomideos do Chile : Interessante caso de provavel 
polimorfismo. [Ill] 35: 343-363, ill. Usinger, R. L. Three 
new genera of apterous Aradidae. [55] 17: 169-181, ill. 
(S*). Vivas-Besthier, G. Los '"manchadores" del Algo- 
don en Venezuela. [Bol. Soc. Venezolana Cien Nat 1 7-fl5- 
119. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 29 

LEPIDOPTERA. Barber, G. W. Hibernation of the 
corn earworm in southeastern Georgia. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] 
Tech. Bull. 791 : 17 pp. ill. Carpenter, S. C. Food plants 
of North American Lepidoptera. Connecticut. 1941. 18 pp. 
Chermock & Chermock.- Basilarchia arthemis and its sub- 
species. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 46-50. Notes on the 
variation and distribution of Melitaea harrissi liggetti [Pro. 
Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 51. A new Coenonympha from Mon- 
tana. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 52. Comstock, J. A. 
Life history of Raphia Cinderella. [38] 40: 111-113, ill. 
Dethier, V. G. The larva of Polites manataaqua. [38] 40: 
109-111, ill. Evans, W. H. An interesting case of develop- 
ment in certain South American Hesperiidae. [107] 16 (A) : 
21-23, ill. Guedet, E. Geometrid notes and new species. 
[55] 17: 190-192. Hopwood, S. F. Birds eating butter- 
flies. [Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.] 42: 199. Lange, W. 
H. The artichoke plume moth and other pests injurious to 
the globe artichoke. [Univ. Calif. Coll. Agric.] Bull. 653: 71 
pp.. ill. McDunnough, J. Eupithecia notes, II. [4] 73: 189- 
193. ill. Parsons, R. E. Butterflies attracted by moist 
earth. [Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.] 42: 206-207. Travas- 
sos, L. Adelocefalideos do Estado de Matto Grosso. cao- 
turados pela expedicao do Institute Oswaldo Cruz. [Ill] 
35: 577-588. ill. Will, H. C. Butterflies collected at Tama- 
zunchale, Mexico. [Pro. Penna. Acad. Sci.] 15: 45-46. 

DIPTERA. Anduze, P. J. Lista provisional de los Zan- 
cudos hematofagos de Venezuela (Culicidae). [Bol. Ent. 
Venezolana] 1 : 6-18. Crauford-Benson, H. J. The cattle 
lice of Great Britain. I. Biology. II. Populations. [116] 33: 
331-358, ill. Harnly, M. H. (see under Anatomy). Mai- 
loch, J. R. Venezuelan Diptera. [Bol. Soc. Venezolana 
Cien. Nat.] 7: 123-131. Miller, R. B. A contribution to the 
ecology of the Chironomidae of Costello Lake, Algonquin 
Park, Ontario. [Univ. Toronto Studies] Biol. Ser. No. 4 ( > : 
63 pp., ill. Olenov, J. M. The mutational process in Dro- 
sophila melanogaster under avitaminous B-2 conditions. [90] 
75: 580-595. Patterson, J. T. The virilis group of Droso- 
phila in Texas. [90] 75 : 523-539. Stone, A. A restudy of 
Parasimulium furcatnm (Simuliid.). [10] 43: 146-149] ill. 
Telford & Wester. Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles 
punctipennis from North Dakota. [68] 94: 514. Thorpe, 
W. H. A description of six new species of the genus Cryp- 
tochaetum (Diptera-Agromyzidae) from East Africa and 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Jan., '42 

East Indies ; together with a key to the adults and larvae of 
all known species. [116] 33: 131-148, ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Anderson, W. H. The larva and pupa 
of Cylindrocopturus furnissi (Curculion.). [10] 43: 152-155, 
ill. Blaisdell, F. E. A new species of Eleodes from Oregon, 
belonging to the subgenus Blapylis. (Tenebrionid.). [55] 
17: 156-159. Curran, C. H. Erotylidae of Kartabo, Bartica 
District, British Guiana. [Zoologica] 26:281-288, ill. Fisher, 
R. C. (see under Anat.) Gray, Hatch, McGrath & Beer.- 
The Coleoptera of Washington. [Univ. Washington Publ. 
Biol.] 10: 144 pp., ill. Hinton & Stephens. Notes on the 
food of Micropeplus, with a description of the pupa of M. 
fulvus. [107] 16: 29-32, ill. Linsley, E. G. Additional ob- 
servations and descriptions of some species of Pleocoma. 
[55] 17: 145-152. Saylor, L. W. A new United States Lis- 
trochelus ( Scarabaeid.). [10] 43: 145-146. Soukup, J.- 
Nuevos coleopteros peruanos. [Bol. Mus. Hist. Nat. "Javier 
Prado"] 5: 339-342. Struble & Carpelan. External sex 
characters of two important native predators of the moun- 
tain pine beetle in sugar pine. (Ostomatid., Clerid.). [55] 
17: 153-156, ill. Wenzel, R. Museum acquires collection 
of 15,000 beetles. [Field Mus. News] 12: 3, ill. White, B. 
E. A new species of Bruchus with notes on Bruchus major 
and julianus. (Bruchid). [55] 17: 189-190. White, W. H. 
-The Mexican bean beetle. [Smithson. Report 1940] Publ. 
3620: 343-356, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Buzicky, A. W. A monograph of 
the genus Chyphotes (Mutillid.) of North America. [70] 
21 : 201-250, ill. Gobeil, A. R. La diapause chez les Tenth- 
redes. [Canadian Jour. Res.] 19: 363-382, ill. Mallis, A. 
A list of the ants of California with notes on their habits 
and distribution. [38] 40: 61-100. (k). Mitchell, T. B.- 
Some additional intersexes in Megachile. [55] 17: 165-168. 
Muesebeck, C. F. W. T\vo new reared species of Doryctes 
(Bracon.). [10] 43: 149-152. Prebble, M. L. The diapause 
and related phenomena in Gilpinia polytoma. Ill Biocli- 
matic relations. [Canadian Jour. Res.] 19': 350-362, ill. Rau, 
P. Birds as enemies of Polistes w r asps. [4] 73 : 196. Reeks, 
W. A. On the taxonomic status of Gilpinia polytoma and 
G. hercyniae (Diprionid.) [4] 73: 177-188, ill. Varley, G. 
C. On the search for hosts and the egg distribution of some 
chalcid parasites of the knapweed gall-fly. [116] 33: 47-66, 
ill. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NFAVS for December, 1941, was 1 mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office on December 30, 1941. 



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Subscriptions for 1942 are now due 

ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




FEBRUARY, 1942 m! 



Vol. LIII No. 2 



CONTENTS 

Franclemont Notes on Some Cucullinae (Phalaenidae, Lepidoptera) 

II 31 

Harris The Male of Pagasa fasciventris H. M. Harris (Hemiptera: 

Nabidae) 36 

Satterthwait Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Affecting Chufa 

(Cyperus esculentus) 37 

Blaisdell Notes Concerning Eschatomoxys wagneri Blaisdell (Coleo- 
ptera: Tenebrionidae) 43 

Riley Misidentified Genotypes 45 

Michener Taxonomic Notes on the Genera Chelostoma and Ash- 

meadiella (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) 47 

Current Entomological Literature 

Rodeck Colorado Lepidoptera Records (Pieridae, Noctuidae) ... 58 

Obituary Dr. James Allen Nelson 

Mr. Ralph Hopping, Mr. F. C. Hennessey, Dr. H. E.tr.ng- 
ham , . . 60 



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ENT. NEWS VOL. LIU. 



Plate 1. 




CUCULLINAE-FRANCLEMONT. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LIII FEBRUARY, 1942 No 2 

Notes on Some Cucullinae (Phalaenidae, Lepidop- 

tera) II. 

On the Identity of Lithophane ferrealis Grote and 

Xylina innominata Smith, with Descriptions of Some 

New Forms of the Genus Lithophane 1 Hubner. 

P.y J. G. FRANCLEMONT, Ithaca, New York. 
(Plate I.) 

LlTHOPHAXE PETULCA form FERREALIS Grote (PI. I, fig. 2). 

Lithophane ferrealis Grote, 6th Ann. Kept. Peab. Acad. Sci., 
32, 1874. 

This form has troubled everyone who has attempted to work 
on the species of the genus LitJwphanc (Graptolitlia, ^.Xylina). 
I think that one reason has been that no one, in all probability, 
has had a really 'pure' series of this form, as the same color 
form occurs in six other species, not including orinnda, and 
there can be no doubt that this has helped to create some of 
the confusion which seems to have always surrounded this 
form. There has also always existed the doubt as to the 
validity of this form as a species, but no one seems to have 
been able to decide to which species this form should fall. As 

1 Lithophane was proposed by Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett., 242, 
1821; Graptolitlia follows immediately on the same page. Grote, con- 
sidering Graptolitlia a subgenus of Lithophanc, designated the types of 
both names in the Sixth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Peabody 
Academy of Science, 1874, on pages 31 and 34 respectively; choosing as 
the type of Lithophane. \ r octiia soda Rott. (petrijicata I). & S.), a 
species very closely allied to ainanda Sini/Ii, in fact the latter species 
may prove to be but a geographical race of the former ; and as type of 
Graptolitlia, Noctua fnrcifcra Hufn. (conjonnis D. & S.), a very close 
ally of pc.rata finite. Hampsnn's (Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., vi, 243 and 
246, 1906) division of the species he includes in Litliopliane and (inip- 
tolitlid is purely artificial, in fact the characters of differentiation em- 
ployed are non-existent! It is proposed here to use Lithophane for all 
the species included in both tiiis genus and (ii'aptolitha by Hampson ; 
as a result Litliopliane will replace Graptolitha oj McDunnough's 
3 ( J Checklist, page 83. 



31 



MAR 2 1942 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

a result the name has stood on American lists as a valid species, 
and this is in part traceable to mixed series. 

True fcn'calis is the suffused form of pet idea Grote. The 
fore wings have the costa, reniform and orbicular ashen wjth 
a slight bluish cast ; the remainder of the wing is reddish, 
ferruginous black. The hind wings are blackish fuscous, with 
the fringes ruddy. The abdomen has the lateral and anal tufts 
ruddy. 

This form is correctly figured by Smith, Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc., xxvii, pi. Ill, figs. 11 & 12; normal pelnlcn (^.sujnosa 
Smith) is figured on the same plate, figure 13, also figure 4 
as "disposita a little suffused." 

Specimens examined : 57 from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
New York, Massachusetts and Maine ; Ontario and Manitoba, 
Canada. 

LITHOPHANE HEMINA form lignicosta form. nov. (PI. I, 
fig. 4). 

The costa, orbicular and reniform of the fore wing are 
wood brown ; the remainder of the wing is vinous black to 
blackish brown ; the ordinary markings where visible are as 
in normal licuiina. 

This form differs from ferrcalis in its generally darker color, 
especially that of the costa, orbicular and reniform ; it also 
lacks the warm reddish tints of that form. The fringe of the 
hind wings is dark brown, not ruddy ; the lateral and anal 
tufts of the abdomen are aslo brown. 

Holotyfc: $, Ithaca, NEW YORK, Sept. 29, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont). [in Coll. Franclemontj. 

Allotypc: 9. Ithaca, New York, Sept. 29, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Paratypcs: 97 $ <J , 74 9 9 Ithaca, New York, Sept- April (J. 
G. Franclemont); 35 $ $ , 49 9 9 , McLean Bogs Reserve, 
Tompkins County, New York, Sept. March (J. G. Francle- 
mont) ; 3$ $, 29 9, Chaffee, New York, September (J. G. 
Franclemont); [all in coll. Franclemont]. 8 $ $ , 99 9, 
Horseheads, New York, October-April ( L. R. Rupert ) . [15 
in coll. Rupert, 2 in coll. Franclemont]. 1 <5 , 29 9, Lambs 
Creek, PENNSYLVANIA (L. R. Rupert), (in Coll. Rupert]. 1 , 
Ottawa, ONTARIO, Canada, Sept. 11, 1905 ( C. H. Young); 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 33 

2 $ $ , 19, Lobe, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 2, 1924 (A. A. 
Wood), | in Coll. Canadian National Museum]. \i, 29 9, 
Bear Mt., New York ( H. J. Erh) ; \$ , 1 9 , Lakehurst, XEW 
JERSEY (F. Lemmer) ; 299, Pennsylvania ( Merrick), [in 
Coll. Buchholzj. 

LITHOPHANE SIGNOSA form pallidicosta form. nov. (PI: 1, 
fig. 6). 

The costa, orbicular and reniform of the fore wing are gray- 
ish with some brown streaking; the remainder of the wing is 
blackish brown. This form agrees with normal signosa Walker 
in its streaked appearance ; except in very intensely suffused 
specimens, the normal pattern is evident. 

This form differs from fcrrcalis and lit/nicosta in its longer 
and narrower wings, and in its more streaked pattern. The 
wing shape will separate both the normal and suffused forms 
from the corresponding forms of petulca and hemina. The 
costa, orbicular and reniform are distinctly darker than fer- 
realis, and the suffused area is darker also, lacking the warm 
red tints of f err calls. 

Holotypc: $, Ithaca, NEW YORK. Sept. 27, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), fin Coll. Franclemont] . 

Allot ypc : 9 , Ithaca. New York, Oct. 2, 1940 ( J. G. Francle- 
mont), fin Coll. Franclemont]. 

Paratypcs: 23$ $, 189 9, Ithaca, New York, Sept-April 
(]. G. Franclemont), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 14 $ 's & 9 's, 
Bristol, RHODE ISLAND, Sept.-May (Howard L. Clarke), flO 
in Coll. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.. 2 in Coll. U. S. N. M., 2 in Coll. 
Franclemont]. 1 9, Randolph, VERMONT, September, [in Coll. 
Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.]. 1 9 , Lafayette, INDIANA, Sept. 1, 1916 
(H. J. Hart). | in Coll. U. S. N. M.|. 1 $, Nantucket Island, 
MASSACHUSETTS. Oct. (C. P. Kimball), [in Coll. Kimball]. 
2$ &, 39 9, NEW JERSEY fin Coll. Buchholz|. 

I wish to thank Dr. Richard Dow of the Boston Society of 
Natural History for the loan of the material referred to above 
from that Institution. 

LITHOPHANE PATEFACTA form niveocosta form. nov. (PI. I 
fig- 8). 

The costa. reniform and orbicular of the fore wing clay 
while; the remainder of the wing vinous brown; the ordinary 
markings of the normal form are present and discernible. 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

This form is very similar to fcrrcalis, but differs in the 
slightly less reddish hue of the suffused area and in the more 
yellowish hue of the costa, reniform and orbicular, that of fcr- 
rcalis being somewhat ashy-gray in hue. 

Holotypc: $, Ithaca, NEW YORK, Sept. 6, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), (in Coll. Franclemont |. 

Allolypc: 9, Lakehurst, NEW JERSEY, October 10 (Freder- 
ick Lemmer), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Paratypcs: 26 <} , 25$ 9, Lakehurst, Xe\v Jersey, Oct.- 
March (Frederick Lemmer), [20 in Coll. Lemmer, 19 in Coll. 
Franclemont, 7 in Coll. Buchholx, 3 in Coll. U. S. N. M., 2 
in Coll. Cornell Univ.]. 

I wish to express my sincere thanks to the late Mr. Frederick 
Lemmer for his most generous loan of the material of this 
form. 

LITIIOPITANE DISPOSITA form argillocosta form. nov. (PI. 

I, %. 10). 

Fore wing with the costa, reniform, orbicular and a sub- 
terminal shade luteous gray ; the remainder of the wing suf- 
fused with blackish sepia. The ordinary markings visible, and 
as in normal dispositct. 

This form differs from all the rest in its very distinctly out- 
lined reniform and orbicular, in this respect resembling 
oriunda. It has none of the brown or red shades of fcrrcalis 
and the foregoing new forms. 

This is the form figured as "Jicinina Grt. melanic" by 
Smith, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxvii, pi. Ill, fig. 2. As a 
means of explanation, it might be well to say, that the liciniua 
of the Smith collection were hibernated specimens of disposita, 
thus in the light of this information, Smith's statement is un- 
derstandable. 

Holotypc: $, MANITOBA, Canada, Sept. 13, 1905 (ex. Coll. 
Buchholz), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Allot y pc: 9 Cartwright, Manitoba, Canada (ex. Coll. Buch- 
holz), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Paratypc: 1 $ , Miniota, Manitoba, Canada, Sept. 13, 1905; 
1 9 .Manitoba, Canada. Sept. 13, 1905; | in Coll. Buchholx]. 
19 Aweme, Manitoba, Canada, Sept. 4, 1922 (N. ("riddle); 
19 Lobe. ONTARIO, Canada. Oct. IS, 1924 (A. A. Wood); 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 35 

[in Coll. Canadian National Museum]. 

LITHOPHANE BETHUNEI form luteocosta form. nov. (PI. 1, 
fig. 12). 

Forewing with the costa, reniform, orhicular and a sub- 
terminal shade white with a slight luteous cast ; the remainder 
of the wing dusky black. The ordinary markings evident and 
as in the normal form of this species. 

This form closely resembles niveocosta and fcrrcalis in its 
light costa, but differs from these two forms in lacking all the 
warm reddish shades of these two forms. 

Holotypc: $ Lobe, ONTARIO, Canada, Sept. 23, 1924 (A. A. 
Wood), | in Coll. Canadian National Museum.) 

This form was most generously loaned to me for description 
by Dr. J. H. McDunnough, and I wish to thank him for this 
kindness. 

LITHOPHANE BETHUNEI form duscalis form. nov. (PI. I, fig. 
13). 

The fore wing deep olive umber brown, slightly irroratc 
with gray ; the ordinary markings as in bethunei proper ; the 
reniform outlined by reddish russet; orbicular oblique, incon- 
spicuous ; the subterminal line an irregular series of pale spots 
with an irregular reddish russet shade on their inner side ; the 
terminal area with a blackish shade below the costa and an- 
other at the anal angle, these bordered on their inner side by 
the subterminal line; the antemedial line indicated on its 
inner side by a double series of black dots on the veins, the 
postmedial by a similar series on its outer side ; median shade 
irregular and diffuse, enveloping the reniform. The hind 
wing dusky black; the fringe pale russet contrasting with the' 
rest of the wing. 

This form resembles both pctnlca and hcmina, but perhaps 
the former more than the latter; it is somewhat lighter than 
Jicnihni, being of the general tone of peiulca, but lacking the 
evident ashy-blue overcast of that species. One of the nm^t 
outstanding features of this form is an oval spot of light gray- 
ish brown, just above the inner margin and between the po>t- 
medial and subterminal lines; this stands out verv markedly 
and is not possessed by either pctulca or licinina. 

Holotype: $, Ithaca, NEW YORK, Sept. 27, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), |in Coll. Franclemont | . 

Paratypcs: 11 6 $ , 10$ 9 (Bred ex ova), Tthaca, New York, 

1941 (Franclemont), (in Coll. Franclemont | . 

(To he continued.) 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

The Male of Pagasa fasciventris H. M. Harris 
(Hemiptera, Nabidae). 

By H. M. HARRIS, Ames, Iowa. 

The February, 1940, issue of "The Entomological News" 
(Vol. 51, p. 35) carries the original description of this prettily 
marked species which has been known only from the female 
sex. Through the courtesy of Dr. R. H. Beamer, I now am 
privileged to characterize the male. Dr. Beamer writes that 
three hours of careful search in the same blue-stem patch 
where he collected specimens in 1939 yielded a single nymph. 
Fortunately, he was able to rear it to adulthood and thus make 
these notes possible. The species lives in the bases of clump- 
forming grasses such as blue-stem and. although ranging from 
Virginia to Nebraska and south-eastern Kansas, it apparently 
is very locally distributed and quite adept at hiding on the 
ground among the stem and roots of these plants. In the 
proportions given in the following description 48 units equal 
one millimeter. 

Brachypterous male : Color as in female, head, anterior lobe 
of pronotum (except for spot on collar) and apical part of ab- 
domen shiny black, the remainder of body and the legs reddish- 
orange. Body smaller than that of female and slightly more 
elongate. Head faintly longer than broad (40: 38). Vertex 
broader than eye (14: 11), the latter twice as long as wide (23: 
11). Antennae colored as in female, but more intensely con- 
trasted; proportion of segments, 14: 11 : 43: 45: 40. Rostrum 
concolorous with legs, the base dark; proportions, 31: 32: 15. 
Pronotum narrow, longer than wide (65: 60), strongly shining. 
Scutellum dull. Hemelytra shiny, short, truncate apically, the 
costal margins almost parallel, the surface with punctures as in 
female. Legs slender, the front femur about two and two-thirds 
times as long as deep (55 : 20), armed as in female. Venter not 
so hairy as in P. fusca (Stein), the claspers dark, much shorter 
and proportionately broader than in that species, but of same 
general type. 

Length, 5.2mm. Width, (pronotum) 1.25 mm.; (abdomen) 
1.65 mm. 

Allotype, Brachypterous male, Cherokee County, KANSAS, 
reared from nymph taken Aug. 24, 1941, R. H. Beamer; in col- 
lection of University of Kansas. 



liii, '42J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 37 

Weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Affecting Chufa 
(Cyperus esculentus). 

Bv A. F. SATTERTHWAIT, Bureau of Entomology and 

* o- 

Plant Quarantine, United States Department 

of Agriculture 

(Continued from page 16.) 

CALENDRA CALLOSA (Oliv.). 

The adult curlew bug ( Calcndra callosa ( Oliv. ) ) has a 
broad depression in the basal third of each wing cover, a promi- 
nence at the outer basal angle, another near the apex of each 
wing cover, and fine punctures on the basal portion of the 
lateral pronotal carina. The new adult stays in its cell a few 
days, and at this time it has a burnished-gold sheen over its 
olive-brown body. After it has traveled in the moist soil it 
loses its beauty and in its usual haunts becomes very difficult 
to distinguish from the soil. Like many other species of insects 
whose larvae are internal tissue feeders, the curlew bug varies 
much in size. The usual length in the adult stage is from 9.5 
to 12 mm., although the range is from about 7 to 12 mm. 

The egg is pearly white. 1.84 to 2.11 mm. long and 0.73 to 
0.95 mm. wide, and rounded at the ends. 

The mature larva measures approximately 13 mm. in length. 
Its head is yellow or red and from 0.71 to 2.60 mm. in width 
from hatching to maturity; its body is white, about half as 
thick at the middle as long. It makes its pupal cell in the plant 
by packing shredded plant tissue in the ends of the excavation 
or in the soil. It will smooth the surface of the excavation 
and press it, perhaps modify it with body juice; at any rate, 
the cell is fairly strong and resistant to possible predatory in- 
sects. The pupal stage covers about 5 days. 

The pupa is about 8.17 to 12.83 mm. long, with 6 rostral 
tubercles, the basal pair elevated, granular or trilobed, darker 
than the rest of the head, and usually is without setae. 

The adult usually feeds head downward, inserting the beak 
in the root crown or in the stem within 50 mm. of the soil level. 
The curlew bug oviposits to some extent in 15 known species 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

of plants, appearing definitely to prefer chufa to any other. 
The egg is laid in the leaf sheath or top of the crown ; the 
larva hatches and excavates the inner leaves, or, in the event 
the flower stalk has developed, the interior of the flower stalk. 
As the larva grows and progresses in its feeding, the central 
leaves die, or, if the flower stalk is present and infested, the 
flower stalk dies. A cursory examination of a stand of chufa 
within a few days after the eggs have hatched reveals conspic- 
uously the feeding places of the larva. As the chufa season 
progresses, the greatest number of destroyed plants is charge- 
able to the work of this billbug. The larva normally requires 
from 3 to 5 weeks to complete its growth, and if it cuts its way 
out of one plant before having completed feeding it will enter 
the base of another. It may pupate in the larval excavation in 
the plant or leave the plant and make a pupal cell in the soil 
within about 2 inches of the plant. 

The seasonal history of this insect appears to vary according 
to locality. In Alabama, in the vicinity of Mobile, it has been 
found in egg, larval, and pupal stages on September 16. From 
an egg collected September 16, a larva issued September 23 
and pupated October 26. From this pupa an adult issued De- 
cember 18, at Webster Groves, Missouri. Its development 
would no doubt have been substantially accelerated in the higher 
temperature of Mobile. 

In Mississippi, at Jackson, eggs were collected June 14, 1922, 
and larvae were found from June 15 to September 19, one of 
those collected on the last date being newly hatched. At Holly 
Springs, a pupa was taken June 17, 1922; other immature 
forms collected June 18 and subsequently fed at Webster 
Groves, yielded adults in the period June 23 to November 20. 

In Arkansas, at Fayetteville, eggs and larvae were collected 
June 11, 1923; at Blytheville, eggs and larvae on June 25, 
1922; at Osceola, larvae on June 26, 1922; at Benton, eggs 
and larvae on June 18, 1922. Pupation at Webster Groves 
took place in material of the Blytheville collection as early as 
July 10, yielding the adult July 12, and as late as August 19 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 39 

from the Osceola collection, yielding the adult August 28. 

It is probable that in the vicinity of the Gulf coast, and 
possibly also throughout Arkansas, the species may overwinter 
in two or more stages, but there is no evidence that any stage 
excepting the adult winters successfully in the area as far 
north as St. Louis. 

These studies of the curlew bug have failed to show any 
tendency on its part to oviposit in corn in Ohio, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Kansas, Arkansas, or Oklahoma. On the other hand, 
Z. P. Metcalf found, first, that the species in eastern North 
Carolina did oviposit in corn,* and, second, that probably no 
other corn insect caused so great a loss, both directly and in- 
directly, in the eastern part of this State as did the curlew bug. 
Where the curlew bug is thus able to develop in corn, the 
elimination of chufa from corn ground becomes less important 
in the control of this weevil. 

In the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, this species and the 
destructve billbug (Calcndra destructor} feed chiefly on chufa. 
The curlew bug has an earlier feeding period or a shorter sea- 
son, for in this locality it is the dominant species in chufa late 
in August whereas the destructive billbug is the dominant 
species in this host plant in September. 

The foregoing generalized statement is based on records of 
over 1,500 living specimens of the curlew bug. 
CALENDRA DESTRUCTOR (Chitt.). 

The destructive billbug (Calendra destructor (Chitt.)) 
ranges in length from 7 to 12 mm. and may be distinguished 
from the curlew bug, which frequently it closely resembles, 
by having the bases of at least two of the first three even in- 
tervals depressed at the bases of the elytra and by the presence 
of coarse punctures on the bases of the lateral pronotal carinae. 
The corresponding punctures of the curlew bug are fine. The 
newly developed adult exhibits a velvety texture but entirely 
without the burnished-gold sheen of the curlew bug. The 

* R. G. Kelly (note files) records eggs on corn at Wellington, Kansas. 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

color is dark brown or black. 

The egg closely resembles tbat of the curlew bug and ranges 
in length from 1.66 to 1.83 mm. and in width from 0.73 to 
0.84 mm. 

The larva likewise closely resembles that of the curlew bug. 
The width of the head ranges from 0.49 mm. in the first instar 
to 2.14 mm. at maturity. 

The pupa ranges in length from 8.05 to 10.84mm. The 
rostrum bears six similar seta-bearing tubercles, and the 
mesonotum, the metanotum, and the tergite of the eighth ab- 
dominal segment each bear one or more pairs of setae. As 
usual in this genus of snout beetles, the adult of the destructive 
billbug usually eats with its head directed downward, inserting 
the beak through an inconspicuous puncture and feeding at 
large in the interior of the leaf sheath of the bud or flower 
stalk, often enlarging the feeding cavity by tearing the plant 
tissue longitudinally without withdrawing its beak. 

Oviposition occurs in some of the feeding punctures. When 
the beak is withdrawn, the punctured slit of the plant closes 
fairly well. The oviposition period appears to begin as early 
as with any of the other billbug species in the Mississippi 
Valley and continues definitely later in the season, with fair 
volume, than that of other species ' working in chufa. This 
period, in the St. Louis section, extends from May 12 to Sep- 
tember 22. 

The incubation period of the eggs is not appreciably differ- 
ent from that of other species and averages about 5 days. The 
larva begins excavating in the egg cell and may work part 
way up or down the stem . When it emerges from its excava- 
tion it usually enters the base of another plant. Pupation 
occurs either in the larval excavation or in the soil close by. 
The pupal cell is limited, in the larval excavation, by packed, 
torn plant tissues ; when located in the soil, a fairly good cocoon 
is made of torn plant tissue. The pupal period lasts from 
about 8 to 18 days. The life cycle of the destructive billbug 
and its size in larval and adult stages are rather similar to 
those of the curlew bug. 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 41 

The following collections were made : At Chandler, Okla- 
homa, numerous eggs and larvae in chufa on June 11, 1923; 
at Manhattan, Kansas, numerous eggs on June 16, 1924 ; at 
Thayer, Missouri, one egg on May 24, 1918, and one larva 
June 13, 1921; in St. Louis County, Missouri, eggs on July 

11, 1924, newly hatched larvae on September 22, 1923, 
and larvae, pupae, and new adults qn 'September 27 of the 
same year; at Dupo, Illinois, one larva on August 15, 1922; 
and at Athens, Indiana, eggs and larvae on June 21, 1916. 

CALENDRA CARIOSA (Oliv.). 

One larva of Calcndra cariosa (Oliv.) was found in one of 
three plants of Cypcms cscitlcutits collected at Delchamps, 
Alabama, July 1, 1923; it pupated August 6. 

A mature larva of Calcndra cariosa was collected December 

12, 1931, in a pupal cell in the soil under a chufa plant at 
Wiggins, Mississippi. A female adult issued January 2. 

This species is distinguished from any other billbug by the 
peculiar elytral sculpture, in which rather large, shallow, de- 
pressed areas include two or more broad, shallow strial punc- 
tures or interval punctures. The pronotum has a central, 
diamond-shaped, polished area and is broadly canaliculate on 
both sides of the central elevation. The species attains a 
length of 13.5 mm. 

The preferred host plant of this billbug appears to be the 
horned rush (Ry?ncliospora coniiculata) , though it is rather a 
general feeder on sedges. 

. .The pupa of this species has the rostrum with only six seta- 
bearing tubercles, all conical, the basal pair set on broad, mod- 
erately high, and wrinkled prominences, the prominences not 
darker than the head, the base wrinkled, not appearing lobed 
or granular. Its length is 9.31 to 17.00 mm., the average being 
12.49 mm.; ihc pronotal width is 2.66 to 4.40 mm., averaging 
3.55 mm. 

CALENDRA PARVULA (Gyll.) 

Three eggs of a corn billbug were found in Cypcrus cscu- 
Icntus at Arkansas City, Kansas, on June 5, 1924. One egg, 



42 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

measuring 1.50 mm. long by 0.52 mm. thick, hatched June 10, 
yielding a pupa on August 4 and an adult female of Calcndra 
parvula (Gyll.) on August 7. 

This is the blue-grass billbug, definitely bred from 18 species 
of plants, but rarely from chufa. This little weevil has a 
fairly uniformly punctured pronotum, fairly smooth intervals 
on the elytra, and a long beak ; its length is about 7 mm. 

The pupa has only four rostral tubercles, all seta-bearing. 
The eighth abdominal tergite has one pair of large dorsal setae 
as large as the largest on the ninth tergite. The species is 
slender, from 5.58 to 10.22 mm. in length, and the pronotal 
width from 1.93 to 3.98 mm., the beak appears to be long and 
slender, and the ninth tergite has six to eight large setae. 

CALENDRA VENATUS (Say.). 

The hunting billbug (Calcndra vcnatus (Say)) ranges from 
6 to 11 mm. in length. It is smaller than the curlew bug and 
is best distinguished from the other species mentioned by a 
depression on the disk of the pronotum immediately back of 
the head. The color of this billbug is black. 

The egg closely resembles that of the curlew bug and ranges 
from 1.34 to 1.87 mm. in length and from 0.46 to 0.83 in 
diameter. 

The larva passes through the same number of instars and 
requires approximately the same length of time to mature as 
the curlew bug. The width of the head ranges from 0.29 mm. 
in the first instar to 1.97 in the last. 

The pupa is about 9.22 to 12.75 mm. long, with six rostral 
seta-bearing tubercles. 

The hunting billbug appears to breed more freely in chufa 
than in any other of its known host plants. 

In Indiana, near Chalmers, numerous eggs have been taken 
in chufa on June 20, 1916, and in Missouri at Webster Groves 
on August 5, 1925. Larvae were taken near Charleston, Mis- 
souri, July 20, 1918. 

Numerous adults have been taken associated with chufa or 
attacking corn on ground heavily infested with chufa, circum- 
stances which strongly indicated that these adults had developed 
in chufa. 



Hii, '42J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 43 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTROLLING CHUFA INSECTS. 

Although the chufa crop is grown almost entirely as food for 
hogs and represents a limited acreage, producers are confronted 
with the problem of control of its insect enemies. The present 
studies indicate that the tubers, which are the all-important part, 
of the crop, are not subject to direct insect attack. This is 
very fortunate, for there would seem to be no effective control 
for tuber-destroying insects except such as might be effected 
by the prevailing practice of allowing hogs to harvest the crop. 

Since the chufa is grown as an annual crop, it appears that 
all the insects noted in this paper can be controlled through the 
destruction of crop residues, by clean cultivation, and by dis- 
turbing the soil deeply enough to destroy the crowns. Where 
practicable, all the tops of the plants should be destroyed before 
midwinter. It is suggested that the grower smooth the ground 
and burn whatever chufa material the hogs have left on the 
surface, even though this may include some tubers. 

The most injurious chufa pests so far recognized are weevils. 
The habits of the weevils afford almost no opportunity for 
control outside of cultural practices. In the case of the bill- 
bugs as pests of corn or small grains, our best recommenda- 
tion is the elimination of the preferred host plant in proximity 
to the corn or other grain fields. As chufa is the preferred 
host plant of several of these insects, control recommendations 
are restricted to clean cultural practices not incompatible with 
the hog-harvesting method of handling the crop. 



Notes Concerning Eschatomoxys wagneri Blaisdell 
(Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). 

By FRANK E. BLAISDELL, Sr., Stanford Medical School and 

Associate in Research, California Academy of 

Sciences, San Francisco, California. 

In 1935, a new Triorophid was collected in Death Valley, 
Inyo County, by Roy L. Wagner, of Fresno, California. The 
unique specimen was submitted to the Author for determina- 
tion. It was recognized as an unusual species, and was de- 
scribed in the Pan-Pacific Entomologist of July, 1935, as 
Eschatomoxys ivagncri Blais. 

It was learned later that Mr. P. H. Timberlake, of River- 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

side, California, had also collected a specimen. Dr. E. C. 
Van Dyke during a recent visit with him. obtained the follow- 
ing data: "The species was found in the Painted Canyon 
near Mecca, Imperial County, California, April 18, 1925. Air. 
Timberlake is confident that it was taken from beneath a 
stone." 

In April of the present year, three additional specimens 
were received from Glen M. Kohls, Assistant Entomologist of 
the Rocky Mountain Laboratory, Hamilton, Montana. Mr. 
Kohls has very kindly supplied the following data concerning 
their discovery and habitat, also with permission to retain them 
in the collection of the Entomological Laboratory of the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences. The specimens "were taken in 
a mine located about fifteen miles north-east of Yuma, Ari- 
zona, in California on the road out of Bard." 

"The mine is operated during the Winter by a Mr. Clapp. 
The entrance goes down at an angle of about 20 degress, to a 
depth of over 200 feet." Mr. Kohls also stated: "At the 
160 foot level, we turned off into a drift and followed it about 
100 yards or so, to the end where we stopped to search mainly 
for bat ticks (Argasidae) in the cracks and fissures of the 
rocks. In prying off the loose pieces of rock from the walls 
and top of the tunnel, several of the beetles were found. Only 
three were preserved, but several more could have been col- 
lected, since they were not at all scarce. The psychrometric 
readings were : Wet bulb 72, dry bulb, giving a relative 
humidity of about 78, without corrections for elevation, etc. 
Bats were present and there were a few small deposits of 
guano; no other organic material was noted." 

"W r e were working near the end of drift where there was 
no timbering. An enclosed photograph gives some idea of the 
semi-desert country surrounding the mine." 

The type of Escliatouw.rys wagneri, a male, measures in 
length 9 mm. and 4 mm. in width. Those secured by Mr. 
Kohl, are one male and two females, the larger of the latter 
measures 11 mm. in length and 5 mm. in width. Only four 
specimens are known ; the species is more or less subterranean. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 45 

Misidentified Genotypes. 

By N. D. RILEY, Dept. of Entomology, British Museum 
(Natural History), London. 

The preparation of the reports on the Generic Names of 
British Insects, now being published by the Royal Entomolo- 
gical Society of London, is providing an interesting test, on a 
fairly large scale, of the efficiency of the International Rules 
of Zoological Nomenclature in their present form. When 
it is considered that practically all the really knotty problems 
in entomological nomenclature are the unwitting creation of 
the early European authors, and concern the European genera, 
it is satisfactory to find how relatively few are the cases in 
which it has been necessary, in order to avoid "greater con- 
fusion than uniformity", to apply for suspension of the Rules. 

As an official of the British Museum (N. H.), in which 
a good deal of the work on these lists has been and is being- 
done, and in other capacities, I have been privileged to see 
in MS. most of the reports already published, and to have 
before me others in various stages of completion. And it is 
instructive to find that practically the onlv constantly recurring 

A J J J *~J 

difficulty now remaining is that which centres around the fixa- 
tion of genotypes when the species concerned have been mis- 
identified either by the original author of the genus or by an 
author who subsequently designated the type species. 

This particular difficulty was dealt with at some length in 
Opinion 65, but so inconclusively as to have left the whole 
matter in doubt ever since. For this, the unfortunate phrase 
"it is to be assumed that his determination of the species is 
correct" is largely to blame since some authors have taken this 
to be mandatory, overlooking the necessary implication of the 
phrase to the effect that if the assumption is proved incorrect 
the whole argument falls to the ground. That this is the correct 
interpretation of the phrase is clear if the full and unanimous 
Opinions published up to that time (not just the summaries) 
be consulted. Here, notably in Opinions 19 and 46, phrases 
such as "an identification is to be accepted as correct until 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

shown to be incorrect", "an author's recognition" of a species 
is "assumed to be correct until proved incorrect" occur not 
once but many times over. There seem, in fact, no grounds 
for maligning the Commission by the suggestion that, by thb 
phrase in Opinion 65, they had any intention of forcing- 
zoologists to accept as correct identifications which are dem- 
onstrably false. 

Yet to the writer, and to his colleagues, this argument seems 
in reality quite beside the point. If difficulty and doubt have 
arisen they have been created by the Commission itself, and no- 
tably by Opinion 65, for the Rules themselves are quite un- 
equivocal. The whole matter is covered by Article 30, which 
deals with the designation of the type species of genera. It is 
implicit in this article that the types of genera are species, and 
if this fundamental fact be borne constantly in mind, there 
should be no difficulty whatever in arriving at the correct solu- 
tion. This may entail more labour than is involved in the 
arbitrary practice of accepting alb us as the generic type of 
X-us, without reference to the identity of either, a practice 
which, though it may be sound in nomenclature, may equally 
well be very unsound taxonomy. But inasmuch as we are to 
assume that an identification is correct, unless proved incorrect, 
it is seldom that any considerable research will be needed since 
the cases involving an obviously doubtful identification are 
relatively few, and will diminish. 

The writer will be very grateful. for expressions of opinion 
from taxonomists interested in this question, for he feels that 
his interpretation of Article 30 of the Rules is the correct one 
and that it automatically removes a serious obstacle to nomen- 
clatural progress. He also believes that the opposite course, 
referred to above as an arbitrary practice, yet adopted by some 
writers, will be found on ultimate analysis to rest on no more 
substantial grounds than a misunderstanding of the Article 
or their own convenience, and that should this practice be 
allowed to grow it cannot fail, because of its inherent falsity, 
to bring the work of the International Commission on Zoolo- 
gical Nomenclature into disrepute. 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NICWS 47 

Taxonomic Notes on the Genera Ghelostoma and 
Ashmeadiella (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae). 

By CHARLES D. MICHENER, University of California, 
Berkeley, California. 

Since but four species of the genus Chelostoma are known 
from the Western Hemisphere, all occurring along the Pacific 
Coast of the United States, the discovery of a fifth species in 
northern California is of considerable interest. In addition 
several facts affecting the nomenclature and known distribution 
of various species of Ashmeadiella have come to light since 
the publication of a revision of the genus (Michener, 1939, 
Amer. Midi. Nat., 22: 1-84). These are recorded in the 
following pages. 
Chelostoma tetramerum n. sp. 

This is a moderate sized, slender, black species. 

$ : Length 6.5 mm. Pubescence sparse, whitish, not form- 
ing transverse bands on abdominal terga. Punctation of body 
fine and rather even, that of mesoscutum as coarse as that of 
vertex ; horizontal area of propodeum finely rugose, shorter 
than metanotum. Proboscis not greatly elongate, glossa as 
long as face; first segment of labial palpi about one-third as 
long as second ; maxillary palpi four-segmented, first segment 
short and globular, second longest, third but little shorter than 
second, and fourth markedly shorter than third. Wings dusky, 
veins and stigma black; second abscissa of cubital vein shorter 
than fourth. Posterior margins of abdominal terga one to six 
narrowly brownish ; seventh tergum ending in three processes, 
the median, which is triangular and about as long as basal 
width, directed more ventrally than the incurved laterals which 
are about one and one-half times as long as their basal widths ; 
seventh tergum with large, median, dorsal, longitudinally 
elongate depression ; second sternum with transverse elevated 
area; parameres pointed but not attentuate apically; coxopo- 
dites of genitalia slender and straight, slightly enlarged api- 
cally, with a few rather long hairs near apices. 

Holotypc male (Ent. No. 5216, Calif. Acad. Sci.) : Shingle- 
town, Shasta County, CALIFORNIA, May 23, 1941, flying over 
nearly bare ground (C. D. Michener). Paratype (author's 
collection), same data but on a small, yellow-flowered species 
of Mimnlus. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

This species resembles C. phaceliae Michener in the four- 
segmented maxillary palpi but differs from that form in the 
much shorter proboscis, proportions of the segments of the 
labial palpi, absence of the abdominal hair bands, shorter pro- 
cesses of the seventh tergum with the median one directed 
more downward than the lateral ones, more enlarged apices of 
the coxopodites of the male genitalia, and simple rather than 
attenuated apices of the parameres similar to those illustrated 
(Pan-Pac. Ent., 14: 36-45, 1938) for minutum. This species 
is also larger than most specimens of phaceliae, although cer- 
tain individuals of that species from Mt. Diablo, California, 
are 6.5 mm. long. In its large size tetramernm approaches 
C. californicum Cresson, differing by the longer processes of 
the seventh abdominal tergum, the absence of pubescent fasciae 
on the terga, the relatively straight rather than downcurved 
parameres and coxopodites of the male genitalia, and the four- 
segmented maxillary palpi. From C. bernardininn Michener, 
the other American species with three processes on the seventh 
abdominal tergum of the male, C. tetramerum may be dis- 
tinguished by the shorter processes of the seventh tergum, the 
more coarsely punctate mesoscutum, and the four-segmented 
maxillary palpi. 

ASHMEADIELLA. 

The late Grace A. Sandhouse wrote to me stating that the 
three original type specimens of Ashmcadiella cactorum 
(Cockerell) are in the National Museum, bearing Cockerell's 
label, "H. cactorum n. sp.", and that they belong to the form 
previously regarded as A. currici Titus. My identification of 
cactorum was based upon specimens determined by Cockerell 
subsequent to the time the species was described. Unfortu- 
nately it is from the three cotypes that a lectotype of cactorum 
must be selected; that bearing Cockerell's number 3449 is here 
designated as lectotype. The name cactorum therefore re- 
places curriei, and for the species which I have previously 
regarded as cactorum the name mcllloti Cockerell is available. 
The following synonymies indicate the nomenclatorial changes 
resulting from the correction of the use of the name cactorum. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 49 

For the sake of brevity only the key citations are here indicated; 
others may be found in the revisional paper already referred to. 

ASHMEADIELLA ( AsHMEADIELLA) MELILOTI MELILOTI 

(Cockerell). Hcriadcs wcliloti Cockerell, 1897, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., (6) 20: 141, $ 9. Ashmcadiella mdiloti, Cocker- 
ell, 1898, Bull. Denison Univ., 11: 64, $. Ashmeadiella cac- 
torum cactorum, Michener (misidentification), 1936, Amer. 
Mus. Nov., 875: 8, 9 $ . Ashmeadiella {Ashmeadiella) cac- 
torum cactorum, Michener, 1939, Amer. Midi. Nat., 22:42, 
9 $. 

A. (A.) MELILOTI ASTRAGALI Michener. Ashmeadiella 
(Ashmeadiella} cactorum astragali Michener, 1939, Amer. 
Midi. Nat., 22 : 44, 9 $ . 

A. (A.) MELILOTI CRASSA Cockerell. Ashmcadiella crassa 
Cockerell, 1924, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 12: 558, 9 
(part). Ashmcadiella (Ashmeadiella} cactorum crassa, Mich- 
ener, 1939, Amer. Midi. Nat., 22 : 44, $ . 

A. (A.) MELILOTI ARIDULA Cockerell. Ashmeadiella ari- 
dula Cockerell, 1910, Entom., 43: 91, $. Ashmeadiella cac- 
torum aridula, Michener, 1936, Amer. Mus. Nov., 875: 9, 
$ 9 . Ashmcadiella (Ashmcadiella} cactorum aridula, Mich- 
ener, 1939, Amer. Midi. Nat., 22 : 44, 95. 

A. (A.) CACTORUM CACTORUM Cockerell. Hcriodes cactorum 
Cockerell, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 20: 140, 9- 
Ashmcadiella cactorum, Cockerell, 1898, Bull. Denison Univ., 
11: 64, 9. Ashmeadiella curriei Titus, 1904, Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Wash., 6: 100, 9 (new synonym). Ashmeadiella (Ashmea- 
diella} curriei curriei, Michener, 1939, Amer. Midi. Nat., 22: 
15, 95. AsJimcadiclla basalis nigra Michener, 1936, Amer. 
Mus. Nov., 875: 7, 9 $ . Hcriades prosopidis Cockerell, 1897, 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) 20: 140, $ , nee 9. 

A. (A.) CACTORUM ECHINOCEREI Cockerell. Ashmeadiella 
echinocerci Cockerell, 1911, Can. Ent., 43: 132, 9. Ashmea- 
diella (AsJimcadiclla} curriei cchinoccrei, Michener, 1939, 
Amer. Midi. Nat., 22:16, 9. 

A. (A.) CACTORUM BASALIS (Michener). Ashmeadiella 
basalis basalis Michener, 1936, Amer. Mus. Nov., 875: 6, $ 9 . 
Ashmeadiella (Ashmeadiella} curriei basalis, Michener, 1939, 
Amer. Midi. Nat., 22:17, 95. 

Additional localities for this subspecies are : Santa Rosa 
Mountain, Riverside County, California. 6000 to 7500 feet 
elevation, May 31, June 8 and 16, 1940, on Lotus davidsonii 
(C. D. Michener) and Westgard Pass, Inyo County, Cali- 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

fornia, May 26, 1937 (N. W. Frazier). The latter specimens 
are of interest since they, like the specimens from the Clark 
Mountains recorded in 1939, are from a desert mountain range 
in which this ordinarily cismontane subspecies would not be 
expected. 

A. (A.) OCCIPITALIS Michener. This species was collected 
ten miles south of Tucson, Arizona, August 7, 1940, on Verbe- 
sina cxauriculata, also taken at several localities in Cochise 
County, Arizona, on the same flower (C. D. Michener). 

ASHMEADIELLA (AROGOCHiLA) FoxiELLA Michener. Asli- 
meadiclla (Arogochila} foxiclla Michener, 1939, Amer. Midi. 
Nat., 22: 73, $. Ashnicadiclla (Cliilosima) washingtonensis 
Michener, 1939, Amer. Midi. Nat., 22: 80, 9. (new syno- 
nym ) . 

The female described as A. u'asliingtonensis was placed in 
the subgenus Chilosima with considerable doubt, but its rela- 
tionship with a male Arogochila was not suspected. The two 
sexes, however, were collected together by the author at Hat 
Creek, Shasta County, California, on June 4, 1941, visiting 
the slender whitish flowers of a species of Pentstemon. Al- 
though the female is a peculiar form not closely related to any 
other species and possibly worthy of separation as a distinct 
subgenus, the similarity of the male to that of Arogochila 
leads to the belief that this species, like A. barberi Michener, 
the female of which also has quadridentate mandibles, is a 
derivative of Arogochila. 

In the key to the females of Arogochila this species runs to 
2 and is separated from A. sculleni Michener and A. barberi 
Michener by the absence of the lateral lobes of the clypeus. 
One of the males from Hat Creek, unlike other specimens 
studied, has the median teeth of the sixth abdominal tergum 
twice as long as broad. 

A. (A.) TIMBERLAKEI TiMBERLAKEi Michener. This form 
was collected on Santa Rosa Mountain, Riverside County, 
California, 6000 to 7500 feet elevation, on Lotus davidsonii, 
May 31, June 15 and 18, 1940 (C. D. Michener); five miles 
east of Burney, Shasta County, California, on Phacclia, June 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 51 

8, 1941 (C. D. Michener). In one female from the latter 
locality the median lohe of the clypeus is unusually broad and 
rounded and but feebly notched at the apex. 

A. (A.) SALVIAE Michener. Although previously known only 
from southern California, a specimen of A. salviae was taken 
at Mount Diablo, Contra Costa County. California, June, 1939. 

ASIIMEADIELLA (C-HILOSIMA) KIIODOGNATHA Cockerell. 

Among numerous typical individuals of this species from El 
Mayor, Lower California, Mexico, April 3, 1940, on Prosopis 
chilensis (C. D. Michener) is a single female in which the 
legs are red and the posterior margins of the abdominal terga 
broadly red. This may indicate that A. rhodognatha is a black 
subspecies of the Xew Mexican A. holtii Cockerell. 

ASHMEADIELLA ( CUBITOGNATH A ) XENOMASTAX MicheilCf. 

Mr. P. H. Timberlake has very kindly allowed me to study a 
male and female of this species which he collected three miles 
southwest of Yictorville. California, on Dalca sound ersii, May 
12, 1939. The male of this subgenus, which has not previously 
been described, runs to AshmeadicUa s. str. and Titusella in my 
key to subgenera. and differs from most of the species included 
in those groups by the somewhat eonarginate apex of the lab- 
rum. The male is described as follows : 

Length 6 mm. Anterior margins of eyes divergent below; 
face densely covered with white pubescence largely obscuring 
surface ; clypeus finely and densely punctate, its apical margin 
with broad, shallow emargination ; f rons and vertex a little 
more coarsely punctate than clypeus but densely so ; anterior 
ocellus but little posterior to midpoint between antennal bases 
and posterior margin of vertex ; posterior ocelli separated by a 
distance equal to that to nearest eye margin and hardly less 
than distance to posterior edge of vertex ; flagellum reddish 
brown beneath ; mandibles bidentate, red except bases and 
apices ; labrum elongate, apex with broad, shallow emargina- 
tion. Punctures of scutum and scutellum and mesepisternum 
coarser and less dense than those of vertex ; all tarsi reddish ; 
posterior legs red beyond troehanters except for black posterior 
surfaces of tibiae. Abdomen red except for black basal mid- 
dorsal spots on terga. spot of fourth tergum largest, spots of 
preceding and following terga diminishing in size; sixth tergum 
with lateral margins slightly sinuate, lateral teeth not broad, 
but short and rounded apically. median teeth much broader 
than long, irregularly rounded and separated by an emargina- 
tion much broader than a semicircle. 



52 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

Current Entomological Literature 

COMPILED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF. 

Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

This list gives references of the current or preceding year unless other- 
wise noted. All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only 
at their first installment. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

Note. References to papers containing new forms or names not so stated 
in titles are followed by (*); if containing keys are followed by (k); 
papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so indicated 
in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of the paper. 

The figures within brackets [ ] refer to the journal in which the paper 
appeared, as numbered in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in 
our January and June issues. This list may be secured from the pub- 
lisher of Entomological News for lOc. The number of, or annual volume, 
and in some cases the part, heft, &c., the latter within ( ) follows; then 
the pagination follows the colon : 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Altsheler, B. Natural History Index 
Guide. Section 10. Zoology. 1940. 249-265. Anon. Prof. 
S. Kopec. [31] 148: 655.' Brodsky, Nevsky, Beliaeva & 
Tcholpankulov. Zoocenoses of the high mountain Pamir. 
[Acta Univ. Asiae Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 23: 21 pp. 
Brown, F. M. A gazetteer of entomological stations in 
Ecuador. [7] 34: 809-851, ill. Callan, E. McC. -- Resis- 
tance of plants to insect attack. [Jour. Imp. Coll. Trop. 
Agric.] 18: 229-231. Hamly, D. H Color systems. [68] 
94- 586. Mnt-h. M. H- The lr,.ri C r.l basis of the species 
concept. [Biol. Symposia] 4: 223-293. Hyslop, J. A. - 
Insects and the weather. [Climate & Man.] 1941 : 503-507. 
Mclntosh, A. - - The designation of type specimens in 
describing new species. [Suppl. Jour. Parasit.] 27: 11. 
Merrill, M. C. --The publications of the United States 
Department of Agriculture and the policies covering their 
dstribution. 1941. 23 pp. Scott & Opydyke. The emerg- 
ence of insects from Winona Lake. find. Dept. Conserv. 
Div. Fish & Game] 2: 5-15. ill. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, ETC. Barton-Wright, 

E. Flour and the growth of Tribolium. [31] 148: 565-566. 
Bodine, J. H. and T. H. Allen.- -Enzymes in ontogenesis 
(Orthop.). XX. The site of origin and distribution of pro- 
tyro i:i:i r in tin' deve.lopiiiv' ego- of the i/rns^hopper. 
[42] 88: 343-352. Enzymes in ontogenesis. |<L>| 81: 3SS 






liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 53 

391, ill. Carlson, L. D. Enzymes in ontogenesis (Orth.) 
[92] 81: 375-387, ill. Gatenby, J. B.- -The neck body in 
normal and x-radiated insect spermatogenesis. [Pro. Ry. 
Irish Acad.J 47: 149-159, ill. Gayden, J. H. Studies in the 
embryology of Cylas formicarius. [La. Acad. Sci.] 5: 32. 
Gobeil, A. R. La diapause chez les Tenthredes. [Canadian 
JOur. Res.] 19: 383-416. Kalmus, H. - - The resistance to 
desiccation of Drosophila mutants affecting body colour. 
[Proc. Royal Soc.] 130 (B): 185-201. Prebble, M. L. - 
The diapause and related phenomena in Gilpinia polytoma. 
[Canadian Jour. Res.] 19: 417-436; 437-454. Ray, C. N. - 
Extra strong heliotropic effect of neon lights. [68] 94: 
585-586. Yakhontov, V. Thysanoptera found in the pro- 
cess of soil investigation of middle Asia. [Acta Univ. Asiae 
IMed.l Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 49: 7 pp. Yeager & Munson.- 
Histochemical detection of glycogen in blood cells of the 
southern army worm ( Prodenia eridania) and in other 
tissues, especially mid gut epithelium. [47] 63 : 257-294, ill. 
(See also various authors under Arachnida, Hemiptera, 
Diptera and Coleoptera below). 

ARACHNIDA AND MYRIOPODA. Archer, A. F. - 

Supplement to the Argiopidae of Alabama. [Ala. Mus. Nat. 
Hist.] Mus. Pap. 18: 47 pp.. ill. Chamberlin, R. V. On a 
collection of Millipedes and Centipedes from northeastern 
Peru. [Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 78: 473-535, ill. New 
genera and species of North American geophiloid centipeds. 
[7 1 34: 773-790. Doetschman, W. H. The occurrence of 
mites in Pinnipeds, including a new species from the Cali- 
fornia sea-lion, Zalophus californianus. [Suppl. Jour. Para- 
sit.] 27: 23. Jiles, E. C. The skeletal musculature of the 
centipede. [La. Acad. Sci.j 5: 33. Lavers, C. H., Jr. A new 
species of Limnochares from North America. [Univ. Wash. 
I'ubl. Hiol.l 12: 6 pp.. ill. Semans, F. M. -- Black widow 
spider. Distribution in Ohio. [Ohio J. Sci.| 41 : 380'. Stern- 
hold & Getzonok. Influence of some factors upon the life- 
cycle of Boophilus annulatus calcaratus. [Acta Univ. Asiae 
Mod.] Ser. 8. (Zool.) fasc. 47: 12 pp. Warren, E. On the 
genital system and modes of reproduction of certain gamasid 
mites. [Ann. Natal Mus.| 10: 95-126, ill. On the occurrence 
of nematodes in the haemocoel of certain gamasid mites. 
[Ann. Natal Mus.[ 10: 79-94. ill. 

THE SMALLER ORDERS OF INSECTS. Bickley, 

W. E. --Records of Tennessee Chrysopidae. [10] 43: 1S7- 
189. Cowley, J. A ne\v species of Protoneura from Peru 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

and a review of the group of Protoneura tennis. [36] 91 : 
145-173, ill. Crawford, J. C. --A new Taeniothrips from 
Panama [10J 43: 184-186, ill. Geijskes, D. C.-- Notes on 
Odonata of Surinam. [7] 34: 719-734, ill. Holdsworth, 
R. P., Jr. -- Additional information and a correction con- 
cerning the growth of Pteronarcys proteus. [7] 34: 714- 
715, ill. Svihla, R. D. A list of the fleas of Washington 
[Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol.] 12: 11-19. Walker, E. M. The 
nymph of Somatochlora walshii [4] 73: 203-205, ill. Ward, 
J. W. The occurrence of Heterodoxus longitarsus ( Mallo- 
phaga) on dogs in Mississippi. [Suppl. Jour. Parasit.] 27: 
30. Wheeler, Douglas & Evans. The role of the burrowing 
owl and the sticktight flea in the spread of plague. [68] 94: 
560-561. Whitehouse, F. C. -- British Columbia dragon- 
flies with notes on distribution and habits. [119] 26: 488- 
557, ill. Kennedy, C. H. Perissolestes paprzyckii, a new 
I'erilestine dragonfly from Peru. (Lestid.) [7] 34: 852-854, 
i'l. (See also Howe'il, T., under Diptera, and Austin 
Richardson under Coleoptera). 

ORTHOPTERA. Gurney, A. B. - - Taxonomic and 
bionomic notes on the grasshopper Melanoplus impudicus 
(Acridid.) [119] 26: 558-569, ill. Moreau, R. E. & W : M.- 
Birds eating a "Distasteful" grasshopper. [The Ibis] 5: 615. 
Roberts, H. R. A comparative study of the subfamilies of 
the Acrididae primarily on the basis of their phallic 
structures. [Proc. Acad." Nat. Sci. Phila.] 93: 201-246. ill. 
Semans, F. M. - - Protozoan parasites of the Orthoptera, 
with special reference to those of Ohio. [43] 41 : 457-464. 
White & Rock. - - New records of Acrididae from Alberta 
[4] 73: 216. 

HE ; MIPTERA. Caldwell, J. S. A preliminary survey 
of Mexican Psyllidae. [43] 41: 418-424. (k). de Carlo, 
J. A. Descripcion de dos especies nuevas del genero Lim- 
nocoris. Nuevas consideraciones sobre Cryphocricus 
daguerrei y Cryphocricus rufus de Carlo. (Naucorid.). 
[Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 11 : 37-41, ill. deLong, D. M. 
Some new species of Mexican Osbornellus ( Cicadellid. ). 
[An. Exc. Nac. Cien. Biol., Mexico] 2 : 263-270, ill. Drake & 
Hambleton. Two new Peruvian Tingitidae. [Iowa State 
Coll. Jour. Sci. | 16: 32<>-330. Ferris,' G. F. - - The genus 
Aspidiotus ( l)iasi)idid.). |117| f> : 33-(><>. ill. Knowlton & 
Stains. -- (io.coris alricolor feeding. |1 ( >| 36: 201-202. 
Mathis & Nicolle. -- Sur le cnmportement des Recluvides 
hematophages Rhodnius prolixus et Triatoma infestans. et 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

leur aptidude a transmettre la maladie de Chagas. [77] 
135: 28-30. Nicolle & Mathis. Le thermotropisme, facteur 
determinant primordial pour la piqure des Reduvides 
hematophages. [77] 135: 25-27. Rosewall, O. W. - - The 
male genital segment of Pentatomidae. [La. Acad. Sci.] 
5 : 33-34. Russell, L. M. A classification of the scale insect 
genus Asterolecanium. [U. S. Dept. Agric.] Misc. Publ. 
No. 424: 322 pp., ill. Sampson & Drews. A review of the 
Aleyrodidae of Mexico. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol., Mexico] 
2: 143-189, ill. (*k). Smith, C. F. The genus Drepanaphis 
Del Guercio east of the Rocky Mountains. [Jour. E. Mitchell 
Sci. Soc.] 57: 226-242, ill. Usinger, R. L. Rediscovery of 
Emesaya brevicoxa and its occurrence in the webs of 
spiders (Reduviicl.). [19] 36: 206-208. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Beall, G. --The monarch butterfly, 
Danaus archippus. General observations in southern 
Ontario. [Canadian Field Nat.J 55: 123-129. Bell & Corn- 
stock. The synonymy of Papilio coridon, Papilio phocion 
and others. [6] 49: 371-374. Brower, A. E. A new species 
of Metalectra from eastern North America. (Phalaenid.). 
1 1 ] 67 : 271-274, ill. Clark, A. H. Notes on some North and 
Middle American Danaid butterflies. [50] 90: 531-542, ill. 
Clarke, J. F. G. The North American moths of the genus 
Arachnis, with one new species. [50] 91 : 59-70, ill. Revi- 
sion of the North American moths of the family Oecopho- 
ridae, with descriptions of new genera and species. [50] 90: 
33-286, ill. Floyd, E. H. -- Investigations on the biology 
and control of the alfalfa caterpillar, Colias eurytheme. 
[La. Acad. Sci.] 5: 31-32. Janse, A. J. T. Contribution to 
the study of the Phycitinae. [Jour. Ent. Soc. So. Africa] 
4: 134-166, ill. Johnson & Comstock. -- Anaea of the 
Antilles and their continental relationships with descriptions 
of new species, subspecies and forms (Nymphalid.). [6] 
49: 301-342, ill. Lindsey, A. W. A new form of Hesperia 
Colorado [7] 34: 770-772. Nevskij, V. On the causes of 
fluctuations in population density of the codling moth (Cydia 
pomonella). [Acta Univ. Asiae Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 
37: 14 pp. Simpson, L. R. - -The buck moth. [Canadian 
Nature] 1942:3, ill. Wyatt, A. K. Collecting Heliothinae 
in 1940. [19] 36: 203-205. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. Records and descriptions 
of neotropical crane-flies (Tipulid.). [6] 49: 345-356. New 
Nearctic crane-flies (Tipulid.). [4] 73: 206-213. Barretto, 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS | Feb., '42 

M. P. -- Morfologia dos ovos, das larvas e das pupas do 
Phlebotomus intermedius e neiva 1912 (Psychodidae). [An. 
Fac. Med. Univ. S. Paulo] 16: 91-105, ill. Observacoes 
sobre a biologia do Phlebotomus intermedius e neiva, 1912 
(Psychodid.) em condicoes experimentais. [An. Fac. Med. 
Univ. S. Paulo] 16: 143-157 pp., ill. Correa, M. L. - - La 
Ouetotaxia de la larva de Anopheles occidentalis. [An. Esc. 
Nac. Cien. Biol., Mexico] 2: 217-238, ill. Dampf, A. - 
Mochlostyrax trifidus nuevo miembro de la fauna Culicido- 
logica Mexicana. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol., Mexico] 2: 
251-257, ill. Dobzhansky & Spassky. Intersexes in Droso- 
phila pseudoobscura. [119] 26: 556-562, ill. Gordon & 
Sang. - - The relation between nutrition and exhibition of 
of the gene Antennaless (Drosophila melanogaster). [Proc. 
Royal Soc.] 130 (B) : 151-184, ill. Greene, C. T. A remark- 
able new species of the genus Pseudacteon (Phorid.). [10] 
43: 183-184, ill. Two new species of cecidomyiid flies from 
Phlox. [50] 90: 547-551, ill. Howell, T. Notes on Ephe- 
meroptera and aquatic Diptera of western North Carolina. 
[Jour. E. Mitchell Sci. Soc.] 57: 306-317. Hull, F. M. - 
Some new species of the genus Baccha from the New World. 
[10] 43: 181-183. New American syrphid flies. [40] No. 
1151: 3 pp. James, M. T. --New species and records of 
Mexican Stratiomyidae. [An. Esc. Nac. Cien. Biol., Mexico] 
2: 241-249. Johannsen, O. A. -- Occurrence of Orbellia 
hiemalis in Maine. [19] 36: 202. Khodukin & Sternhold.- 
On the resistance to cold of some Anopheles. [Acta Univ. 
Asiae Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 45: 11 pp., ill. Komp, 
W. H. W. The species of Nyssorhynchus confused under 
Tarsimaculatus goeldi. and a new name, A. emilianus, for 
one species found in Para, Brazil (Culicidae). [7] 34: 
791-807, ill. Philip, C. B. Notes on three western genera 
of flies (Tabanid.). [19] 36: 185-199. (*k). Renn, C. E.- 
The food economy of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and A. 
crucians larvae : relationships of the air-water interface 
and the surface-feeding mechanism. [Symposium on Hyclro- 
biol.] 1941: 329-342, ill. Rowe, J. A Preliminary report 
on Iowa mosquitoes. [Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci.j 16: 211- 
225. Sabin & Ward. - - Flies as carriers of poliomyelitis 
virus in urban epidemics [68] 94: 590-591. Sabrosky, C. W. 
An annotated list of genotypes of the Chloropidae of the 
World [7] 34: 735-765. 

COLEOPTERA. Austin & Richardson. Ability of the 
firebrat to damage fabrics and paper. [6] 49: 357-365. 



Hii, '42J ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 57 

Blake, D. H. New species of Chaetocnema and other Chry- 
somelicls from the West Indies. [10] 43: 171-180, ill. 
Chisholm, J. J. Combating the Japanese beetle. [Fauna] 
3: 122-123, ill. Elliott, D. C. The biology of the cotton- 
wood leaf beetle Lina scripta. [La. Acad. Sci.J 5: 31. 
Halilova, R. --On the conditions resulting of poisoning 
Tribolium confusum. [Acta Univ. Asiae Med.J Ser. 8, 
(Zool.) fasc. 44: 14 pp. Howard, N. F. -- Feeding of the 
Mexican bean beetle larva. [7] 34: 766-769, ill. Khabirova, 
M. --Some data concerning the bioecology of Sitophilus 
granarius. [Acta Univ. Asiae Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 
43: 14 pp. Knull, J. N. New Coleoptera. (Buprestid. & 
Cerambycid.). [7] 34: 691-695, ill. Nine new Coleoptera 
(Plastoceridae, Buprestidae & Cerambycidae). [Ohio J. 
Sci.J 41: 381-388, ill. Leech, H. B. - - The generic name 
Thermonectus (Dytiscid.). [4] 73: 197. Leonova, N. - 
Influence of external factors on the intestine fauna of Tri- 
bolium confusum. [Acta Univ. Asiae Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) 
fasc. 34: 12 pp. Luginbill & Painter. A new species of 
Phyllophaga. [7] 34: 716-717, ill. MacLeod, G. F. X-ray 
studies of starving mealworm larvae. [7] 34: 696-701, ill. 
Malkin, B. An addition to the New York State List of 
Coleoptera No. 5. Long Island records. [19] 36: 209-212. 
Pieltain, C. B. Estudio de la larva del Paratrechus (Hygro- 
duvulius sylvaticus.) [121] 2: 208-209. Saakian, A. - 
Influence of temperature and carbon dioxide on the respira- 
tion intensity of Tribolium confusum. [Acta Univ. Asiae 
Med.] Ser. 8, (Zool.) fasc. 38: 15 pp. Ward, I. J. The bean 
weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus in stored white beans. 
[4] 73: 216. 

HYMENOPTERA. Balch, Reeks & Smith. -- Separa- 
tion of the European spruce sawfly in America from Gil- 
pinia polytoma (Diprionid.) and evidence of its introduction. 
[4] 73: 198-203. Bequaert, J. Gymnopolybia cayennensis 
introduced with bananas in Texas. A correction [19] 36: 
205. Chamberlin, T. R. The wheat jointworm in Oregon, 
with special reference to its dispersion, injury, and para- 
sitization. [ U. S. Dept. Agric.] Tech. Bull. No. 784: 47 pp., 
ill. Gaul, A. T. - - Experiments on the taste sensitivity of 
Dolichovespula arenaria (Vespid.). [6] 49: 367-369. 
Gemignani, E. V. - - Una nueva especie del genero Try- 
poxilon. [Rev. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 11: 42-44, ill. Kloet, 
G. S. A new observation nest for wood boring Aculeates. 
[8] 77: 241-244, ill. Lafleur, L. J. Tolerance in Ants. [90] 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb.. '42 

76: 85-93. The founding- O f Ant colonies. [92] 81 : 392-401. 
Lanham, U. N. - - Bees of the genus Andrena of Boulder, 
Colorado. [7] 34: 702-713. (k). Muesebeck, C. F. W.--A 
new ant parasite (Bracon) | 19] 36: 200-2U1. Smith, M. R. 
Two new species of Aphaenogaster (Formicid.). [Gt. 
Basin Naturalist]. 2 : 118-121. Walley, G. S. On the genus 
Petalodes, with descriptions of two new North American 
species (Braconid.). [4] 73: 213-215. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Comity of Spiders. By W. S. 
Bristowe. Volume 2. 1941. 229-560 pp., ill. London. Index 
to Farmers' Bulletins. Nos. 1501-1750. By M. H. Doyle. 
1941. 135 pp. Index to Technical Bulletins. Nos. 501-750 
By M. H. Doyle. 1941. 169 pp. Microbe's Challenge. By F. 
Eberson. The Jaques Cattell Press, Lancaster, Pennsylva- 
nia. 1941. pp. VIII, 354. The role of insects in epidemics, 
plague, tularemia and virus diseases is discussed. Natural 
History and the American Mind. By W. M. & M. S. C. 
Smallwood. Columbia University Press, New York. 1941. 
pp. xiii, 445, ill. A brief section on "Entomology" in 
chapter XII, "The passing of the naturalist," deals with 
William Dandridge Peck, Thomas Say and Thaddeus 
William Harris, whose chief publications are listed in the 
bibliography near the end of the book. New or Little- 
known Tipulidae from eastern Asia. By C. P. Alexander. 
[Philippine Jour. Sci.] 76: 27-66, ill. (Reference made to 
some new North American species). 



Colorado Lepidoptera Records (Pieridae, Noctuidae) 

In 1936 I reported in this journal the occurrence of the South 
and Central American pierid, Gonc[>tcr\.\- clorlndc (Godart), 
in Colorado. Another specimen has come to my attention but, 
in contrast to the frayed and rubbed condition of the other, 
collected in perfect condition. The specimen, a male, was col- 
lected by Howard Rollin a few miles north of \Yeldona, Colo- 
rado, about September 1, 1929, while feeding on Sultana. 

A very badly frayed and rubbed specimen of the large noc- 
tuid moth, Thysania zenobia Cramer, was taken in Boulder, 
flying about theater lights on September 9- 1941. This is an- 
other neotropical species which occasionally strays far from its 
usual range, and has been found as far north as Maine. HUGO 
G. RODECK, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, Colo- 
rado. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 59 

OBITUARY 

Dr. JAMES ALLEN NELSON was horn in Urbana, Ohio, April 
29, 1875, and died at Gambier, Ohio, August 9, 1941. He 
attended Kenyon College, from which he was graduated in 
1898 with the degree of Ph. B. He then attended the graduate 
school of the University of Pennsylvania from which institution 

,/ j 

he received the degree of Ph. D. in 1903, serving part of the 
time there as an assistant in Zoology. His thesis at Pennsyl- 
vania was on the cell lineage of a species of Dinophilus and 
later he described this species and named it conklhn. after Pro- 
fessor E. G. Conklin under whom his thesis had been prepared. 
This was in the days when cell lineage was the biological style, 
and this paper served to place Dinophilns, which had been a 
matter of zoological dispute. 

After receiving his degree, Nelson felt the need of more work 
on insects and spiders, so he accepted an honorary fellowship 
at Cornell University where he worked under the direction of 
Professor J. H. Comstock, especially on the palpi of male 
spiders. He remained at Cornell for four years. 

His detailed methods of investigation seemed especially to 
fit him for some work then needed in the Bureau of Entomology, 
so in 1908 he was appointed to the bee culture office of that 
Bureau to investigate the embryology of the honeybee. The 
results of this excellent piece of work are published in book 
form by the Princeton Press. 1 . Later he described the anatomy 
of the larval honeybee 2 and either alone or in cooperation with 

others in the same office he investigated certain larval growth 
curves of scientific and practical value. 3 

' The Embryology of the Honey Bee. Princeton, October, 1915. Pp. 
vi, 282, 95 text figs. Reviewed in the NEWS for Jan., 1916, vol. 27: 41-43. 

- Morphology of the Honey Bee Larva. Journ. Agric- Research, 28 
(12): 1167-1213. 8 pis. 1924. 

3 Nelson, J. A., Sturtevant, A. P. and Linehurg, B. Growth and Feed- 
ing of Honey Bee Larvae. U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. No. 1222. 37 pp. 
figs. 1924. 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Feb., '42 

After ten years of service in the Bureau he resigned and went 
to Mt. Vernon, Ohio, to live. This relatively early retirement was 
brought about by poor health and the sad death of his only son. In 
Mt. Vernon he took keen interest in his garden which became a 
veritable show place, and he also renewed his earlier interest in 
music and became a highly skilled pianist. He did not again 
undertake any biological inquiries. 

.After a few years of residence in Mt. Yernon, Xelson moved 
to his old college community at Gambier where he spent his re- 
maining years, a respected and useful member of the commun- 
ity, active in civic and church affairs and much interested in 
everything pertaining to the college for which he had such an 
affection. His death is a loss to his friends who have known 
him for so many years and must be an even keener loss to those 
with whom he had closer associations in later years. He is sur- 
vived by his wife and a married daughter. 

Nelson was a member of the A. A. A. S., the American So- 
ciety of Zoologists, the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, and Entomological Society of America and the 
Ohio Academy of Sciences, in all of which he took interest, 
even though in recent years he had not been able to attend 
meetings with regularity. E. F. PHILLIPS. 

We are indebted to Mr. Hugh B. Leech for the announce- 
ment of the deaths of Mr. RALPH HOPPING, veteran Coleop- 
terist of the western United States and Canada, at 8 A. M., 
Wednesday, October 29, 1941. at his home in Vernon, British 
Columbia, and of Mr. F. C. HENNESSEY, artist for the Ento- 
mological Branch of the Canadian Department of Agriculture 
at Ottawa, on November 8, 1941. Ralph Hopping was born 
in New York City, April 8, 1868, but spent much of his life 
in the Sierras of California with the United States Forest 
Service (1907-1919). He went to British Columbia in De- 
cember, 1919, to take charge of the Dominion Forest Insect 
Laboratory. His large collection, chiefly of Coleoptera, we 
believe, goes to his son, George R. Hopping, and eventually to 
the California Academy of Sciences at San Francisco. 

Science for January 16, 1942, quoting Nature, records the 
death of Dr. H. ELTRINGHAM, president of the Royal Entomo- 
logical Society of London in 1931-32, on November 2u. at lin- 
age of 68 years. He was one of the secretaries of the 2nd In- 
ternational Congress of Entomology held at < )xford, England, 
in August, 1912. 



This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 

advertisements of goods for sale or services rendered. Notices 
not exceeding three lines free to subscribers. 



These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new ones 
are added at the end of the column, and, only when necessary those at the top (being 
longest in I are discontinued. 



.Wanted Living specimens of the luminous beetle Phengodes 
this summer. E. Newton Harvey, The Biology Dept., Princeton 

University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

Malacodermata (except Lycidae and Cleridae) of the world. Will 
determine and purchase. Also exchange against Col. or all other 
insects from Bolivia. Walter Wittmer, Correio 1043, Buenos Aires, 
Rep. Argentina. 

I want to collect Rothschildia, agapema, gulfina and io moths and 
Texas butterflies for interested persons. Eula Frizzell, R 4 San 
Benito, Texas. 

Wanted To hear from collectors who desire extra good cocoons 
of Michigan Platysamia Columbia, that will emerge June, 1941. W. 
S. McAlpine, 575 Townsend St., Birmngham, Alichigan. 

Wanted Specimens of the genus Trox from North America. Will 
exchange or determine for duplicate material. Mark Robinson, 231 
Cherry St., Sharon Hill, Pennsylvania. 

Lepidoptera From the South, including P. palamedes, T. halesus 
and E. jucunda to exchange for fauna from other localities. H. W. 
Eustis, Woodbine Rd., Lakemont, Augusta, Georgia. 

Wanted Egg cases of preying manticls. Correspondence desired 
with those who will collect. Osmond P. Breland, Department of 
Zoology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Wanted To buy, specimens of bees of the genus Nomada, any 
quantity, especially North American. Quote price, locality. Hugo 
G. Rodeck, University of Colorado Museum, Boulder Colorado. 

Arctic Lepidoptera especially Noctuidae Wanted to hear from 
collectors who desire the Arctic Species. Have large collection. 
R. J. Fitch. Lloydminstcr, Saskatchewan, Canada, 



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COLEOPTERA 

1085. Robinson (M.). Studies in the Scarabaeidae of N. Am. 

II. (68: 127-136, ill., 1941) 20 

DIPTERA 

1092. Fisher (E. G.). Distributional notes and keys to Amer- 
ican Ditomyiinae, Diadocidiinae, and Ceroplatinae, with 
descr. of n. sps. (Mycetophilidae). (67: 275-301, 2 pis., 
1941) 60 

1087. Richards (A. G. Jr.). Differentiation between toxic and 
suffocating effects of petroleum oils on larvae of the 
house mosquito (Cules pipiens). (67: 161-196, 5 pis., 
1941) 85 

M-10 Huckett (H. C.)- A revision of the N. Am. sps. belong- 
ing to the gen. Pegomyia (Muscidae). (Mem. 10, 131 
pp., 9 pis., 1941) . 3.00 

LEPIDOPTERA 

1091. Brower (A. E.). A new sp. of Metalectra from eastern 

N. Am. (Phalaenidae). (67: 271-274, ill., 1941) .15 

NEUROPTERA 

1084. Ross (H. H.). Descriptions and records of N. Am. 

Trichoptera. (67: 35-126, 13 pis., 1941). . 2.00 

ODONATA 

1089. Needham (J. G.). Life history studies on Progomphus 
and its nearest allies (Aeschnidae). (67: 221-245, ill., 
1 pi., 1941) .50 

ORTHOPTERA 

1088. Hebard (M.). The group Pterophyllae as found in the 

U. S. (Tettigoniidae). (67: 197-219, 2 pis., 1941) 50 

1086. Rehn (J. A. G.). On new and previously known sps. 

of Pneumoridae (Acridoidea). (67: 137-159, ill., 1941).. .45 

1090. Rehn (J. A. G.). Notes on and records and descr. of 
Oriental bird-locusts (Acrididae). (67: 247-270, 2 pis., 
1941) 55 

1083. Roberts (H. R.). Nomenclature in the Orthoptera con- 
cerning genotype designations. (67: 1-34, 1941) 65 

1093. Uvarov (B. P.). New and less known southern Pala- 

earctic Orthoptera. (67: 303-361, 5 pis., 1942), 1.25 








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MARCH, 1942 iv. 

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PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

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Vol. LIII No. 3 



CONTENTS 

Beard A Note on Lagochirus araneiformis L. (Coleop.: Cerambyci- 

dae) 61 

Franclemont Notes on Some Cucullinae (Phalaenidae, Lepidoptera) 

II ... 63 

Gorgas Memorial Laboratory Aquatic Plants and Mosquito Larvae. 66 
McClure Spring Aphid Aero-Plankton (Homoptera) . ....... 67 

Johannsen Immature and Adult Stages of New Species of Chiiono- 

midae (Diptera) 70 

Johannsen Ceratopogon albarius Coquillett and Related Species 

(Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) 76 

Cresson Description of two new Nearctic Species of the genus Hy- 

drellia reared from Pond-weed (Diptera: Ephydridae) 78 

Rau The Terms Instinct and Intelligence as Used in Discussions of 

insect Behavior 79 

Brown Appius ilaire ilaire Godart in Colorado (Lepid.: Pieridae) . 82 
White Notes on Johnson's South Dakota Chrysomelid Paper (Coleo- 

ptera). . 83 

Steyskal A New Species of Phyllomyza from Virginia (Dipteral 

Milichidae) 84 

Current Entomological Literature 86 



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ENT. NHWS VOL. LIU. 



Plate II. 



>, 




LAGOCHIRUS ARANEIFORMIS-BEARD. 

PHOTOGRAPH, SUBMITTED BY DR. WHITNEY, SHOWING EXIT HOLES 
OF THIS CERAMBYCID BEETLE. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VOL. LIII MARCH, 1942 No 3 

A Note on Lagochirus araneiformis L. (Coleop. : 

Cerambycidae). 

By RAIMON L. BEARD, Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut. 

(Plate II.) 

A communication addressed to the Yale Forestry School, and 
referred to the Entomology Department of the Connecticut 
Experiment Station, aroused the interest of several entomolo- 
gists. 

The letter, from Dr. Willis Whitney, of Schenectady under 
date of March 23, 1941, reported the rinding at Nassau, British 
West Indies, of numerous circular cavities under the bark of 
Eursera siniiruba. The cavities, found only in dead or dying 
wood, were approximately two inches in diameter and covered 
in many cases with the bark which remained attached by a thin 
edge in the manner of a "trap door". Leading into the wood 
from the large cavity was a tunnel of much smaller diameter. 
A native of the islands related to Dr. Whitney that a "small 
black bee" cut out the flap with its "nose". The "bee" then 
went behind the "trap door" to deposit an egg, after which it 
left to return only to release its offspring when the latter ma- 
tured. Dr. Whitney questioned the story, but could find no 
information about it. 

The present writer could find no reference to this type of 
insect habitat in the literature nor any information from corre- 
spondence with some other workers. The nature of the "trap 
door" did not suggest the work of a carpenter bee as the story 
of the native of the Bahamas would imply. Nor was it the work 
of a trap-door spider, which might have taken advantage of a 
pre-existing cavity in the wood a fact verified by Dr. Petrunke- 

61 
MAR 2 3 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '42 

vitch, of Yale University. Rather, the bark covering of the 
cavity, by its bevelled shape, showed that it had been chewed 
from the inside out, as would be done by an emerging insect, and 
not from the outside in, as would be done by one seeking to 
oviposit. A cerambycid beetle would be the most likely suspect. 

Correspondence with Dr. George N. Wolcott elicited the cor- 
rect answer. Dr. Wolcott first reported that B. siininthu, or 
almacigo as it is called in Puerto Rico, quite commonly shows 
the type of injury described by Dr. Whitney, but that he had seen 
only material too old to contain the insect responsible. He later 
found fresher material containing larvae and pupae in the wood 
several inches beneath the bark. He was able to rear these 
through and identify the adult as a cerambycid, Lagochirus 
araneiformis L. Dr. Wolcott suggested that the callow adult 
made the large cavity just under the bark in which it rested 
until its wings hardened. 

Leng (1920) gave the distribution of this species of ceram- 
bycid as South America, West Indies and Florida. Bates (1879- 
1886) included Mexico, British Honduras, Guatemala, Nicara- 
gua, Costa Rica, West Indies, South America, Tahiti, and the 
Sandwich Islands. Dr. Wolcott mentioned that L. arancifonnls 
is not specific as to host, he having reared it from mahogany as 
well as from the almacigo. Smith (1921) and Wilson (1923) 
have reported this insect attacking sugar-cane, and Craighead 
(1923) mentioned Ficus as a host. 

REFERENCES. 

BATES, H. W. .1879-1886. Biologia Centrali-American. In- 
secta. Coleoptera, Vol. V. Longicornia. 

CRAIGHEAD, F. C. 1923. North American Cerambycid 
Larvae. Canadian Department of Agriculture, Tech. Bull. 27. 

LENG, C. W. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America, 
North of Mexico, p. 282. 

SMITH, L. 1921. Virgin Islands Agricultural Exn. Sta. 
Bull. 2: 22. 

WILSON, C. E. 1923. Virgin Islands Agr. Exn. Sta. Re- 
port, 1922: 16. 

Since this article was submitted, a complete and delightfully written 
story of this insect appeared under title of "Isn't Research ' Fun" by 
Willis R. Whitney, in The Caribbean Forester, 3: 47-57, 1942. 



Hii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 63 

Notes on Some Cucullinae (Phalaenidae, Lepidop- 

tera) II. 

On the Identity of Lithophane ferrealis Grote and 

Xylina innominata Smith, with Descriptions of Some 

New Forms of the Genus Lithophane Hiibner. 

By J. G. FRANCLEMONT, Ithaca, New York. 

(Continued from page 35.) 

LITHOPHANE INNOMINATA Smith (PI. I, fig. 14). Litho- 
phane signosa Grote, 6th, Ann. Kept. Peab. Acad. Sc. 33, 
1874 [misidentification, not signosa Walker, 1857]. 

Xylina innominata Smith, Bull. U. S. N. M., xliv (Cat. 
Noct.), 227, (nom. nov. for signosa Grt. nee Wlk.) 1883 [not 
innominata Smith, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxvii, 20, pi. Ill, 
figs. 8 &9, 1900]. 

This species has been generally misdetermined in collections ; 
it actually is a rare form colored like ferrealis. 

When Smith proposed this name for signosa Grote [nee 
Walker], he said, "The new name is intended to apply to that 
species identified and labeled as signosa by Mr. Grote and has no 
type specimen." In the last part of his statement he is .decidedly 
in error, as the type of the name innominata was the specimen 
Grote had before him when he drew up his description of the 
species he considered signosa. Grote's description is here re- 
produced, so there can be no doubt as to what that author had 
before him. 

"Lithophane signosa. Xylina signosa Walker, p. 627. $-. 
Base of the forewing and costal region broadly ashen, with an 
ochreous tinge. The wing is else ferruginous, and the ordinary 
spots are pale, and lie on the cell surrounded by the darker 
ground color. The orbicular is oblique, rounded, moderate ; 
the erniform upright; the spots are not distinctly annulated. 
The veins are dotted and black-marked beyond the t. p. line. 
The ordinary lines are lost and merely marked against the 
costal region by ferruginous streaks as in ferrealis. The clavi- 
form is indicated by a pale diffuse shade, and a broad diffuse 
blackish shade streak unites it with the transverse posterior line. 
The subterminal line is pale, more even, less strongly dentate 
than in ferrealis, preceded by the usual ferruginous marks, the 
narrow terminal space is almost entirely blackish, caused by 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '42 

diffuse black streaks accompanying the veins, and there is a 
double row of terminal dots, more distinct than in fcrrealis. 
The fringes are more straightly cut with pale than its near 
ally. Hind wings fuscous with ochrey tinted fringes. Ab- 
domen flattened, with exceedingly slight dorsal tufts. Expanse 
40mm. Quebec (F. X. Belanger)." 

Mr. W. H. T. Tarns very kindly furnished me with a photo- 
graph of the type of this species. 

LITHOPHANE INNOMINATA form illecebra form. nov. (PI. I, 
fig. 15). 

Xylina innominata Smith, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., xxvii, 20 
pi. Ill, figs. 8 & 9, 1900 [not innominata Smith, Bull. U. S. N. 
M., xliv (Cat. Noct.), 227, 1883]. 

Head and thorax olive rufous ; fore wing russet olivaceous 
to ochre buff; the basal line obsolescent; the antemedial line 
represented by a double series of black dots on the veins ; the 
postmedial line, as the antemedial, represented by a series of 
dots; both lines obsolescent except for the aforementioned 
black dots ; the median shade reddish russet to olive, diffuse, 
present on the outer as well as the inner side of the reniform; 
subterminal line an irregular light shade, edged on its inner 
side by russet or olive ; the terminal line a series of small black 
lunules ; the fringe concolorous with the general tone of the 
wing, but with an irregular dark line through its center and 
parallel to the termen ; the orbicular vague, elliptical and 
oblique, edged on its inner side by the russet or olive of the 
median shade; the reniform evident, large and erect, constricted 
at the middle, outlined by russet or olive russet; a dark dash 
of varying length and intensity present in the submedian fold ; 
the veins marked with black in the terminal area, the black is 
often diffuse and shades the whole terminal area. Hind wing 
shining fuscous black; the fringe rufous to olive, contrasting 
with the remainder of the wing. The abdomen blackish above. 

This is the form that stands as innominata in most collec- 
tions, but as has been pointed out previously, innominata is a 
suffused form equivalent to fcrrealis, lignicosta, pallid icosta, etc. 

This is the common (normal!) color form of this species 
and as such it agrees with bcthunci and patcfacta; from these 
two species, which it most closely resembles, it can be readily 
separated by its luteous to reddish olive color, the two afore- 
mentioned species being whitish or grayish. 



liii, '42] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 65 

This form is figured as typical innominata by Smith, Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc., xxvii, pi. iii figs. 8 & 9, 1900. 

Holotypc: $, Ithaca. NEW YORK, Sept. 28, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Allotyfie:?, Ithaca, New York, Sept. 30, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), |in Coll. Franclemont | . 

Paralyses : 27 $ $ , 32 9 9 , Ithaca, New York, Sept.-April 
(J. G. Franclemont) ; 22 $ , 25 9 9 , McLean Bogs Reserve, 
Tompkins Co., New York, Sept. -Oct. (J. G. Franclemont) ; 5 
$ $ , 1 9 , Chaffee, New York, Sept. ( J. G. Franclemont) ; 1 $ , 
1 9 . Sardinia, New York, Sept. (J. G. Franclemont) ; [all in 
Coll. Franclemont]. \$, Ithaca, New York, Oct. (L. R. 
Rupert); \$, 59 9, Richmond Gulf, Sardinia, New York, 
Sept. (L. R. Rupert) ; 1 $ , Fast Concord, New York, Oct. 
(L. R. Rupert) ; 1 $ , Third Lake, Fulton Chain, New York, 
Oct. 1934; [all in Coll. Rupert]. 

LITHOPHANE ORIUNDA form canentissima form. nov. (PI. I, 
fig. 17). 

This form lacks the white costa, the white annuli of the 
reniform and orbicular and the white filling of the reniform. 
The fore wing is a uniform claret brown, very strongly irror- 
ate with hoary white; the reniform and orbicular are narrowly 
encircled with the same color, and then beyond this bv black- 

j j 

ish ; the antemedial line hoary, oblique, irregularly dentate ; 
the postmedial line hoary, dentate on the veins, excurved from 
below costa, then evenly incurved to submedian fold, then ex- 
curved to inner margin ; claviform outlined by black. The hind 
wing rufous fuscous. 

This form is a striking contrast to normal orinnda and un- 
doubtedly corresponds to the unicolorous forms of the other 
species, corresponding in color to pctulca, hcmina, signosa and 
the others. 

Holotypc: $ , Ithaca, NEW YORK, October 23, 1940 (J. G. 
Franclemont), [in Coll. Franclemont]. 

Paratypcs : 1 $ , 29 9 , McLean Bogs Reserve, Tompkins 
County, New York, Oct. 5 & 12, 1940 (J. G. Franclemont), | in 
Coll. Franclemont]. \$, Ithaca, New York, Oct. 21, 1934 
(L. R. Rupert) ; 1 <J , 1 9 , McLean Bogs Reserve, Tompkins 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [March, '42 

County, New York, Oct. 5, 1940 (L. R. Rupert) ; [in Coll. 
Rupert]. 5$ 3,2$ 9 (Bred ex ova) Ithaca, New York, 1941 
(Franclemont), [in Coll. FranclemontJ. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. LitJwpliaue peinlea Grt. (Ithaca, N. Y.) 

Fig. 2. L. pel idea form f err calls Grt. (Ithaca, N. Y.) 

Fig. 3. L. hcuiimi Grt. (McLean Bogs Reserve, Tompkins 

' Co., N. Y.) 

Fig. 4. L. Jicmlna form lignicosta form. nov. (Holotype). 
Fig. 5. L. signosa Wlk. (Ithaca, N. Y.) 
Fig. 6. L. signosa form paUldlcosta